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Reviewing systematic reviews: meta-analysis of What Works
Reviewing systematic reviews: meta-analysis of What Works
8
8
Computer-assisted interventions
Computer-assisted interventions
Flowchart for calculation of effect size (Tobler et al
Flowchart for calculation of effect size (Tobler et al
Beginning Reading Topic Area
Beginning Reading Topic Area
Weighted mean Effect Sizes for moderators: 80 studies, Beginning
Weighted mean Effect Sizes for moderators: 80 studies, Beginning
Weighted mean Effect Sizes for moderators: 80 studies, Beginning
Weighted mean Effect Sizes for moderators: 80 studies, Beginning
Dummy Variables for Regressions
Dummy Variables for Regressions
Regression Statistics for BR Programs, Random effects
Regression Statistics for BR Programs, Random effects
Regression Statistics for BR Programs, Random effects
Regression Statistics for BR Programs, Random effects
Regression Statistics for BR Programs, Random Effects
Regression Statistics for BR Programs, Random Effects
Regression Statistics for BR Programs, Random Effects
Regression Statistics for BR Programs, Random Effects
Meta-Analytic Multiple Regression Results from the Wilson/Lipsey SPSS
Meta-Analytic Multiple Regression Results from the Wilson/Lipsey SPSS
Computer-assisted programs, random and fixed effects
Computer-assisted programs, random and fixed effects
Computer-assisted programs, random and fixed effects
Computer-assisted programs, random and fixed effects
Beginning Reading Interventions, Random Effects, 95% Confidence
Beginning Reading Interventions, Random Effects, 95% Confidence
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Reviewing systematic reviews: meta-analysis of What Works Clearinghouse computer-assisted reading interventions

содержание презентации «Reviewing systematic reviews: meta-analysis of What Works Clearinghouse computer-assisted reading interventions.ppt»
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1Reviewing systematic reviews: 21is English. 21.
meta-analysis of What Works Clearinghouse 22Beginning Reading Topic Area. 22.
computer-assisted reading interventions. 23Example of “other” reading programs.
October 2012 Improving Education through Reading Recovery® is a short-term tutoring
Accountability and Evaluation: Lessons intervention intended to serve the
from Around the World Rome, Italy Andrei lowest-achieving first-grade students. The
Streke ? Tsze Chan. goals of Reading Recovery® are to promote
2Session 4.2: Building and Interpreting literacy skills, reduce the number of
Scientific Evidence Thursday, October 4th. first-grade students who are struggling to
2. read, and prevent long-term reading
3Presentation Overview. What Works difficulties. Reading Recovery®
Clearinghouse (WWC) systematic reviews supplements classroom teaching with
Meta-analysis of computer-assisted one-to-one tutoring sessions, generally
programs across WWC topic areas, reading conducted as pull-out sessions during the
outcomes Meta-analysis of school day. 23.
computer-assisted programs within 24Number of students and effect sizes by
Beginning Reading topic area (grades K-3). type of program: Beginning Reading topic
3. area. Type of Program. Number of students.
4Key terms. What Works Clearinghouse Number of students. Number of students.
(WWC) is a “central and trusted source of Number. total. intervention. control. of
scientific evidence for what works in effect sizes. BR Computer-Assisted
education.” WWC produces systematic Programs. 2636. 1339. 1297. 151. Other BR
reviews on the effectiveness of Programs. 7591. 4042. 3549. 174. Total
educational interventions (programs, Beginning Reading. 10227. 5381. 4846. 325.
curricula, products, and practices) 24.
grouped by topic areas. Meta-analysis is a 25Beginning Reading programs, random
statistical technique that summarizes effects. Type of Program. n. M. Standard
quantitative findings across similar Error. 95% Lower. 95% Upper. Z-value.
studies. Each study’s findings are P-value. Computer-assisted programs. 33.
converted to a standard effect size. 0.28. 0.06. 0.16. 0.40. 4.71. 0.000. Other
Computer-assisted interventions encompass BR programs. 47. 0.39. 0.04. 0.32. 0.47.
reading software products, and programs 9.84. 0.000. Beginning Reading Total. 80.
that combine a mix of computer activities 0.35. 0.03. 0.29. 0.42. 10.65. 0.000. 25.
and traditional curriculum elements. 4. 26Beginning Reading Interventions,
5WWC Systematic Review. A clearly Random Effects, 95% Confidence Intervals.
stated set of objectives with pre-defined 26.
eligibility criteria for studies An 27Moderator Analysis, random effects.
explicit reproducible methodology A Modeling between study variability:
systematic search that attempts to Categorical models (analogous to a one-way
identify all studies that would meet the ANOVA) Regression models (continuous
eligibility criteria An assessment of the variables and/or multiple variables with
validity of the findings of the included weighted multiple regression). 27.
studies A systematic presentation, and 28Categorical analysis: moderators of
synthesis, of the characteristics and program effectiveness. Population Design
findings of the studies. 5. Sample size Control group Reading domain.
6Meta-Analysis of Reading 28.
interventions. Extraction of statistical 29Weighted mean Effect Sizes for
and descriptive information from moderators: 80 studies, Beginning Reading,
intervention reports and study review random effects. 29.
guides Aggregation of effect sizes across 30Weighted mean Effect Sizes for
studies Moderator Analysis -- ANOVA type moderators: 80 studies, Beginning Reading,
-- Regression type. 6. random effects. 30.
7WWC Systematic Review. WWC products: 31Dummy Variables for Regressions. 31.
Intervention reports 32Regression Statistics for BR Programs,
http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/publications_re Random effects. 32.
iews.aspx Practice guides Quick reviews 33Regression Statistics for BR Programs,
Normative documents Random effects. Type of Program. n. M.
(http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc ): WWC Standard Error. 95% Lower. 95% Upper.
Procedures and Standards Handbook WWC Z-value. P-value. Computer-assisted
topic area review protocol. 7. programs. 33. 0.28. 0.06. 0.16. 0.40.
88. 4.71. 0.000. Other BR programs. 47. 0.39.
9Meta-analysis of computer-assisted 0.04. 0.32. 0.47. 9.84. 0.000. Beginning
programs across WWC topic areas, reading Reading Total. 80. 0.35. 0.03. 0.29. 0.42.
outcomes Does the evidence in WWC reports 10.65. 0.000. 33.
indicate that computer-assisted programs 34Regression Statistics for BR Programs,
increase student reading achievement? 9. Random Effects. 34.
10Computer-assisted interventions. 10. 35Meta-Analytic Multiple Regression
11Example of computer-assisted programs. Results from the Wilson/Lipsey SPSS Macro.
Earobics® is interactive software that 35.
provides students in pre-K through third 36Conclusions. Investments in education
grade with individual, systematic have become an important national policy
instruction in early literacy skills as tool across the globe. With schools facing
students interact with animated substantial costs of hardware and
characters. The program builds children’s software, concerns naturally arise about
skills in phonemic awareness, auditory the contribution of technology to
processing, and phonics, as well as the students’ learning. The present work lends
cognitive and language skills required for some support to the proposition that
comprehension. 11. computer-assisted interventions in reading
12Meta-Analysis procedures. Effect Sizes are effective. The average effect for
Aggregation Method Testing for Homogeneity beginning reading computer-assisted
Fixed and Random Effects Models Moderator programs is positive and substantively
Analysis -- ANOVA type -- Regression type. important (that is >0.25). For the
12. Beginning Reading topic area (grades K-3),
13Effect Size. (1) Effect size (Hedges the effect appears smaller than the effect
& Olkin, 1985): 13. achieved by non-computer reading programs.
14Flowchart for calculation of effect 36.
size (Tobler et al., 2000). 14. 37References. Borenstein, M., Hedges,
15Number of students and effect sizes by L.V., Higgins, J.P., and Rothstein, H.R.
topic area. Type of Program. Number of (2009). Introduction to meta-analysis.
students. Number of students. Number of John Wiley and Sons. Hedges, L. V. and
students. Number of effect sizes. Number Olkin I. (1985). Statistical Methods for
of effect sizes. . total. intervention. Meta-Analysis. New York: Academic Press.
control. Adolescent Literacy. 26970. Lipsey, M.W., & Wilson, D.B. (2001).
12717. 14253. 59. Beginning Reading. 2636. Practical meta-analysis. Thousand Oaks,
1339. 1297. 151. Early Childhood CA: Sage. Tobler, N.S., Roona, M.R.,
Education. 910. 447. 463. 39. English Ochshorn, P., Marshall, D.G., Streke,
Language Learners. 308. 173. 135. 6. A.V., & Stackpole, K.M. (2000).
Total. 30824. 14676. 16148. 255. 15. School-based adolescent drug prevention
16Aggregation of Effect Sizes. (1) programs: 1998 meta-analysis. Journal of
Effect size (Hedges): (2) Effect size Primary Prevention, 20(4), 275-336. 37.
variance: Weight (w)= (Variance)-1. (3) 38For More Information. Please contact:
Weighted average effect size: (4) Weighted Andrei Streke AStreke@mathematica-mpr.com
average effect size variance: 16. Tsze Chan TChan@air.org. 38.
17Fixed and Random Effects Model 3939.
weights. Fixed effects model weights each 40Beginning Reading programs, random and
study by the inverse of the sampling fixed effects. Type of Program. n. M.
variance. Random effects model weights Standard Error. 95% Lower. 95% Upper.
each study by the inverse of the sampling Z-value. P-value. Computer-assisted
variance plus a constant that represents programs. 33. 0.28. 0.06. 0.16. 0.40.
the variability across the population 4.71. 0.000. Other BR programs. 47. 0.39.
effects (Lipsey & Wilson, 2001). This 0.04. 0.32. 0.47. 9.84. 0.000. Beginning
is the random effects variance component. Reading Total. 80. 0.35. 0.03. 0.29. 0.42.
17. 10.65. 0.000. Type of Program. n. M.
18Computer-assisted programs, random Standard Error. 95% Lower. 95% Upper.
effects. 31. 0.13. 0.03. 0.07. 0.18. 4.56. Z-value. P-value. Computer-assisted
0.00. 33. 0.28. 0.06. 0.16. 0.40. 4.71. programs. 33. 0.26. 0.04. 0.18. 0.34.
0.00. 6. 0.12. 0.07. -0.01. 0.25. 1.74. 6.50. 0.000. Other BR programs. 47. 0.34.
0.14. 3. 0.30. 0.27. -0.23. 0.83. 1.11. 0.02. 0.29. 0.39. 14.35. 0.000. Beginning
0.38. WWC Topic Area. Number of Studies. Reading Total. 80. 0.32. 0.02. 0.28. 0.36.
Weighted Effect Size. Standard Error. 15.65. 0.000. 40.
Lower Confidence Interval. Upper 41Computer-assisted programs, random and
Confidence Interval. Z-value. P-value. fixed effects. 41.
Adolescent literacy. Beginning reading. 42Random versus Fixed Effects Models.
Early childhood education. English Fixed effects model assume: (1) there is
language learners. 18. one true population effect that all
19Computer-assisted reading studies are estimating (2) all of the
interventions, topic area effects and 95% variability between effect sizes is due to
CIs. 19. sampling error Random effects model
20Meta-analysis of computer-assisted assume: (1) there are multiple (i.e., a
programs within Beginning Reading topic distribution) of population effects that
area Are computer-assisted reading the studies are estimating (2) variability
programs more effective than non-computer between effect sizes is due to sampling
reading programs in improving student error + variability in the population of
reading achievement? 20. effects (Lipsey and Wilson, 2001). 42.
21Selection Criteria for Beginning 43Beginning Reading Interventions,
Reading Topic Area. Manuscript is written Random Effects, 95% Confidence Intervals.
in English and published 1983 or later 43.
Both published and unpublished reports are 44Examples of problematic study designs
included Eligible designs: RCT; QED with that do not meet WWC criteria. Designs
statistical controls for pretest and/or a that confound study condition and study
comparison group matched on pretest; site Programs that were tested with only
regression discontinuity; SCD At least one one treatment and one control classroom or
relevant quantitative outcome measure school Non-comparable groups Study designs
Manuscript focuses on beginning reading that compared struggling readers to
Focus is on students ages 5-8 and/or in average or good readers to test a
grades K-3 Primary language of instruction program’s effectiveness. 44.
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