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Organization of Audition
Organization of Audition
Organization of Audition
Organization of Audition
Organization of Audition
Organization of Audition
Organization of Audition
Organization of Audition
Organization of Audition
Organization of Audition
Organization of Audition
Organization of Audition
Organization of Audition
Organization of Audition
Auditory Spatial Processing
Auditory Spatial Processing
Auditory Spatial Processing
Auditory Spatial Processing
Auditory Spatial Processing
Auditory Spatial Processing
Auditory Spatial Processing
Auditory Spatial Processing
Auditory Spatial Processing
Auditory Spatial Processing
Auditory Temporal Processing
Auditory Temporal Processing
Auditory Temporal Processing
Auditory Temporal Processing
Auditory Temporal Processing
Auditory Temporal Processing
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Review: The Biological Basis of Audition

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1Review: The Biological Basis of 21consider spectral processing here.
Audition. Recanzone and Sutter Presented 22Auditory Temporal Processing. Temporal
by Joseph Schilz. integration. Our environments are noisy;
2Outline. Introduction Organization of audition might wait a bit and let noise
Audition Auditory Spatial Processing average itself out before passing on a
Interactions with visual stimuli percept On the other hand, some decisions
Ventriloquism effect Ventriloquism need to be made quickly; audition
after-effect Auditory Temporal Processing shouldn't hold onto information for too
Temporal integration Forward masking Gap long How to assess? At what levels is this
detection. occurring?
3Introduction. Audition and vision 23Auditory Temporal Processing. Temporal
major sensory systems Audition does not integration. Fig 4. Dallos and Olsen.
have the significant history of research 24Auditory Temporal Processing. Temporal
that vision does Differences between integration. Varies with loudness,
audition and vision Tasks in decoding frequency, duration Bloch's Law (Loudness
audition: Where a sound came from Spectral x Duration = k)? Leaky integrator model
properties Temporal properties Identifying Mean integration times of 30-40msec in
what sound represents Review's focus: humans.
location and temporal properties. 25Auditory Temporal Processing. Temporal
4Organization of Audition. Fig 1. integration. Clock et al. found similar
Recanzone and Sutter. constants of integration in chinchilla
5Organization of Audition. Fig 2. cochlear nucleus neurons and chinchilla
Recanzone & Sutter. behavior Exponential leaky integrator fit
6Organization of Audition. Tonotopy. model well But, auditory nerve neurons had
Fig 2. Kalatsky et al. time constants much larger Explanation.
7Organization of Audition. Tonal 26Auditory Temporal Processing. Forward
Tuning. Fig 2: Bitterman et al. masking. Two sounds presented
8Organization of Audition. sequentially, with some gap, sometimes
Tonal/Spatial Tuning. Fig 2. Bizley & subject will not perceive second sound.
King. Depends on many factors Generally measured
9Organization of Audition. “What” and as a function of first sound's duration.
“Where” Paths? Fig 1: Design Ahveninen et Fig 4. Recanzone and Sutter.
al. 27Auditory Temporal Processing. Forward
10Organization of Audition. “What” and masking. Likely a result of adaptation.
“Where” Paths? Fig 2: Results Ahveninen et 28Auditory Temporal Processing. Gap
al. detection. Temporal resolution vs.
11Auditory Spatial Processing. Cues temporal integration One paradigm for
Interactions with visual stimuli temporal resolution: gap detection Humans
Ventriloquism effect Ventriloquism able to detect gaps in noise as small as
after-effect. 1-2msec Auditory nerve firing shows gaping
12Auditory Spatial Processing. Cues. Fig pattern Likely some role of cortex in
3. Recanzone and Sutter. detecting gaps, as shown by lesion,
13Auditory Spatial Processing. Cues. Fig deactivation studies.
1. Yu and Young. 29Auditory Temporal Processing. Gap
14Auditory Spatial Processing. detection. Fig 2. Zhang et al.
Ventriloquism effect. Definition Cognitive 30Additional Works Referenced. Ahveninen
factors “unity assumption” Non-cognitive et al. Task-modulated “what” and “where”
factors Timing Compellingness Spatial pathways in human auditory cortex PNAS
discrepancy/agreement. 2006 103 (39) 14608-14613; published ahead
15Auditory Spatial Processing. of print September 18, 2006,
Ventriloquism effect. Early studies doi:10.1073/pnas.0510480103 Y. Bitterman,
assumed that the more precise modality R. Mukamel, R. Malach, I. Fried, & I.
would “capture” the less precise modality. Nelken Ultra-fine frequency tuning
Later studies showed a near optimal revealed in single neurons of human
“mixing” of modality reports, respecting auditory cortex Nature 451, 197-201 (10
the measure-error variance of each January 2008)? Jennifer K. Bizley, Andrew
modality. J. King, Visual-auditory spatial
16Auditory Spatial Processing. processing in auditory cortical neurons,
Ventriloquism effect. Fig 2: Design and Brain Research, Volume 1242, Multisensory
Results Kording et al. Integration, 25 November 2008, Pages
17Auditory Spatial Processing. 24-36, ISSN 0006-8993, DOI:
Ventriloquism after-effect. If subject is 10.1016/j.brainres.2008.02.087. P. Dallos,
presented with audio/visual stimuli of a W. Olsen, Integration of energy at
consistent spatial disparity, subjects threshold with gradual rise-fall tone
spatial perception of acoustic space pips. Journal of the Acoustical Soc. of
shifted after Long lasting Does not America.Vol. 36, pp. 743-751, April 1964 V
transfer across frequencies Different from Kalatsky, D Polley, M Merzenich, C
other adaption illusions: lasts tens of Schreiner, Mstryker, Fine functional
minutes, does not transfer across organization of auditory cortex revealed
frequencies, in the same direction of by Fourier optical imaging PNAS 2005 102
adapting stimulus. (37) 13325-13330; published ahead of print
18Auditory Spatial Processing. September 1, 2005,
Ventriloquism after-effect. Fig 4: Design doi:10.1073/pnas.0505592102.
and Results Recanzone. 31Additional Works Referenced. Kording
19Auditory Spatial Processing. KP, Beierholm U, Ma WJ, Quartz S,
Ventriloquism after-effect. Difficulty of Tenenbaum JB, et al (2007) Causal
single unit recording in illusions. Direct Inference in Multisensory Perception. PLoS
projection from auditory to visual ONE 2(9): e943.
(observed in primates)? Direct projection doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000943 Recanzone
from visual to auditory (observed in G, Rapidly induced auditory plasticity:
ferrets) Several areas in brain with The ventriloquism aftereffect. Proc. Natl.
multisensory response Ghanzafar study. Acad. Sci. USA Vol. 95, pp. 869–875,
20Auditory Temporal Processing. February 1998 J Yu, E Young, Linear and
Definition Temporal integration Forward nonlinear pathways of spectral information
masking Gap detection. transmission in the cochlear nucleus PNAS
21Auditory Temporal Processing. 2000 97 (22) 11780-11786 W. Zhang, R.J.
Definition. Can mean processing of Salvi, S.S. Saunders, Neural correlates of
temporal aspects of stimuli or ability of gap detection in auditory nerve fibers of
neurons to encode stimulus by temporal the chinchilla, Hearing Research, Volume
aspects of firing We refer to former 46, Issue 3, July 1990, Pages 181-200,
Temporal processing could be interpreted ISSN 0378-5955, DOI:
to include spectral processing We don't 10.1016/0378-5955(90)90001-6.
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Review: The Biological Basis of Audition

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