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Рим в эпоху солдатских императоров

содержание презентации «Рим в эпоху солдатских императоров.ppt»
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1The Classical Period: Directions, 6spiral of Rome. Upper class became more
Diversities, and Declines by 500 CE. interested in pleasure-seeking than
2Introduction. The Indian Ocean ruling. In Rome there was also a cultural
provided an important link between the decline where intellectually little was
independent/ self-sufficient empires of done. Rome had a combination of moral and
Rome, India, and China. How much cultural political decay ? The plagues weakened the
exchange occurred? (the halo and etc. are society and culture suffered. As things
Buddhist in nature) Did Christianity later got bad, farmers gave up lands to larger
adopt these Buddhist practices because of landlords for protection-eventually led to
trade? What would happen to the world when the manorial system and feudalism. Trade
the classical civilization declined and and production declined as did city
allowed for new opportunities for people? dwellers. Later emperors who tried to
Others would rise to fill the political reform and stop problems were Diocletian
and economic void that these civilization (284-305 ce) improved tax collection,
had formerly met. The classical tried to get worshipped as a god, split
civilizations fell (Han, Rome, Gupta) –The empire, made you stay in your job for
Gupta Empire for example took advantage of life. Constantine (312-337 ce) capital
the trade void after the fall of the Roman –Constantinople, tolerance to Christians.
Empire and their merchants became very However, you know that nothing actually
prosperous. This in turn allowed for the worked to stop the fall of Rome! By 476ce
spread of Hinduism and Buddhism as well as Roman emperor fell to Germanic invaders!
many temples across India to be built. In Rome’s fall split the unity of the
the postclassical age, Muslim merchants Mediterranean culture (Hellenistic
would rise to power to fill this void! The culture) and didn’t have one central
fall of the classical empires had religion. The eastern portion of Rome
consequences beyond just their borders. didn’t really fall, but formed into the
New forces were created in sub-Saharan Byzantine empire (ruler-Justinian-tried to
Africa, N. Europe and Asia. The classical retake all Roman lands, but couldn’t hold
civilization did NOT take up all the onto them. Justinian law code –taken from
globe, but they did include the majority Roman law code). In the Middle East after
of the world’s people. Alexander the Great the Parthian empire
3Expansion and Integration. Classical rose, but was quickly displaced. In 227ce
civilizations featured many new ideas and the Sassanid Empire rose and was similar
innovations that arose as a response to to the great empire of Persia
the needs of the people. Not a coincidence (Zoroastrianism revived). Parthian and
that Confucius, Laozi, Buddha, and Sassanid served as bridges between
Socrates arose about the same time. China Mediterranean and East-goods, beliefs,
tried to unify its people by art. As Rome weakened the Sassanids joined
centralization of government. They had to the attack, but the Byzantine Empire
reign in s. territories and did this via manage to stabilize the borders and limit
government and had some resettle there and Sassanids into Europe. Sassainds later
promoted a common language (for elites). overthrown by Arabs. Persian rule simply
India and the Mediterranean were more continued in Middle East and Byzantine
localized and diverse politically. India Empire maintained many Roman ideas. North
unified its people by religious values and African zone- a number of regional
the caste system. Mediterranean had many kingdoms developed after fall of Rome.
cultural achievements. Rome gave lots of Christianity spread into N. Africa and
local autonomy to people they conquered indeed Augustine was a bishop there.
and much tolerance to local religion, Differences between Christianity there and
customs, and laws. Granted citizenship to in Rome developed (Coptic church in Egypt
elites and economics created an for example). Soon Islam would spread
interdependence between various regions. here. Western empire-Italy, Spain, and
Each civilization had social inequalities north-reduced civilization here and crude
(men, women, slaves etc.). Only one Germanic kingdoms developed while cities
leading thinker spoke against this-Buddha. shrank (mentioned earlier). This part of
A mutual relationship between members in the world had lost previous Hellenistic
society as well as various ceremonies and knowledge! Even many members of the church
cultural experiences unified people began having problems in reading and
socially. writing.
4Beyond Classical Civ. New cultures in 7Religion. 200-600ce many of the world
Americas developed independent of religions became popular. Religion
classical models Southeast Asia-Hindu and provided solace to problems: political
Buddhists merchants spread religion and instability, plagues that killed many, and
soon regional kingdoms developed in increasing infant mortality rates.
Indonesia. Africa: Kush 1000 BCE Christianity become popular –formed under
–conquered Egypt for a short time. Had Roman Empire, Buddhism moved quickly into
their own language, used iron, had a Asia when Han fell. In early postclassical
strong monarchy. Defeated by Axum 300 BCE empire-Islam developed and became a very
which later fell to the kingdom of important religious and political force in
Ethiopia. Kept up their contacts with history. Never before had a single
Mediterranean after fall of Rome. Jewish religions spread so widely crossing so
merchants brought Judaism to Ethiopia and many cultural and political boundaries!
there are still some Jews today who live Christianity, Buddhism, and Hinduism (and
there. Additionally, merchants also later Islam) all emphasized intense
brought Christianity (4th century). These devotion and piety, stressed importance of
Christians were later cut off from the spiritual concerns beyond daily cares,
rest of the Christian world by a wave of offered hope of a better existence, each
Muslim expansion. Ethiopia also had the responded to political instability and
world’s longest monarchy which ended in growing poverty. Hundreds of thousands of
the 20th century! Not clear how much people in Europe, Africa, and Asia
influence Ethiopia had over other people underwent conversions. Many also blended
around them? Big development in classical new beliefs with older ones (syncretism).
age in Africa was the spread of Hinduism-very popular after Gupta fall
agriculture In Europe and Japan advances especially b/c of focus on mother goddess,
in agriculture and manufacturing occurred. Devi. Buddhism: became minority in India,
Japan had tribal chiefs and social but changed significantly b/c it spread.
hierarchy was marked with tattoos. Each Monks spread the religion.
tribe had its own god…thought to be an Bodhisattvas-could attain nirvana via
ancestor. The Japanese develop meditation and could then become saints
iron-working. Later tribal chiefdoms gave and remain in the world to help others.
way to regional kingdoms. Religion of Buddhism became a more emotional
Japan=Shintoism. It provided for the cult-popular salvation. Mahayana
worship of political leaders AND spirits Buddhism-(E. Asia) retained the original
of nature (god of rice). Around 700 ce beliefs of Buddha, but Buddha became seen
beliefs unified into a single religion. as a divine savior-god. Prayers and
Europe was organized into regional rituals to help ordinary people become
kingdoms-some areas had in fact come under holy. Women in China-Buddhists believed
Roman authority. After Rome fell things that women like men and women should have
returned to regional kingdoms and cities been treated better, but in fact were
emptied out due to looting and pillaging. not-case of cultural syncretism. Confucian
In many of these areas hunting and leaders were not big fans of Buddhism as
agriculture were combined and many areas you can imagine! Over time in China,
had no written language unless they Buddhists were attacked. Daoism- improved
formerly knew Latin (language of the organization and emphasized practical
Catholic Church). After 600 ce benefits obtained via magic-drew much
Scandinavians (Vikings) put their sailor interest from peasants.
skills to the test in pillaging throughout 8Christianity and Islam. Christianity
Europe. In areas were Christianity hadn’t moved westward from Middle East. Similar
yet spread people were still polytheistic to Buddhism in emphasis on salvation and
and believed in a host of gods and the guidance of saints. Differed b/c more
spirits of nature. Until about 1000ce emphasis on church organization and
N.and E. Europe remained fairly primitive. structure, focused more on missionaries,
Central America had developed a stressed the exclusive nature of its truth
civilization by 600 ce: Olmecs 800-400 BCE and was intolerant of competing beliefs.
(pyramid monuments) -Civilization based on Christianity developed in response to
the cultivation of corn (in wild state rigidness in Judaism. Some Jews began to
just larger than strawberries) in Central believe in a Messiah that would led them
America potatoes were grown. Technology out of their problems. Jesus believed by
wise, Olmec culture had calendars. Later Christians to be the son of God was sent
civilization in this area would be the to earth to redeem humans of sin. Jesus
Mayan and Incas. They were isolated from preached widely in Israel and had
other civilizations and therefore lacked disciples. Message: there is one single
knowledge of all kinds of innovations (use God, who loved humankind despite sin. One
of the wheel and iron). Other isolated needed to be devoted to worshipping God
groups were the Polynesians who populated and fellowship with other believers.
islands of the Pacific-Fiji in 1000 BCE ? Poverty was best for holiness and God sent
Made it to Hawaii by 400 ce. During Jesus to preach and through his sacrifice
classical period agriculture spread to new his followers could have an afterlife of
areas. Central nomadic people started to heaven. Belief, good works, and discipline
form new contacts and played an important of fleshly concerns would lead to heaven.
role in trade between Asia and Middle Rituals: communion Roman Empire made it
East. Some also made innovations like the easy for Christianity to spread b/c of
stirrup! They also invaded major travel and unhappiness of many peasants
civilizations! with Greek/ Roman religion. Under Paul-no
5Decline of China and India. 200-600 an original disciple –Christianity was
ce-all three major classical civilization seen as its own religion and not a Jewish
collapsed. Rome fell to Germanic invaders reform movement. They began to welcome
b/c of the pressures placed on them by the non-Jews, encouraged more formal
Huns! Another Hun group also overthrew the organization in the church, and a more
Gupta Empire and a similar nomadic tribes organized doctrine-New Testament. Under
had earlier toppled the Han. Han much persecution and competition.
China-corruption increased, creativity –Constantine! In the west the church was
decreased, peasants burden by taxes, organized under the pope (father). In the
landlords became more powerful, Daoists east still under much control of the
led a revolution in 184 ce (magic and state. When Rome fell Christianity
healing practices during this time)-Yellow continued and so also did the Church.
Turbans promised a golden age that would Focus on theology which made intellectuals
be started due to divine magic. Not happy. Focus on importance of faith in the
successful! Growing political religion and Christianity also accepted
ineffectiveness and inability to kept out some polytheistic traditions-moved
invaders (like Rome). China had to deal Christ’s birth to coincide with the winter
with new epidemics which killed many. solstice (syncretism). Offered deep
However, China did revive itself with the develop to God and soon monasteries
Sui and Tang dynasty which started the developed (St. Benedict). Latin remained
dynastic cycle again (under Tang-Confucian the language of the church in the west
scholars back). India-by 5th century in while Greek in the east.
decline-local princes harder to control 9Spread of Major Religions. Because of
and invaders became a problem. Hun the decline of classical empires these
invaders formed a new ruling group of religions were able to run through
regional princes-collectively called the political and cultural borders much due to
Rajput, that controlled many areas in contacts between these peoples (trade,
India. Buddhism declined, but successfully missionaries activities). Common forces
moved to China…as you can imagine Hun like invaders, diseases, and death help to
princes didn’t do well with the concept of explain parallel changes in each
being calm and peaceful ? Buddhism civilization. The new religions allowed
suffered and Hinduism grew. India grew for greater focus on spiritual matters
economically from control of Indian Ocean which resulted in a greater tendency to
trade basin. After 600 ce greatest threat focus on a single basic god. Polytheism
to India would be Muslim Arabs. 711 continued to flourish due to Hinduism and
Abbasid Empire defeated the Sind kingdom Daoism. However, animism was reduced.
in India which began an influx of Muslim 10World around 500 ce. Response to
conquest and a take over of trade. collapse of classical forms-reviving or
6Decline/ Fall of Rome. After 180ce reworking institutions/ values. Need to
many problems: population decline, react to the new religious map and to
recruiting problems, high taxes, despair. integrate those values into established
It was a process of deterioration: quality civilization or use them as the basis for
of political and economic life shifted, establishing a civilization. Increased
weak emperors, disputes over succession skill in agriculture and these
with the interference of the army civilization would allow for later
contributed further to this deterioration. developments to come. Wider contacts,
Series of plagues that swept across the importance of trade, as empires decline
empire like in China-b/c of international trade more complicated ? and shipping more
trade. A set of general problems triggered important. Important new culture exchanges
by a cycle of plagues resulted in the (religion).
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