Россия
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The Russian Federation
The Russian Federation
The Russian Federation
The Russian Federation
Russian cities
Russian cities
Geography Russia
Geography Russia
Russia possesses
Russia possesses
Russian cities
Russian cities
Russian cities
Russian cities
Moscow
Moscow
Moscow
Moscow
The Kremlin
The Kremlin
Red Square
Red Square
St Petersburg
St Petersburg
St Petersburg
St Petersburg
Many military parades
Many military parades
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
Key for paradise
Key for paradise
Key for paradise
Key for paradise
Key for paradise
Key for paradise
Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
Samara
Samara
Kuibyshev
Kuibyshev
Omsk
Omsk
Omsk
Omsk
Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
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Russian cities

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1UNIT 1. THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION GREAT 28in Russia of those times and named after
RUSSIAN CITIES Dialogues: Getting to know Empress Ekaterina I, the wife of Peter the
you Airport Checking in After the Flight Great, and Great Martyr Saint Catherine,
Getting a Taxi Grammar: ACTIVE VOICE the patroness of mining. For three
SEQUENCE OF TENSES. centuries the city-plant has been steadily
2Russia, also officially known as the developing as a center of mining industry
russian federation, is a state in northern of the Urals and Siberia. Nowadays
eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential Yekaterinburg is not only one of the
republic, comprising 85 federal subjects. biggest industrial centers in Russia but a
From northwest to southeast, russia shares very beautiful city with a lot of
borders with norway, finland, estonia, monuments of great historical and cultural
latvia, lithuania and poland (both via value. Dozen of museums, several theaters,
kaliningrad oblast), belarus, ukraine, numerous movie houses, high school
georgia, azerbaijan, kazakhstan, the institutions as well as developed
people's republic of china, mongolia, and infrastructure make Yekaterinburg the
north korea. It also has maritime borders unique city where the past and the present
with japan by the sea of okhotsk and the mix together. If you have the opportunity
united states by the bering strait. A to visit Ekaterinburg, you should make
federal semi-presidential republic - sure you stop by Kamenniye Palatki and
федеративная полупрезидентская Shartash Lake. The rocks of Kamenniye
(президентско-парламентская) республика to Palatki are completely natural though they
comprise - охватывать federal subject - look like the remains of an old castle.
федеральный субъект, субъект федерации via 29Samara. Part of the Volga Federal
- через maritime borders - морские District, Samara sits in the southeastern
границы. part of Russia. With a population of over
3The Russian federation. FLAG COAT OF 1 million, it’s one of the most
ARMS. cosmopolitan cities in Russia.
4 Politically, economically and culturally,
5At 17, 125, 187 sq. Km, russia is the Samara occupies a unique position within
largest country in the world, covering the country. For tourism purposes, the
more than a ninth of the earth's land city is a wonderful destination. Samara’s
area. Russia is also the ninth most history goes back to the 16th century and
populous nation with more than 146 million while the city may not boast the grandiose
people. It extends across the whole of landmarks that typify so many Russian
northern asia and 40% of europe, spanning towns, there’s still remarkable
9 time zones and incorporating a wide architecture to observe, beautiful parks
range of environments and landforms. and unique open-air markets. Samara was
Russia has the world's largest reserves of officially founded in 1586 when on the
mineral and energy resources. It has the bank of the Volga River the construction
world's largest forest reserves and its of the fortress to protect the Russian
lakes contain approximately one-quarter of State from the incursion of martial
the world's fresh water. To span - nomadic tribes was started. But in fact,
простираться, охватывать time zone - the settlement on the bend of the Volga
часовой пояс to incorporate - объединять, River had been mentioned in the ancient
включать landform - очертания суши, форма chronicles since 14th century.
рельефа approximately - примерно, 30Samara. During World War II Samara
приблизительно fresh water - пресная вода. (the city is situated not far from
6The nation's history began with that Moscow), then named Kuibyshev, was
of the East Slavs, who emerged as a considered to be the second capital of
recognizable group in Europe between the USSR. Many famous people worked and lived
3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and in Samara including outstanding Russian
ruled by a noble Viking warrior class and writers Lev Tolstoy and Maxim Gorky,
their descendants, the first East Slavic painters Ilya Repin, Vasily Surikov and
state, Kievan Rus', arose in the 9th Ivan Aivazovsky, revolutionists Michael
century and adopted Orthodox Christianity Frunze and Vladimir Lenin. Even French
from the Byzantine Empire in 988, writer Alexander Duma paid a visit to
beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Samara in 1858. Impressed by the travel he
Slavic cultures that defined Russian wrote the book "From Paris to
culture for the next millennium. Kievan Astrakhan" and gave his description
Rus' ultimately disintegrated and the of Samara in it. Facts about Samara Area:
lands were divided into many small feudal 260 sq km Location: Samara is situated in
states. recognizable – могущий быть the southeastern European part of Russia
узнанным, признанный BC – before Christ in the Midstream of the largest river in
(англ.) , до Христа, до нашей эры. AD – Europe - the Volga. Population: approx
anno domini (лат.) , нашего бога, нашей 1,133,000 (2005 est.) Foundation: 1586
эры. descendant – потомок to arise – Climate: Samara has a distinct continental
возникать, появляться to adopt – принимать climate. The annual air temperature is +
ultimately – в конечном счете, в конце 3,8 C. The average temperature in January
концов to disintegrate – раздроблять(ся), is -13,9 C, in July +20,1 C. Major
распадаться feudal state – феодальное attractions: Art museum, Museum of Aleksey
государство. Tolstoy, Drama Theater, Opera and Ballet
7The most powerful successor state to house.
Kievan Rus' was Moscow, which served as 31Omsk Omsk is the second-largest city
the main force in the Russian in Russia east of the Ural mountains. In
reunification process and independence southwest Siberia, the city was the
struggle against the Golden Horde. Moscow defacto capital of Russia while the Civil
gradually reunified the surrounding War tore across Moscow in 1918. With just
Russian principalities and came to over 1 million people, Omsk has some
dominate the cultural and political legacy attractions of note for tourists. A chief
of Kievan Rus'. By the 18th century, the focal point is the former market of
nation had greatly expanded through Gostiny Dvor. Omsk, founded in 1716, is a
conquest, annexation, and exploration to large industrial, educational and cultural
become the Russian Empire, which was the center with a population over one million.
third largest empire in history, In the 50-s of the 20th century Omsk
stretching from Poland in Europe to Alaska became an important oil-processing city.
in North America. successor – преемник, Omsk is a typical modern city with wide
наследник reunification process – процесс thoroughfares, numerous bridges and high
воссоединения independence struggle – sky-scrapers. In the old part of the city
борьба за независимость the Golden Horde – one can see examples of architecture of
Золотая Орда gradually - постепенно previous centuries including the Tobolskie
principality - княжество legacy – Gate leading to the city fortress, the
наследство, наследие to expand – oldest constructions in Omsk. In the 19th
расширяться, увеличиваться, century the convicts had to pass through
распространяться conquest – завоевание, this gate daily when they went to the
покорение annexation – присоединение, timber cutting works. Among the convicts
аннексия exploration - исследование. was the famous Russian writer Fyodor
8Russia established worldwide power and Dostoevsky. The palace of general-governor
influence from the times of the russian is another interesting sight of Omsk.
empire being the largest and leading Facts about Omsk Area: 140,000 sq km
constituent of the soviet union, the (territory of Omsk Region) Location: The
world's first constitutionally socialist city lies in the southwest of Siberian
state and a recognized superpower, that Federal District, on the Irtysh River.
played a decisive role in the allied Population: approx 1,143,000 (2005 est.)
victory in world war II. The soviet era Foundation: 1716 Climate: The climate is
saw some of the greatest technology dry and relatively temperate, but marked
achievements of the nation, such as the by violent snow-storms and sand-storms.
world's first human spaceflight. The Major attractions: Nikolsky Cathedral, The
russian federation was founded following Palace of the Governor-General, Former
the dissolution of the soviet union in Military School.
1991, but is recognized as the continuing 32Novosibirsk. A notable city in the
legal personality of the soviet state. vicinity of Omsk is Novosibirsk. Believe
Worldwide power and influence – всемирное it or not, this quiet town is the
могущество и влияние constituent – third-most-populous in Russia and the
составная часть recognized superpower – nerve center of Siberia. Home to almost
признанная супердержава decisive role – 1.5 million inhabitants, Novosibirsk is a
решающая роль spaceflight – космический major player in the Russian economy.
полет dissolution – распад, исчезновение Novosibirsk is the largest industrial,
continuing legal personality – законный scientific, cultural and administrative
правопреемник. center of Siberia. The city was founded in
9Russia is a great power and a 1893, and at first it functioned just as
permanent member of the United Nations the settlement for the workers who built
Security Council, a member of the G8, G20, the bridge over the Ob River. Novosibirsk
the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific was supposed to be a local trade center,
Economic Cooperation, the Shanghai but since the October Revolution it became
Cooperation Organization, the Eurasian the city of not only industrial, but also
Economic Community, the OSCE, and is the cultural and scientific importance.
leading member of the Commonwealth of Gradually it was turned into the forth
Independent States. the United Nations largest city of Russia. The architectural
Security Council – Совет безопасности look of Novosibirsk is represented by the
Организации объединенных наций the G8 – grandeur building of the Central Railway
Большая восьмерка the G20 – Большая Station, the Opera Theater, and the
двадцатка the Council of Europe – Совет central square ensemble. There are more
Европы the Asia-Pacific Economic than 2 thousand historical and
Cooperation – Азиатско-Тихоокеанское architectural monuments on the territory
экономическое сотрудничество the Shanghai of Novosibirsk. The Novosibirsk zoo is one
Cooperation Organization – Шанхайская of the very best in Europe, with over
организация сотрудничества the Eurasian 4,000 animal species and an enviable
Economic Community – Евроазиатское collection of jungle cats. The opera and
экономическое сообщество the OSCE (The ballet are perhaps the most popular
Organization for Security and Cooperation attractions. Facts about Novosibirsk Area:
in Europe) – ОБСЕ (Организация по 477 sq km Location: The city lies on the
безопасности и сотрудничеству в Европе) both banks of the Ob River, in the middle
the Commonwealth of Independent States – of Russia. Population: approx 1,406,600
СНГ (Содружество независимых государств). (2005 est.) Foundation: 1893 Climate: The
10Etymology The country's original name climate is sharply continental. The
was Русь (Rus'), a medieval state average temperature in winter is -19 C, in
populated mostly by the East Slavs. An old summer + 21 C. Major attractions:
Latin version of the name Rus' was Voznesensky Cathedral, Chapel of St
Ruthenia, mostly applied to the western Nikolai, Catholic Cathedral, Museum of
and southern regions of Rus' that were Regional Studies.
adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current 33Getting to know you. Peter: Do you
name of the country, Россия (Rossiya), live in London, Susan? Susan: No, I live
comes from the Greek version of Rus', in Paris, actually. P.: And what do you
spelled ????? [ros?ia], which was the do? S.: I’m a journalist. I write for an
denomination of Kievan Rus in the international newspaper. P.: Really? Do
Byzantine Empire. Etymology – этимология, you have to travel a lot for your work?
происхождение medieval state- S.: Yes, I do. P.: Are you here on holiday
средневековое государство adjacent – or is it a business trip? S.: It’s a
прилегающий, смежный, соседний. business trip, but I’m staying with my
11Geography Russia is the largest brother’s family and that’s almost like a
country in the world; its total area is holiday.
17, 125, 187 square kilometres. Most of 34Getting to know you. P.: Do you have a
Russia consists of vast stretches of family? S.: Yes, I do. I have two sons.
plains that are predominantly steppe to And what about you? P.: I have a son and a
the south and heavily forested to the daughter. S.: That’s nice. What does your
north, with tundra along the northern wife do? P.: She teaches French and
coast. English. S.: Oh, really? You should come
12Russia possesses 10% of the world's to Paris some time. How old are your
arable land. Mountain ranges are found children? P.: Barbara is five and Mark
along the southern borders, such as the seven. What’s your husband’s job? You
Caucasus (containing Mount Elbrus, which travel a lot, so it must be difficult for
at 5,642 m is the highest point in both him. S.: He works at home quite a lot. He
Russia and Europe) and the Altai is a computer specialist.
(containing Mount Belukha, which at the 35Getting to know you. Yvonne: Hi, Joan!
4,506 m is the highest point of Asian How are you? And how is your family? Joan:
Russia); and in the eastern parts, such as We are all fine, thanks. Y.: Have you
the Verkhoyansk Range or the volcanoes on moved to the new house yet? J.: Oh, yes,
Kamchatka. The Ural Mountains, rich in we have. We moved last month. Y.: And how
mineral resources, form a north-south do you like living there – in that small
range that divides Europe and Asia. village? J.: We just love it. The children
13Russia has an extensive coastline of are so happy there. Y.: I’m sure they are.
over 37,000 km along the Arctic and Where do you work now? J.: I don’t work.
Pacific Oceans, as well as along the I’m a housewife now!
Baltic Sea, Sea of Azov, Black Sea and 36airport checking in. A.: Can I have
Caspian Sea. The Barents Sea, White Sea, your ticket and passport, please? B.: Yes,
Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian Sea, of course. A.: Thank you. How many
Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, suitcases have you got? B.: Just one. A.:
and the Sea of Japan are linked to Russia And have you got much hand luggage? B.:
via the Arctic and Pacific. Russia's major Just this bag. A.: That’s fine. B.: Oh…
islands and archipelagos include Novaya Can I have a seat next to the window? A.:
Zemlya, the Franz Josef Land, the Yes, that’s OK. Here’s your boarding pass.
Severnaya Zemlya, the New Siberian Have a nice flight!
Islands, Wrangel Island, the Kuril 37PASSPORT CONTROL. Good afternoon,
Islands, and Sakhalin. The Diomede Islands Madam. Can I see your passport, please?
(one controlled by Russia, the other by Yes, Of course. And your landing card,
the United States) are just 3 km apart, please. Here you are. How long are you
and Kunashir Island is about 20 km from staying in this country? Just for five
Hokkaid?, Japan. days. Is it a business trip? Not really.
14Russia has thousands of rivers and I’m meeting my husband who is here on
inland bodies of water providing it with business. I see. Have a nice stay. Thank
one of the world’s largest surface water you.
resources. The largest and most prominent 38AFTER THE FLIGHT. Dymov: Good morning,
of Russia's bodies of fresh water is Lake Mr. Mennon. Mennon: Hello, Mr. Dymov. D.:
Baikal, the world's deepest, purest, Did you have a good flight? M.: Yes, on
oldest and most capacious freshwater lake. the whole it was quite fine. D.: The car
Baikal alone contains over one fifth of is waiting for us. Shall we go? M.: Yes,
the world's fresh surface water. Other of course. D.: The program of your stay in
major lakes include Lake Ladoga and Lake our city is quite intensive. We’ve got a
Onega, two of the largest lakes in Europe. lot of sites to visit. M.: Yes, I would
Russia is second only to Brazil in volume like to see as many places of interest as
of the total renewable water resources. Of possible. I have never had a chance to
the country's 100,000 rivers, the Volga is visit your city. D.: Then maybe you’d like
the most famous, not only because it is to have a sightseeing tour about the city
the longest river in Europe, but also right after lunch? M.: Yes, why not. I’ve
because of its major role in Russian heard a lot about the Kremlin. D.: We will
history. visit it. I’m sure you won’t be
15According to the Constitution of disappointed. Here is our car. M.: Fine.
Russia, the country is a federation and 39Getting a taxi. A.: Excuse me. Can you
semi-presidential republic, wherein the tell me where to get a taxi to the town
President is the head of state and the centre? C.: Yes, it’s easy. Go outside the
Prime Minister is the head of government. building and there’s a taxi rank there.
The Russian Federation is fundamentally A.: Thank you very much. C.: But if you’re
structured as a representative democracy, going to the centre, it is better to go by
with the federal government composed of underground. It takes only 15 minutes. By
three branches: Legislative :The bicameral taxi it might take about half an hour;
Federal Assembly, made up of the State there is a lot of traffic. A.: I see. But
Duma and the Federation Council. I have a lot of luggage and I can’t carry
Executive: The President and the it. C.: Oh yes, then a taxi is much better
Government. The system of federal bodies for you. A.: Thank you for your help. C.:
of the executive branch includes federal That’s all right. Have a nice stay in
ministries, services and agencies. town.
Judicial: The Constitutional Court, 40Getting a taxi. A.: Can you take me to
Supreme Court, Supreme Court of Piccadilly, please? B.: Yes. Which number?
Arbitration and lower federal courts. A.: It’s 151. B.: All right. Do you have
16 any luggage? A.: Yes. The big suitcase and
17 the red bag. B.: OK. I’ll put them in the
18The Russian Federation comprises 85 back. A.: Thank you. How long does it take
federal subjects. These subjects have to get to Piccadilly? B.: It depends on
equal representation — two delegates each the traffic. But usually about 40 minutes.
— in the Federation Council. However, they A.: OK. Please hurry – I’m in a rush.
differ in the degree of autonomy they 41Getting a taxi. A.: Yes, madam? B.:
enjoy. 46 oblasts (provinces): the most Can you take me to the Regent Hotel? A.:
common type of federal subjects, with Yes. But which Regent Hotel? There are two
federally appointed governor and locally Regent Hotels in this town. B.: Oh really?
elected legislature. 22 republics: This one is in the High Street. A.: OK, no
nominally autonomous; each has its own problem. Do you have any luggage? B.: Yes,
constitution, president, and parliament. this suitcase. A.: Fine, I’ll put it in
Republics are allowed to establish their the back. B.: Thank you. How long does it
own official language alongside Russian take to get to the town centre? I’m in a
but are represented by the federal rush. A.: Don’t worry, madam, we’ll be
government in international affairs. there in about 30 minutes. B.: OK.
Republics are meant to be home to specific 42I do He does. I am doing You are doing
ethnic minorities. 9 krais (territories): He is doing. I have done He has done. I
essentially the same as oblasts. The have been doing He has been doing. I did.
"territory" designation is I was doing You were doing. I had done. I
historic, originally given to frontier had been doing. I shall do You will do. I
regions and later also to administrative shall be doing You will be doing. I shall
divisions that comprised autonomous okrugs have done You will have done. I shall have
or autonomous oblasts. been doing You will have been doing.
194 autonomous okrugs (autonomous Времена английского глагола Действительный
districts): originally autonomous entities залог. SIMPLE. CONTINUOUS. PERFECT.
within oblasts and krais created for PERFECT CONTINUOUS. PRESENT. PAST. FUTURE.
ethnic minorities, their status was 43Поставьте глаголы в скобках в
elevated to that of federal subjects in указанные временные формы: We (to learn)
the 1990s. With the exception of Chukotka grammar rules every day. (Present Simple)
Autonomous Okrug, all autonomous okrugs Peter (to buy) some white and brown bread.
are still administratively subordinated to (Past Simple) The children (to come) to
a krai or an oblast of which they are a school again. (Future Simple) My sister
part. 1 autonomous oblast (the Jewish (to watch) TV now. (Present Continuous)
Autonomous Oblast): originally autonomous Peter and John (to play) chess when I came
oblasts were administrative units back from college. (Past Continuous) He
subordinated to krais. In 1990, all of (to write) to her next week. (Future
them except the Jewish AO were elevated in Continuous) He (to be) very busy for the
status to that of a republic. 3 federal last two days. (Present Perfect) I (to
cities (Moscow, St. Petersburg and stay) here for a month. (Present Perfect
Sevastopol): major cities that function as Continuous) He thought that he (to sign)
separate regions. already the letters. (Past Perfect).
20Moscow. Moscow, the capital of Russia 44Ann (translate) a lot of foreign
is located on the river Moskva in the letters at the office last week. They
western region of Russia. Russian (finish) work at 5 o'clock the day before
contrasts are more present here than in yesterday. This engineer (work) with me. I
any other city in Russia. Ancient often (do) my homework with her. The
monasteries and ultra-modern monoliths teacher usually (give) us a lot of
stand side by side and the new Russian homework. Your sister (give) me a very
millionaires and the poor pensioners walk interesting book to read last week. A lot
side by side in the same streets. The of students (go) to college every year.
Kremlin stands in the very heart of Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в
Moscow. Facts about Moscow Area: over нужном времени:
1,091 sq km Location: European part of 45I often (meet) this engineer here. We
Russian Federation, between the Oka and (live) in Minsk seven years ago. Ann's
the Volga Rivers, on the Moskva River. children (be) in hospital last week. When
Population: approx 10,407,000 (2005 est.) the phone rang I (have) coffee in the
Foundation: 1147, by Duke Yuri Dolgorukiy kitchen. I can’t go out because I (not
Climate: The climate varies from intensely finish) my work yet. Yesterday I (to meet)
cold winters to swelteringly hot summers. a friend of mine whom I (not to see) for a
Major attractions: Kremlin, Red Square, long time. The students (to write) the
St. Basil's Cathedral, Poklonnaya test by dinnertime. Раскройте скобки,
Mountain, Cathedral of Christ the Savior. употребляя глаголы в нужном времени:
21The Kremlin is surrounded by a 46The message (to arrive) five minutes
beautiful residential district that is after he (to leave) the house. He (to
known as the Bely Gorod or the White Town. read) a book at five o’clock yesterday.
The Bely Gorod was the very heart of the Yesterday the children (to do) all their
city during the sixteenth century, and homework before mother (to come) home.
even today it has a strongly medieval Nick (to do) his homework by 7 o’clock
feel. Moscow is also well known as the yesterday. … you (to help) your father
site of the Saint Basil's Cathedral, with tomorrow? I (not to see) you for ages! You
its elegant onion domes. The Patriarch of (to be) busy at work? – I (to have) an
Moscow, whose residence is the Danilov awful week, you (to know). … your mother
Monastery, serves as the head of the (to return) from work? Can I speak to her?
Russian Orthodox Church. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в
22Red Square is Russia's Glorious нужном времени:
Heritage. Contrary to popular belief, Red 47He (to learn) English before he (to
Square received its name through the go) to the USA. What film you (see)
Russian word for “red”, which centuries lately? - I (see) "Hamlet" last
ago meant “beautiful”, and not due to a Saturday. We haven't signed contracts with
communist symbol or the red Kremlin walls. Barton & Co since we (do) business
Red Square came into being during the with them last year. When I (see) that man
reign of Ivan III at the end of the 15th last night I (think) that I (meet) him
century. Named after the Trinity before. When we came to the station the
Cathedral, the Red Square was formerly train already (leave) and we (have) to
known as Trinity Square, and is believed wait for the next train for an hour. Mr.
to only have had the name changed at the Nikolayev said that we (not to be) to give
end of the 17th century. St Basil’s the final answer to the firm that day. The
Cathedral is now located in the site where first lot of chemical equipment (arrive)
Trinity Cathedral once stood. St Basil’s yet? – Not yet, we (receive) a cable from
Cathedral is situated along side the the port that the goods (arrive) on the
eastern wall of the Kremlin, with its 20th of December. Раскройте скобки,
spiraling bright colored onion domes. Also употребляя глаголы в нужном времени:
located around Red Sqaure, is the Kazan 48A lot of people travel for pleasure or
Cathedral, Russia’s National Museum, the on business today. Before they go on a
GUM department store and the 1990 replica trip they read something about the place
of the Resurrection Gate. During the reign they are going to or speak to those people
of Peter the Great and Ivan the Terrible, who have been there. Some people are
Red Square was used for public executions, interested in art, and they visit picture
and on the Red Square platform named galleries and museums. Others are fond of
Lobnoye Mesto, the Tsar would sometimes historical buildings and monuments. There
address the people. are people who prefer different
23When Peter the Great moved to St exhibitions, shows, sport events, etc.
Petersburg in 1712, Red Square became Задайте 5 вопросов к данному тексту:
dormant as Moscow was no longer the 49Согласование времен sequence of
Russian capital. The new communist regime, tenses. В английском языке употребление
the Bolsheviks, moved the capital back to времени глагола-сказуемого в придаточном
Moscow in 1918, and turned Red Square into предложении зависит от времени
a parade ground and a memorial cemetery. глагола-сказуемого в главном предложении.
The Lenin Mausoleum was built in 1924, Это называется правилом согласования
where the embalmed body of the communist времен. Правило согласования времен
founder was laid to rest. The new заключается в следующем: Если в главном
communist regime was focused on the goals предложении глагол-сказуемое стоит в одной
on the Soviet, and saw no space for the из форм настоящего или будущего времени,
historical Kazan Cathedral or the то глагол-сказуемое в придаточном
Iverskaya Chapel with the Resurrection предложении может стоять в любой временной
Gates, and destroyed these buildings to форме, которая требуется по смыслу: Не
make space for demonstrations and military says that he was busy yesterday. Он
parades. The GUM Department Store and говорит, что был занят вчера. Не says that
Historical Museum were also in line for he will be busy tomorrow. Он говорит, что
destruction, but the outbreak of World War будет занят завтра. Не says that he is
II saved the buildings, as attention was busy. Он говорит, что занят.
diverted to the war effort. 50Если в главном предложении
24Red Square was home to many military глагол-сказуемое стоит в одной из форм
parades but most significant was the прошедшего времени, то в придаточном
parade on 7 November 1941. Nazi troops предложении глагол-сказуемое нужно
were advancing on the Moscow capital, and употреблять также в одной из форм
the Russian soldiers paraded on the square прошедшего, а именно: a. Если действие
and marched off to lines to defend the придаточного предложения происходит
capital. This action lifted the spirit of одновременно с действием главного
the Soviet people and renewed their предложения, то в придаточном предложении
confidence in the war. Hundreds of Soviet употребляется глагол в одной из форм
troops again filled the square in June прошедшего неопределенного или прошедшего
1945, but this time it was to celebrate продолженного времени: Не told me that he
their victory over the Nazis and German studied here. Он сказал мне, что учится
banners were thrown down in front of здесь. She said she was preparing for a
Lenin’s Mausoleum. Red Square is report. Она сказала, что готовится к
surrounded by history and beauty, which докладу.
provides education and endless attractions 51b. Если действие придаточного
for the visitor. предложения предшествует действию главного
25Saint Petersburg. Saint Petersburg is предложения, то в придаточном предложении
a very young city compared to old European употребляется глагол в одной из форм
capitals and, probably, the only city in прошедшего совершенного времени: The
the world that has acquired so much rector said that the Moscow Higher Women's
historic significance in such a short Courses had been reorganized into the
time. It was founded in 1703 as an outlet Second Moscow State University. Ректор
to the sea, which was very important for сказал, что Московские высшие женские
Russia's future development from both курсы были преобразованы во Второй
strategic and economical points of view. Московский Государственный Университет.
Facts about St.Petersburg Area: 606 sq km 52c. Если действие придаточного
Location: Located at the mouth of the Neva предложения относится к будущему времени,
River and across the islands of its delta а в главном действие относится к
on the coast of the Finnish Gulf. прошедшему, то глагол-сказуемое должен
Population: approx 4,600,000 (2005 est.) стоять в Future-in-the-Past. Форма
Foundation: May 1703, by Peter the Great Future-in-the-Past образуется от
Climate: The climate is intermediate (from соответствующих форм Future Tenses, но
nautical to continental). The average вместо вспомогательного глагола shall
temperature in July is +18 C, in February употребляется should, а вместо
-8 C. Major attractions: Hermitage, Winter вспомогательного глагола will - would: I
Palace, St Isaac Cathedral, Savior on the thought I should know the way this time. Я
Blood, Alexander Nevsky Lavra. думал, что на этот раз я узнаю дорогу.
26Saint Petersburg was considered to be 53В следующих случаях правило
"a key for paradise" for the согласования времен не соблюдается, т.е.
Russian Empire, so the city's name is very независимо от временной формы
symbolic: it was called in honor of Saint глагола-сказуемого в главном предложении в
Peter, who, as we know from the Holy придаточном предложении глагол-сказуемое
Bible, was a keeper of the keys from the употребляется в любой временной форме,
paradise. Saint Petersburg today is one of которая требуется по смыслу: a. Если в
the most important cultural, scientific состав сказуемого в придаточном
and industrial cities in Russia, housing предложении входит один из следующих
several hundred of museums and exhibition модальных глаголов: must, ought to,
halls. Great Russian and foreign artists, should: I knew that he must come to the
poets, writers and composers admired the Academy by 3 o'clock. Я знал, что он
beauty of Saint Petersburg and должен прийти в академию к 3 часам. b.
commemorated it in their works. Если в придаточном предложении сообщается
27Yekaterinburg. The most important city об общеизвестном факте или неопровержимой
in central Russia, Yekaterinburg is also истине: The teacher told the pupils that
the fifth largest in terms of population. Novosibirsk stands on the both banks of
It was known as Sverdlovsk in the Soviet the river Ob. Учитель рассказал ученикам,
era. In addition to the city’s historical что Новосибирск расположен на обоих
significance, Yekaterinburg yields an берегах реки Обь.
abundance of cultural Attractions as well. 54c. В придаточных определительных
The city is recognized throughout Russia предложениях и в предложениях, вводимых
for excellent theatres, with the Academic союзными словами as (как, в качестве),
Ballet and Opera, Kolyada and Dramatic than (чем): It was not so cold yesterday
Theatre primary among them. Facts about as it is today. Вчера не было так холодно,
Yekaterinburg Area: more than 400,00 sq km как сегодня. d. Если действие придаточного
Location: The capital of Sverdlovskaya предложения предшествует действию главного
oblast, middle Urals, Russian Federation, предложения, и время действия придаточного
Yekaterinburg is situated right on the предложения указано точно: I knew that she
border between Europe and Asia. left Moscow in 1945. Я знала, что она
Population: approx 1,304,000 (2005 est.) уехала из Москвы в 1945 году. Но: I knew
Foundation: 1723 Climate: Yekaterinburg is that she had left Moscow some years ago. Я
far away from Atlantics and close to знала, что она уехала из Москвы несколько
Siberia, so the climate here is лет назад.
continental. In Yekaterinburg winters are 55Translate from Russian into English.
cold and long, and summers are quite warm. Он сказал мне вчера, что его отец –
The coldest month is January, when average профессор и живет в Москве. Я знал, что
temperature reaches -16 -17 C. The warmest моя сестра изучает французский язык, и
month is July with the average temperature думал, что она поедет в Париж. Учитель
of 18 C Major attractions: Ipatiev House, сказал, что наши друзья прислали письмо из
Cathedral on the Blood, Opera House, Лондона. Мы боялись, что не купим билет в
Europe-Asia border obelisk. театр. Чем занимается твой брат? – Он
28Yekaterinburg. Yekaterinburg or работает в институте. – А что он сейчас
(Ekaterinburg), located at the crossroads делает? – Он читает газету. Я всегда
of two continents - Europe and Asia, is приношу ему газеты. Когда я проснулся,
the capital of the Sverdlovsk region and мама уже встала и готовила чай. Когда он
the administrative center of the Ural пришел, мы уже ушли домой. Я не приду. Я
district. It was founded under Peter the буду писать сочинение весь вечер. Они
Great as the largest metallurgical plant живут в этом доме уже пять лет.
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