Курсы английского
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ISO “Reference Model For an Open Archival Information System (OAIS)”
ISO “Reference Model For an Open Archival Information System (OAIS)”
AIP Types
AIP Types
Preservation Planning
Preservation Planning
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Reference Model For an Open Archival Information System (OAIS)

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1ISO “Reference Model For an Open 35derived from. delimited by. e.g.,
Archival Information System (OAIS)” Information supporting customer searches
Tutorial Presentation Don Sawyer for AIP. e.g., How to find Content
/NASA/NSSDC Lou Reich /CSC October 2002. information and PDI on some medium.
2Outline of Talk. History Reference further described by. e.g., • Hardcopy
Model overview Some Applications Follow-on document • Document as an electronic file
Activities. together with its format description •
3NASA Role. National Space Science Data Scientific data set consisting of image
Center NASA’s first digital archive file, text file, and format descriptions
Experienced many technology changes since file describing the other files. e.g., •
1966 Consultative Committee for Space Data How the Content Information came into
Systems International group of space being, who has held it, how it relates to
agencies Developed variety of science other information, and how its integrity
discipline- independent standards Became is assured.
working body for an ISO TC 20/ SC 13 about 36AIP Types. Based on the difference in
1990 TC20: Aircraft and Space Vehicles Content Object complexity AIUs contain a
SC13: Space Data and Information Transfer single Data Object as the Content Object
Systems. AICs contain multiple AIPs in their
4Initial Archive Standards Proposal. Content Objects Each member of an AIC is
ISO suggested that SC 13 should develop an AIP containing Content Information and
archive standards Address data used in PDI The AIC contains unique PDI on the
conjunction with space missions Address collection process.
intermediate and indefinite long term 37Package Descriptors and Access Aids.
storage of digital data. Package descriptors are needed by an OAIS
5Response. Response to Consultative to provide visibility and access to the
Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) OAIS holdings Package Descriptors contain
and ISO TC 20/SC 13 No framework widely 1 or more Associated Descriptions which
recognized for developing specific digital describe the AIP Content Information from
archive standards Begin by developing a the point of view of a single Access Aid
‘Reference Model’ to establish common Some example of Access Aids Include:
terms and concepts Ensure broad Finding Aids - assist the consumer in
participation, including traditional locating information of interest Ordering
archives (Not restricted to space Aids - allow the consumer to discover the
communities; all participation is cost of and order AIUs of interest
welcome!) Focus on data in electronic Retrieval Aids - enable authorized users
forms, but recognize that other forms to retrieve the AIU described by the Unit
exist in most archives Follow up with Descriptor from Archival Storage.
additional archive standards efforts as 38Information Model Summary. Presented a
appropriate. model of information objects as containing
6What is a Reference Model? A framework data objects and representation objects
for understanding significant Classified information required for
relationships among the entities of some Long-term archiving into 4 classes:
environment, and for the development of Content Information, PDI, Packaging
consistent standards or specifications Information and Descriptive Information
supporting that environment. A reference Described how these classes would be
model is based on a small number of aggregated and related in an AIP to fully
unifying concepts is an abstraction of the describe an instance of Content
key concepts, their relationships, and Information Presented information needed
their interfaces both to each other and to for Access, in addition to that needed for
the external environment may be used as a Long-term Preservation Put the Access
basis for education and explaining oriented structures in the context of the
standards to a non-specialist. other data needed to operate an OAIS.
7Organizational Approach. Organize US 39Detailed Models. Functional View.
contribution under a framework with NASA 40General Principles. Highlight the
lead Establish liaison with Federal major functional areas important to
Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) and digital archiving Use functional
National Archives and Records decomposition to clarify the range of
Administration (NARA) Agency archives and functionality that might be encountered
users must be represented in this process Don't decompose beyond two levels to avoid
An “Open” process Important to stimulate becoming too implementation dependent
dialogue with broad archive/user Provide a useful set of terms and concepts
communities Results of US and Do not imply that all archives need to
International workshops put on WEB Support implement all the sub-functions Identify
e-mail comments/critiques Broad some common services which are likely to
international workshops also held UK and be needed, and are assumed to be
France Issue resolution at available, as underlying support.
ISO/Consultative Committee for Space Data 41Common Services. Modern, distributed
Systems international workshops. computing applications assume a number of
8Technical Approach. Investigate other supporting services Examples of Common
Reference Models. ISO “Seven Services include: inter-process
Layer”Communications Reference Model ISO communication name services temporary
Reference Model for Open Distributed storage allocation exception handling
Processing ISO TC211 Reference Model for security file and directory services.
Geomantics Define what is meant by 42OAIS Functional Entities. P R O D U C
‘archiving of data’ Break ‘archiving’ into E R. C O N S U M E R. MANAGEMENT.
a few functional areas (e.g., ingest, Preservation Planning. Descriptive Info.
storage, access, and preservation Data Management. Descriptive Info. Ingest.
planning) Define a set of interfaces Access. SIP. DIP. AIP. AIP. Archival
between the functional areas Define a set Storage. Administration. SIP = Submission
of data classes for use in Archiving Information Package AIP = Archival
Choose formal specification techniques Information Package DIP = Dissemination
Data flow diagrams for functional models Information Package. queries. result sets.
and interfaces Unified Modeling Language orders.
(UML) for data classes. 43Functional Entities In An OAIS.
9Results. Reference Model targeted to Ingest: This entity provides the services
several categories of reader Archive and functions to accept Submission
designers Archive users Archive managers, Information Packages (SIPs) from Producers
to clarify digital preservation issues and and prepare the contents for storage and
assist in securing appropriate resources management within the archive Archival
Standards developers Adopted terminology Storage: This entity provides the services
that crosses various disciplines and functions for the storage, maintenance
Traditional archivists Scientific data and retrieval of Archival Information
centers Digital libraries. Packages Data Management: This entity
10Reference Model Status. Already widely provides the services and functions for
adopted as starting point in digital populating, maintaining, and accessing
preservation efforts Digital libraries both descriptive information which
(e.g., Netherlands National Library) identifies and documents archive holdings
Traditional archives (e.g., US National and internal archive administrative data.
Archives) Scientific data centers (e.g., Administration: This entity manages the
National Space Science Data Center) overall operation of the archive system
Commercial Organizations (e.g., Aerospace Preservation Planning: This entity
Industries Association preservation monitors the environment of the OAIS and
working team) Recently approved for provides recommendations to ensure that
publication as final CCSDS and ISO the information stored in the OAIS remain
(14721:2002) standards CCSDS version is accessible to the Designated User
available at: Community over the long term even if the
http://www.ccsds.org/documents/pdf/CCSDS-6 original computing environment becomes
0.0-B-1.pdf. obsolete. Access: This entity supports
11Reference Model for an Open Archival consumers in determining the existence,
Information System Technical Overview. description, location and availability of
12Open Archival Information System information stored in the OAIS and
(OAIS). Open Reference Model standard(s) allowing consumers to request and receive
are developed using a public process and information products.
are freely available Information Any type 44Ingest Data Flow Diagram.
of knowledge that can be exchanged 45Preservation Planning.
Independent of the forms (i.e., physical 46Preservation Perspectives.
or digital) used to represent the 47Migration Context.
information Data are the representation 48Digital Migration. Digital Migration
forms of information Archival Information is defined to be the transfer of digital
System Hardware, software, and people who information, while intending to preserve
are responsible for the acquisition, it, within the OAIS. Focus on preservation
preservation and dissemination of the of the full information content New
information. information implementation replaces the
13Document Organization. Introduction old OAIS has full control and
Purpose and Scope, Applicability, responsibility over all aspects of the
Rationale, Road Map for Future Work, transfer Three major motivators are seen
Document Structure, and Definitions of to drive Digital Migrations of Archival
Terms OAIS Concepts and Responsibilities Information Packages within an OAIS: Media
High level view of OAIS functionality and Decay Increased Cost Effectiveness New
information models OAIS external Consumer Service Requirements.
environment Minimum responsibilities to 49Digital Migration Approaches. Four
become an “OAIS” Detailed Models primary types of digital migration in
Functional model descriptions and response to motivators, ordered by
information model perspectives increasing risk of information loss:
Preservation perspectives Media migration, Refreshment Media replacement with no bit
compression, format conversions, and changes Replication No change to Packaging
access service preservation Archive Information or Content Information bits
Interoperability Criteria to distinguish Repackaging Some bit changes in Packaging
types of cooperation among archives Information Transformation Reversible: Bit
Annexes Scenarios of existing archives, changes in Content Information are
compatibility with other standards. reversible by an algorithm Non-reversible:
14Purpose, Scope, and Applicability. Bit changes in Content Information are not
Framework for understanding and applying reversible by an algorithm.
concepts needed for long-term digital 50Access Preservation. Effective access
information preservation Long-term is long to digital information requires the use of
enough to be concerned about changing software Application Programming
technologies Starting point for model Interfaces (APIs) may be cost-effectively
addressing non-digital information maintained across time by an OAIS when:
Provides set of minimal responsibilities API is not too complex API is applicable
to distinguish an OAIS from other uses of to a wide variety of AIUs API source code
‘archive’ Framework for comparing may be ported to new environments
architectures and operations of existing Extensive testing is needed to ensure
and future archives Basis for development against information loss Preservation of
of additional related standards Addresses executables by full emulation of
a full range of archival functions underlying hardware is problematic Hard to
Applicable to all long-term archives and know what is the information being
those organizations and individuals preserved May not be possible to fully
dealing with information that may need emulate associated devices.
long-term preservation Does NOT specify 51Archive Interoperability.
any implementation. 52Archive Interoperability Motivators.
15Model View of an OAIS Environment. Users of multiple OAIS archives have
OAIS (archive). Producer is the role reasons to wish for some interoperability
played by those persons, or client or cooperation among the OAISs. Consumers
systems, who provide the information to be Common finding aids to aid in locating
preserved Management is the role played by information over several OAIS archives
those who set overall OAIS policy as one Common Package Descriptor schema for
component in a broader policy domain access Common DIP schema for
Consumer is the role played by those dissemination, or a single global access
persons, or client systems, who interact site. Producers common SIP schema for
with OAIS services to find and acquire submission to different archives a single
preserved information of interest. depository for all their products.
Producer. Consumer. Management. Managers Cost reduction through sharing of
16OAIS Responsibilities. Negotiates and expensive hardware increasing the
accepts Information from information uniformity and quality of user
producers Obtains sufficient control to interactions with the OAIS.
ensure long-term preservation Determines 53Categories of Archive Interactions.
which communities (designated) need to be Independent: no knowledge by one OAIS of
able to understand the preserved Standards implemented at another
information Ensures the information to be Cooperating: Potentially common submission
preserved is independently understandable standards, and common dissemination
to the Designated Communities Follows standards, but no common access. One
documented policies and procedures which archive may make subscription requests for
ensure the information is preserved key data at the cooperating archive
against all reasonable contingencies Makes Federated: Access to all federated OAIS is
the preserved information available to the provided through a common set of access
Designated Communities in forms aids that provide visibility into all
understandable to those communities. participating OAISs. Global dissemination
17OAIS Information Definition. and Ingest are options Shared resources:
Information is always expressed (i.e., An OAIS in which Management has entered
represented) by some type of data Data into agreements with other OAISs is to
interpreted using its Representation share resources to reduce cost. This
Information yields Information Information requires various standards internal to the
Object preservation requires clear archive (such as ingest-storage and
identification and understanding of the access-storage interface standards), but
Data Object and its associated does not alter the community’s view of the
Representation Information. Interpreted archive.
Using its. Yields. Data Object. 54Federated Archives. Local. Consumer.
Representation Information. Information Global. Consumer. Common Catalog. OAIS 2.
Object. Local. Consumer. Dissemination Information
18Information Package Definition. Package. (Optional). Dissemination
Preservation Description Information. Information Package. (Optional). Access.
Content Information. An Information Access. Administration. Administration.
Package is a conceptual container holding Ingest. Access. Access.
two types of information Content 55Levels of Autonomy in Associated
Information Preservation Description Archives. No interactions and therefore no
Information (PDI). association Associations that maintain
19Information Package Variants. your autonomy. You have to do certain
Submission Information Package Negotiated things to participate, but you can leave
between Producer and OAIS Sent to OAIS by the association without notice or impact
a Producer Archival Information Package to you. Associations that bind you by
Information Package used for preservation contract. To change the nature of this
Includes complete set of Preservation association you will have to re-negotiate
Description Information for the Content the contract. The amount of autonomy
Information Dissemination Information retained depends on how difficult it is to
Package Includes part or all of one or negotiate the changes.
more Archival Information Packages Sent to 56Reference Model Summary. Reference
a Consumer by the OAIS. model is to be applicable to all digital
20External Data Flow View. Producer. archives, and their Producers and
OAIS. Archival Information Packages. Consumers Identifies a minimum set of
Consumer. Submission Information Packages. responsibilities for an archive to claim
queries. result sets. orders. it is an OAIS Establishes common terms and
Dissemination Information Packages. concepts for comparing implementations,
21Detailed Models. Overview. but does not specify an implementation
22Overview of Detailed Models. It was Provides detailed models of both archival
decided to do both a functional and an functions and archival information
information model of the OAIS Both models Discusses OAIS information migration and
were tasked to: Use the models to better interoperability among OAISs.
communicate OAIS Concepts Use a well 57Some Applications.
established, formal modeling technique 58Basis of Systems Architectures. NEDLIB
Stay as implementation independent as (Networked European Deposit Library)
possible Avoid detailed designs. effort used OAIS Reference Model as a
23Detailed Models. Information Model. basis for the design and architecture of
24General Principles. Define classes of Deposit System for Electronic Publications
“information objects’ that illustrate (DSEP) National Library of Australia used
information necessary to enable Long-term it as basis for their implementation
storage and access to Archives The class CEDARS: A multi-site UK project to create
definition should be implementation exemplars in Digital Archiving is using
Independent Use a subset of Unified OAIS representation data as the basis for
Modeling Language (UML). research into long term preservation NSSDC
25UML Notation. (National Space Science Data Center ) is
26Information Objects. evolving their archive using OAIS RM as a
27Representation Information. The basis for a new architecture SIPAD: French
Representation Information accompanying a space agency plasma physics archive used
physical object, like a moon rock, may the OAIS as a basis for design METS
give additional meaning It typically is a (Metadata Encoding and Transmission
result of some analysis of the physically Standard) is using OAIS concepts in an
observable attributes of the rock The implementation of types of Submission,
Representation Information accompanying a Archival, and Dissemination Information
digital object, or sequence of bits, is Packages. InterPARES, a body of National
used to provide additional meaning. It Archives from many countries, adopted OAIS
typically maps the bits into commonly as a starting point for their modeling
recognized data types such as character, work.
integer, and real and into groups of these 59Enhanced Communications and
data types. It associates these with Productivity among varied Communities.
higher level meanings which can have National Archives and Records
complex inter-relationships that are also Administration contracted some work on
described. long term preservation of collections to
28Recursive Nature of Representation the San Diego Super Computer Center. Both
Information. Structure Information parties claimed use of the OAIS RM saved
Semantic Information Other Representation several weeks of effort in the
Information. specification of the task Similar
29Types of Information Used in OAIS. experiences between: National Library of
30Content Information. The information France and French space agency (CNES)
which is the primary object of representatives National Center for
preservation An instance of Content Supercomputer Applications HDF format
Information is the information that an developers and DNA researchers Life
archive is tasked to preserve. Deciding Sciences Archive developer and
what is the Content Information may not be micro-gravity researchers United States
obvious and may need to be negotiated with Department of Agriculture and digital
the Producer The Data Object in the preservation experts.
Content Information may be either a 60More OAIS Accomplishments. Royal
Digital Object or a Physical Object (e.g., Library of the Netherlands (RLN) OAIS
a physical sample, microfilm). mandated in their implementation RFP IBM
31Preservation Description Information. implementing OAIS-based system for RLN
Provenance Information Describes the (?5M project) British National Library is
source of Content Information, who has had following suit France setting up a working
custody of it, what is its history Context group within ARISTOTE interested in
Information Describes how the Content archive of digital information, including
Information relates to other information libraries and Dept of Justice.
outside the Information Package Reference http://www.aristote.asso.fr/ (in french)
Information Provides one or more “astonishing unifying role” from OAIS
identifiers, or systems of identifiers, by reference model OAIS likely to be used by
which the Content Information may be CODATA archive task group in study on
uniquely identified Fixity Information long-term preservation Playing significant
Protects the Content Information from role in Research Libraries Group and OCLC
undocumented alteration. (Online Computer Library Center) digital
32Preservation Description Information. preservation work.
33Descriptive Information. Contain the 61Follow-on Activities. Research
data that serves as the input to documents Libraries Group has established a web page
or applications called Access Aids. Access to track OAIS implementation efforts and
Aids can be used by a consumer to locate, issues
analyze, retrieve, or order information http://www.rlg.org/longterm/oais.html
from the OAIS. CCSDS/ISO Producer-Archive Interface
34Packaging Information. Information Methodology Standard Provides framework
which, either actually or logically, binds for Producer/Archive interactions
and relates the components of the package Identifies steps and types of information
into an identifiable entity on specific exchanged during the ‘negotiation’ May be
media Examples of Packaging Information used as a checklist by archives CCSDS
include tape marks, directory structures Certification Coordination Function Will
and filenames. track and summarize various archive
35OAIS Archival Information Package. certification efforts Will attempt to
Archival Information Package (AIP). extract high-level model/checklist RLG is
Packaging Information. Package organizing a group to establish
Description. Preservation Description certification approaches.
Information (PDI). Content Information.
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