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Russia – Chapter 9
Russia – Chapter 9
Chapter 9: The Russian Domain (Fig
Chapter 9: The Russian Domain (Fig
Physiographic Regions – mountains & deserts & poor coasts on margins
Physiographic Regions – mountains & deserts & poor coasts on margins
Physical Geography of the Russian Domain (Fig
Physical Geography of the Russian Domain (Fig
Climate Map of the Russian Domain (Fig
Climate Map of the Russian Domain (Fig
80o
80o
RUSSIAN CLIMATE
RUSSIAN CLIMATE
Agricultural Regions (Fig
Agricultural Regions (Fig
Environmental Issues in the Russian Domain (Fig
Environmental Issues in the Russian Domain (Fig
Population Map of the Russian Domain (Fig
Population Map of the Russian Domain (Fig
Recent Migration Flows in the Russian Domain (Fig
Recent Migration Flows in the Russian Domain (Fig
Population Density
Population Density
Growth of the Russian Empire (Fig
Growth of the Russian Empire (Fig
Languages of the Russian Domain (Fig
Languages of the Russian Domain (Fig
Soviet Geopolitical System (Fig
Soviet Geopolitical System (Fig
Geopolitical Issues in the Russian Domain (Fig
Geopolitical Issues in the Russian Domain (Fig
Major Natural Resources and Industrial Zones (Fig
Major Natural Resources and Industrial Zones (Fig
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Russia – Chapter 9

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1Russia – Chapter 9. Rowntree, et. al. 26Russian Empire in 19th Century in Central
Modified by Joe Naumann, UMSL. Asia The Significance of Empire 1900,
2Chapter 9: The Russian Domain (Fig. Russians ruled from St. Petersburg to
9.1). Globalization & Diversity: Vladivostok. The Legacy of Slavic
Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 2. Dominance. Globalization & Diversity:
3Learning Objectives. Understand the Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 26.
challenges of cold, northern climate that 27Growth of the Russian Empire (Fig.
affects this region Learn about the cold 9.20). Globalization & Diversity:
war between the U.S. and U.S.S.R./Russia Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 27.
(1945-1990) Know the difference between a 28Geographies of Language Slavic
political system and an economic system languages dominate in the Russian Domain
Students should become familiar with the 80% of Russia’s people are ethnic Russians
physical, demographic, cultural, There are other language groups
political, and economic characteristics of Finno-Ugric (Finnish) in the north Altaic
the Russian Domain Understand these (Tatars & Turkic peoples) middle Volga
concepts and models: -Centralized economic Transcaucasia has many languages Yakut
planning -Cold War -Permafrost -Autonomous (Turkic) in Siberia; Buryats near Lake
areas. -Glasnost and Perestroika Baikal Similar treatment to indigenous in
-Russification -Denuclearization. U.S., Canada, Australia. Globalization
Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price,
Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 3. Wyckoff. 28.
4Introduction. Russian Domain includes 29Geographies of Religion Soviets
Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, and prohibited religion, religious revival
Armenia (all were part of the U.S.S.R.) underway now Eastern Orthodox Christianity
Russia is the largest country (in land most common Other forms of Western
area) on Earth; it spans 11 time zones Christianity practiced Non-Christian
Rich in resources, but has one of the religions 20-25 million Sunni Muslims live
harshest climates The Russian Domain has in the North Caucasus Over 1 million Jews,
had extremely rapid political and economic mostly in larger western cities.
change since 1990 From centrally planned Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree,
economy to capitalism From authoritarian Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 29.
dictatorship to democracy Region’s economy 30Languages of the Russian Domain (Fig.
is weak; commitment to democracy 9.22). Globalization & Diversity:
uncertain, nationalist movements threaten Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 30.
stability Ukraine, Belarus, Georgia, 31Russian Culture in Global Context
Armenia must build global relationships. Strong traditions, influenced by Western
Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Europe Soviet Days Soviets promoted social
Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 4. realism: a style devoted to the realistic
5RUSSIA-US SIZE COMPARISON. depiction of workers harnessing the forces
Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, of nature or struggling against capitalism
Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 5. Turn to the West Young Russians adopted
6Physiographic Regions – mountains consumer culture in 1980s In post-Soviet
& deserts & poor coasts on era, globalism and consumerism came to
margins. Globalization & Diversity: Russia from the West and elsewhere (India,
Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 6. Hong Kong, Latin America) The Music Scene
7Russian Domain has “good farmlands,” American and European popular music
metal, petroleum, natural gas, and coal gaining fans Home-grown music industry is
resources High latitude, continental evolving. Globalization & Diversity:
climate, temperature extremes Cold climate Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 31.
and rugged terrain limit human settlement 32The Remnants of a Global Superpower.
and agriculture Sturgeon (caviar-producing Geopolitical Structure of Former Soviet
fish) nearly gone Few domestic regulations Union Russian Empire collapsed abruptly in
to protect them Poaching adds to the 1917 Briefly, a broad-based coalition of
problem. Environmental Geography: Vast business people, workers, and peasants
& Challenging Land. Globalization replaced tsars Soon, Bolsheviks (faction
& Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, of Russian Communists representing the
Wyckoff. 7. interests of the industrial workers), led
8Physical Geography of the Russian by Lenin, centralized power and introduced
Domain (Fig. 9.2). Globalization & communism The Soviet Republics and
Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Autonomous Areas Soviet leaders designed a
Wyckoff. 8. geopolitical solution to maintain the
9The European West European Russia, country’s territorial boundaries, and
Ukraine and Belarus on eastern European theoretically acknowledged the rights of
Plain 3 environments influence agriculture non-Russian citizens by creating Union
in this region Poor soils, cold temps, Republics Autonomous areas: minor
forests N. of Moscow & St. Petersburg political sub-units designed to recognize
Belarus and central European Russia have special status of minority groups within
longer growing season, but acidic podzol existing republics. Globalization &
soils limit farm output South of 50 N Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price,
Latitude, grassland and fertile soils Wyckoff. 32.
support commercial wheat, corn, sugar, 33Soviet Geopolitical System (Fig.
beets, meat production. Globalization 9.26). Globalization & Diversity:
& Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 33.
Wyckoff. 9. 34Geopolitical Framework: The Remnants
10The Ural Mountains and Siberia Urals of a Global Superpower. Centralization and
separate European Russia from Siberia: low Expansion of the Soviet State Communism
mountains with cold, dry climates Siberia did not eliminate ethnic differences In
extends thousands of miles, cold climate, 1930, Soviet leader Stalin centralized
little precipitation Lake Baikal (largest power in Moscow, limiting national
freshwater reserve in the world – 400 autonomy Land added Sakhalin, Kuril
miles long, nearly a mile deep, with Islands from Japan; Baltic republics
unique species) Tundra (mosses, lichens) Occupation of Poland, Romania,
north; Taiga (coniferous forest zone) Czechoslovakia Exclave (outside Russia’s
south Farming possible only in southwest contiguous land) added from Germany End of
Siberia Permafrost in Eastern Siberia – the Soviet System Union republics
cold climate with unstable, seasonally encouraged ethnic identification Glasnost:
frozen ground limiting farming and greater openness; Perestroika: economic
construction. Globalization & restructuring 1991: all 15 Union Republics
Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, gained independence. Globalization &
Wyckoff. 10. Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price,
11Climate Map of the Russian Domain Wyckoff. 34.
(Fig. 9.3). Developed Area Triangle. 35Geopolitical Framework: The Remnants
Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, of a Global Superpower. Current
Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 11. Geopolitical Setting (1992-present) (Fig.
1280o. 60o. 40o. Latitudinal Impact. 9.30) Russia and the Former Soviet
Arctic Circle. Alaska. Hawaii. Republics Formed Commonwealth of
Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Independent States (CIS) – a looser
Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 12. political union that included all but
13RUSSIAN CLIMATE. Affected by 3 natural three of the former republics; has no
conditions: -- Latitudinal Position -- power, and is mostly a forum for
Continental Position -- Location of major discussion Denuclearization (the return
mountains. Globalization & Diversity: and partial dismantling of nuclear weapons
Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 13. from outlying republics to Russian control
14Agricultural Regions (Fig. 9.5). completed in 1990s; tactical nuclear
Agricultural Triangle (Developed weapons moved to Kaliningrad exclave
Triangle). Globalization & Diversity: Military, political and ethnic tensions
Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 14. remain in parts of the region Devolution
15Environmental Geography: A Vast and and the Russian Federation Devolution:
Challenging Land (cont.). The Russian Far more localized political control in Russia
East Near Vladivostok, about same latitude Russian leaders fear other areas will
as New England (in N. America) Longer secede. Globalization & Diversity:
growing seasons and milder climates than Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 35.
Siberia, seismically active Ussuri and 36Regional Tensions Chechnyan Republic
Amur River Valleys have mixed crop and seeking independence Russians sent
livestock farming Vegetation includes military Chechnya has metals and oil The
conifers, taiga, Asian hardwoods The Shifting Global Setting Boundary issues
Caucasus and Transcaucasia In extreme between Russia and China Dispute with
south of European Russia, forms Russia’s Japan over Kuril Islands Expansion of NATO
southern boundary, between the Black and concerns Russian leaders Russia recently
Caspian seas Highest peak is Mt. Elbrus joined the “Group of Seven” (G-7) Other
(18,000 feet) Georgia and Armenia are in members: U.S., Canada, Japan, Germany,
Transcaucasia; Lesser Caucasus Mountains Great Britain, France, Italy).
form border between Armenia and Azerbaijan Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree,
Climate: high rainfall in west, arid or Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 36.
semi-arid in east; good soils and farming. 37Geopolitical Issues in the Russian
Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, Domain (Fig. 9.27). Globalization &
Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 15. Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price,
16A Devastated Environment (cont.) Air Wyckoff. 37.
and Water Pollution Extreme environmental 38After economic decline of 40% in the
pollution, from industrialization, 1990s, Russia’s economy stabilized in 2000
urbanization, careless mining, nuclear and 2004 The Legacy of the Soviet Economy
energy production; legacy of U.S.S.R. Air Communists came to power in 1917, and
pollution caused by clustered factories, instituted centralized economic planning:
few environmental controls, reliance on a situation in which the state controls
low quality coal Water pollution caused by production targets and industrial output
industrial waste, raw sewage, oil spills; Soviets nationalized agriculture, but it
pulp and paper factories polluted Lake was inefficient Soviets expanded
Baikal (1950s-60s) The Nuclear Threat industrialization and transportation
Former U.S.S.R. nuclear weapons, energy Industrialization more successful than
production caused pollution Above-ground collectivized agriculture Trans-Siberian
testing made radioactive fallout; nuclear Railroad, canal system Improvements in
waste dumped Nuclear weapons used for housing and education after WWII Literacy
seismic experiments, oil exploration, dam near 100% But economic and social problems
building Russia has many old nuclear increased in 1970s-’80s. An Era of Ongoing
reactors; major nuclear accidents: 1986 Adjustment. Globalization & Diversity:
meltdown in Chernobyl (Belarus); another Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 38.
in 1956 Construction of new nuclear plants 39Soviet industry more successful than
Possibility of warehousing of agriculture Soviets added major industrial
international nuclear wastes. zones (Fig. 9.31), many near energy
Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, sources and metals Moscow had fewer raw
Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 16. materials, but had some of Russia’s best
17Environmental Issues in the Russian infrastructure, large pool of skilled
Domain (Fig. 9.9). Globalization & labor, and demand for industrial products
Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Soviets developed a good transportation
Wyckoff. 17. and communication infrastructure Soviets
18Population & Settlement: An Urban had a massive housing campaign in the
Domain. Overview of the Russian Domain 1960s Soviets made literacy virtually
More than 200 million residents, most in universal, and health care readily
cities Population Distribution Most people available; eliminated the worst of the
in best farmlands European Russia; 110 poverty. Globalization & Diversity:
mil.; Siberia: 35 mil.; Belarus & Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 39.
Ukraine: 60 mil The European Core 40The Post-Soviet Economy The region has
(Belarus; Western Russia; Ukraine) replaced its communist system with a mix
Contains the Russian Domain’s largest of state-run operations and private
cities, biggest industrial complexes, most enterprise Redefining Regional Economic
productive farms, higher population Ties Independent republics negotiate for
densities Siberian Hinterlands Relatively needed resources with Russia and each
sparse settlement, with two zones other rather than accept centralized
influenced by transportation Industrial control Russia continues to dominate the
cities along Trans-Siberian Railroad region’s economy Privatization and
(1904) Thinner settlement along the Economic Uncertainty Russia removed price
Baikal-Amur Mainline (BAM) Railroad -- controls in 1992; sold state-owned
newer (1984). Globalization & business to private investors in 1993
Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Higher prices, lack of legal safeguards
Wyckoff. 18. created problems Agriculture still
19Population Map of the Russian Domain struggles, in part due to harsh climate,
(Fig. 9.12). Globalization & landforms Many people see little economic
Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, gain from changes. Globalization &
Wyckoff. 19. Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price,
20Regional Migration Patterns Eastward Wyckoff. 40.
Movement (1860-1914) Trans-Siberian 41Major Natural Resources and Industrial
Railroad speeded eastward movement Almost Zones (Fig. 9.30). Globalization &
1 mil. settlers lured by farming Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price,
opportunities in southern Siberia, more Wyckoff. 41.
political freedom away from Tsars Tsars – 42The Russian Mafia Russia Interior
czars; authoritarian leaders who dominated Ministry estimates that Russian mafia
politics of pre-1917 Russian Empire (comes controls 40% of the private economy &
from “Caesar”) Political Motives Infill in 60% of the state-run enterprises; 80% of
Siberia has economic and political banks in Russia may be under mafia
benefits Political dissidents sent to influence Protection money, corruption
Siberia (Gulags Archipelago) result Russian mafia has gone global Money
Russification: Soviet policy moved laundering (Russia, U.K., U.S.); gambling
Russians into non-Russian portions of (Sri Lanka); drugs (Colombia); legitimate
U.S.S.R to increase Russian dominance in Israeli high tech companies. Globalization
those areas; Russians are a significant & Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price,
minority in former Soviet republics. Wyckoff. 42.
Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, 43Social Problems High unemployment,
Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 20. rising housing costs; lower welfare
21Recent Migration Flows in the Russian spending Divorce and domestic violence
Domain (Fig. 9.17). Globalization & increasing; prostitution increasing Health
Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, care spending dropping Vaccine shortages
Wyckoff. 21. allow disease to return Chronic and
22Population Density. Globalization stress-related illnesses on the rise.
& Diversity: Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree,
Wyckoff. 22. Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 43.
23Regional Migration Patterns (cont.) 44Growing Economic Globalization
New International Movements Russification Starting in 1970s, Soviets exported fossil
often reversed in post-Soviet era fuels, imported food; ties now stronger A
Citizenship, language requirements New Day for the Consumer Western consumer
encourage Russians to go Movement to other goods available (e.g., McDonald’s, Calvin
regions “Brain drain” to other countries Klein; even some luxury items) Attracting
Jewish Russians move to Israel or U.S. Foreign Investment Region struggles to
Mail-order Ukrainian brides to the U.S. attract foreign investment Most investment
The Urban Attraction Soviet planners’ from U.S., western Europe (esp. Germany,
encouraged migration to cities Soviets U.K.) Fossil fuels, food,
planned cities, limited population levels telecommunications, consumer goods Foreign
and regulated migration Post-Soviet era, investment growing by more than 14%
citizens have greater freedom to move; annually. Globalization & Diversity:
many older industrial areas are now losing Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 44.
population. Globalization & Diversity: 45Globalization and Russia’s Petroleum
Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 23. Economy Russia has 35% of the world’s
24Inside the Russian City Russian cities natural gas reserves Mostly in Siberia
carefully in planned form and function, World’s largest gas exporter Primary
with circular land-use zones Core has destination for Russian petroleum products
superior transportation, best stores and is western Europe Former U.S.S.R.
housing Core predates Soviets era republics depend on Russia’s energy
Sotzgorods: work-linked housing (including Foreign investment in new pipelines, other
dorms) Chermoyuski: apartment blocks from technology Local impacts of globalization
1950s/60s Mikrorayons: Self-contained Vary from place to place Investment in
housing projects of 1970s/80s Dachas: Moscow, Siberia (oil) Pro-business Nizhny
country houses available only to the Novgorod and Samara attract investment
elite. Globalization & Diversity: Local economic declines in older,
Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 24. uncompetitive industrial areas.
25The Demographic Crisis General Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree,
population decline caused by low birth Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 45.
rates and rising death (mortality) rates, 46Conclusions. Russian Domain has seen
especially among middle-aged males Causes great change, from empire, through
fraying social fabric economic uncertainty revolution and break-up Ethnic &
declining health among women of cultural differences continue to shape the
child-bearing age stress-related diseases region Russian Domain is rich in natural
rising murder and suicide toxic resources, but has limited agricultural
environments Russia’s population could potential and lingering economic
fall by 3 million by 25 million by 2030. difficulties Massive readjustments growing
Globalization & Diversity: Rowntree, from the political and economic upheavals
Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 25. of the 1990s continue to affect the area
26The Heritage of the Russian Empire Environmental devastation in the region
Growth of the Russian Empire Slavic “Rus” and its effects continue to cause social
in power from 900AD around Kiev Eastern and health problems More uncertainty lies
Orthodox Christianity came in 1000AD By ahead for the people of the Russian
1400s, new and expanding Russian state Domain. End of Chapter 9: The Russian
after Tatar and Mongol rule Expansion Domain. Globalization & Diversity:
eastward in 16th & 17th centuries; Rowntree, Lewis, Price, Wyckoff. 46.
westward expansion slow Final expansion of
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