Тексты на английском
<<  Environmental Issues Affecting the Pantanal: How to Solve Them The Role of Public Policy in Protecting Children from Violence  >>
V. CATEGORISATION OF INDICATORS USED FOR EU POLICY
V. CATEGORISATION OF INDICATORS USED FOR EU POLICY
Картинки из презентации «SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY - THE ROLE OF ST INDICATORS» к уроку английского языка на тему «Тексты на английском»

Автор: GCS. Чтобы познакомиться с картинкой полного размера, нажмите на её эскиз. Чтобы можно было использовать все картинки для урока английского языка, скачайте бесплатно презентацию «SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY - THE ROLE OF ST INDICATORS.ppt» со всеми картинками в zip-архиве размером 219 КБ.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY - THE ROLE OF ST INDICATORS

содержание презентации «SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY - THE ROLE OF ST INDICATORS.ppt»
Сл Текст Сл Текст
1SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY - THE 13Science and Technology Indicators (STI).
ROLE OF S&T INDICATORS. Nabiel Saleh 14III. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INDICATORS
National Research Centre Cairo – Egypt (STI). Scientific and technological
Cairo – Egypt 28-30 September 2009. activities in most LDCs have not arisen
2SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY - THE from an organic relationship with economic
ROLE OF S&T INDICATORS. CONTENTS I- and social processes. Thus, the main goal
GLOBAL BACKGROUND II- SCIENCE AND of the new policies must be to overcome
TECHNOLOGY POLICY (STP) III- SCIENCE AND division and to be ‘connected’.
TECHNOLOGY INDICATORS (STI) IV- STI: 15III. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INDICATORS
SETTING PRIORITIES V- CATEGORISATION OF (STI). Any effort to formulate and use STI
INDICATORS USED FOR EU POLICY VI- must take into account that lack of
CONCLUSIONS. articulation and other limitations such as
3I. GLOBAL BACKGROUND. • One of the week links between R&D institutions
main causes of the rapid, profound and and the higher education system on the one
generalized changes that humanity has hand, and the productive sector on the
experienced in the last three decades is other will frequently lead to decreasing
the closer and organic relationship academic excellence levels and scarce
between scientific development, availability of reliable information.
technological improvements and their 16III. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INDICATORS
application in the production, (STI). - Given the current limitations,
distribution and consumption of goods and can we appropriately measure scientific
services. and technological activities in LDCs ? -
4I. GLOBAL BACKGROUND. • In the world Under what theoretical and methodological
economy there is a globalization of assumptions should the measurement be
markets, characterized by an increasing made, so that they can be used as a policy
competition which leads to look for new and management instrument ? - How should
technologies based on scientific the contribution of scientific and
knowledge. The incorporation of these technological activities to economic and
technologies to the production system social development and to production be
allows to reduce costs, improve quality, measured?
save energy and scarce raw materials as 17III. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INDICATORS
well as to increase the productivity of (STI). - How much money should be invested
the labour force. in science and technology? and in what ? -
5I. GLOBAL BACKGROUND. • In the last How to know the capacity of response of
decade the international economy has science and technology vis-?-vis the
experienced structural changes derived demand, and how to evaluate its possible
from, inter alia, strong waves of contribution to the fulfilment of
technological innovation as well as society’s basic and productive needs ? -
organizational and institutional changes. What type of indicators should be used
The most dynamic sectors of economy are regarding scientific and technological
not the traditional ones any more (steel, activities (STA) in LDCs : - STA input
cement, basic chemistry etc.), but the indicators - STA output indicators - STA
high-technology ones (knowledge innovation indicators - STA social impact
intensive). The current processes of indicators.
industrial restructuring and of changes in 18III. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INDICATORS
technological patterns revolve around the (STI). The basic characteristics of
information industries (microelectronics traditional approaches are: a- The purpose
and telecommunications), and increasingly, of simultaneously establishing a national
biotechnology. system of S&T Indicators. b- In
6II. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY keeping with international standards, a
(STP). General 1. It is evident that such set of statistics and indicators should be
features impose the need to formulate set up. c- Methodologies applied
Science, Technology and Innovation Policy internationally (UIS) should be followed.
(STIP) which is much more linked to the d- Measurable statistics and indicators
rest of public policies than in the past. should refer to: - R&D activities, -
Policy loses some of the rhetorical S&T inputs, measured in terms of human
contents it used to have and becomes more and financial resources, and - Innovation
practical. activities.
7II. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY 19III. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INDICATORS
(STP). 2. It could be argued that in the (STI). Indicators based on the experience
past 30-40 years there has been a of industrialized countries may not help
fundamental change concerning the LDCs to define national or sectoral
strategies and mechanisms for the S&T objectives, determine and organize
institutionalisation of S&T in many scientific and technological activities,
LDCs. This is expressed at three levels: promote technological innovation
policies and strategies , institutional processes, or define the most important
and legal mechanisms, and globalisation areas for human development. It seems fair
and regional integration. to recognize that, in spite of the
8II. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY above-mentioned limitations, standard
(STP). Changes and trends in policies and methodologies have been used by LDCs to
strategies 1. From the restricted autonomy analyze or justify the planning, financing
‘Science and technology policy’ to the and management of S&T activities.
modernization ‘Innovation policy’. The However, there is an urgent need to
State has practically abandoned the increase our body of knowledge concerning
pretension of an endogenous scientific and activities and processes of scientific and
technological development, of relative technological development.
autonomy, and has replaced it with a 20III. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INDICATORS
modernization policy of the State. At a (STI). LDCs need to go beyond conventional
purely formal level an ‘innovation policy’ input and output indicators and improve
is postulated, although the institutions the understanding and measurement of their
responsible for implementing it (science specific scientific and technological
and technology councils, industry and capacities. They must develop fundamentals
other end users) in general do not have that reflect, as specifically as possible,
the political weight nor the instruments, the nature, the distinctive elements, the
and above all, do not have the financial dynamics and the magnitude of local
resources which would be required to scientific and technological activities.
implement the said policy. Analysis and measurement categories must
9II. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY reflect the main problems, and the
(STP). 2. From the emphasis in R&D critical gaps of scientific and
supply and social demand to the emphasis technological development. At the same
in productive market demands time, this may lead to relevant
(technological research and technical information systems that contribute in an
services). Slowly, the institutional, effective way to the analysis of national
academic and researchers’ genuine concern science and technology problems, to
in dealing with research problems of decision making and to the allocation of
national, social and environmental resources.
interest is left behind, replaced by 21III. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INDICATORS
market considerations. Additionally, there (STI). The first priority should be the
has been the pressure of productivity and analysis of endogenous scientific research
competitiveness, the ‘dynamic duet’ projects and the study of local
(always present in the official technological innovation processes and
discourse), of profitability, of the technical capabilities. The second
provision of services, and the short-term priority would be the formulation and use
concerns (in contradiction with the of indicators based on tangible
long-term horizon of research and interrelationships and products.
high-level education). 22III. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INDICATORS
10II. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY (STI). Some operational strategy issues
(STP). 3. From traditional R&D that could be taken into account: - There
management and the routine assignment of are no role models for LDC’s. - There is a
resources, to efficient R&D need to dynamically interact with diverse
management, performance evaluation, and social systems of knowledge, production
links with productive units. Traditionally and management. - The development and use
there was no evaluation and accountability of ‘genuine’ national, relevant, and
mechanisms, which brought about a high significant indicators - They should
degree of inefficiency and low actively participate in and contribute to
productivity. Gradually, efficient the discussion, formulation and
management, evaluation and quality establishment of international S&T
assurance mechanisms have been introduced, indicators.
both in R&D centres (and research 23III. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY INDICATORS
projects) and in Higher Education (STI). Finally, it is important to bear in
programmes. mind that what is required is not a
11II. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY complex and elaborate system of STI, but a
(STP). 4. From the promotional and compact system that is flexible, and
participative role of the State in R&D reasonably easy to periodically update
to the illusion of organizing a national (approximately every 2-3 years). A system
innovation system (NIS). Far from a that is based on real players, on dynamic
widespread belief, empirical evidence does institutions, and that efficiently uses
not show the existence and operation of a the growing opportunities offered by
NIS in LDCs apart from some embryonic databases and information networks.
signs, it is hard to argue about the 24IV. STI: SETTING PRIORITIES. 1.
functioning of a network of institutions, Science and Technology Statistics and
resources, of interactions and Indicators for policy, decision-making and
interrelationships, of policy mechanisms resource-allocation, explicitly including
and instruments and of scientific and R&D, Higher-Education, S&T
technological activities that promote, popularisation activities and the gender
co-ordinate and carry out technological dimension 2. National and international
innovation and diffusion processes in high quality data collection,
society. dissemination and access.
12II. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY 25IV. STI: SETTING PRIORITIES. 3.
(STP). 5. From the absence of evaluation Technical capacity building, including
and quality control in Higher Education to quality assurance methods 4. Analysis and
academic evaluation and accreditation [sub-regional/regional] prospective
processes. Historically, universities and studies 5. Identification of areas
research activities have not been regarding methodological development.
evaluated, and there has been no 26IV. STI: SETTING PRIORITIES. 6.
‘evaluation culture’. In recent years an Establishing/strengthening relationships
evaluation pattern seems to have emerged with S&T top decision-making
in Higher Education institutions, where a institutions [national councils for
shift is starting to take place: from S&T (R&D), R&D organisations
(bureaucratic) planning and programming and university (R&D)] 7. Strengthening
trends to productivity (performance); from R&D [public and private], S&T
inputs and processes to outputs and specialized regional [and international]
results; and from databases, directories and web-pages 8.
bureaucratic-administrative control to the STI Institutional capacity building:
evaluation of multiple actors. developing regional training programmes on
13II. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY S&T indicators.
(STP). Conclusion Decision makers require 27V. CATEGORISATION OF INDICATORS USED
guidelines that enable to assess results FOR EU POLICY.
and effectiveness of the adopted policies. 28VI. CONCLUSIONS. Establishment of
If management of and programmes are to be S&T Statistics and Indicators
efficient, there needs to be indicators Establishment of National S&T
that show the available resources, the Policy/Strategies AN EFFECTIVE &
processes involved and the results VIABLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM.
obtained. Hence focusing attention on 29THANK YOU.
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY - THE ROLE OF ST INDICATORS.ppt
http://900igr.net/kartinka/anglijskij-jazyk/science-and-technology-policy-the-role-of-st-indicators-105458.html
cсылка на страницу

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY - THE ROLE OF ST INDICATORS

другие презентации на тему «SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY - THE ROLE OF ST INDICATORS»

«The english-speaking countries» - USA. Disneyland. Scotland. Australia. Great Britain. The English-speaking countries.

«Женщина the woman» - A woman’s tongue wags like a lamb’s tail. « Der mann»- нем. Наименование молодой девушки в современном английском языке. Баба слезами беде помогает. 9 семантических подгрупп, характеризующих женщин по: The wife is the key to the house. Холостому помогай боже, а женатому хозяйка поможет. Бабий язык, куда ни завались, достанет.

«The green movement» - National offices Green Peace are opened in 43 countries of the world as the independent units working over achievement of the purposes of the national projects. Green color which is used by participants of movement as the general emblem, serves as a symbol of the nature, hope and updating. Their features.

«The animals» - BISON. PARROT. GORILLA. PENGUIN. EMU. The animals which live in the desert. The animals which live in the polar regions. KOALA. LION. TIGER. KANGAROO. BOBCAT. SNAKE. The animals which live in the OCEAN. ELEPHANT. WHALE. FOX. ZEBRA. BEAR. SEAL. REINDEER. HIPPO. SQUIRREL. SCORPIO. The animals which live in the forest.

«Painting» - Sunny Day, 1876. The golden Plyos. Water lilies 1895. A Rye Field. Ivan Konstantino- vich Aivazovsky. Another beautiful canvas of Levitan is "The golden Plyos". March. View of Tiflis. But we can feel something strange, which makes us happier. It has peaceful and harmonic coloring. Over Eternal Peace, 1894.

«Healthy lifestyle» - Sign your child up for activities that keep them active! volleyball. Basketball, Gymnastics. football. Ways to exercise(способы тренироваться). To be healthy you are to know some tips: Попытайтесь развить положительные чувства. Living a Healthy Lifestyle. (Ведение здорового образа жизни.). To take drugs (принимать наркотики).

Тексты на английском

46 презентаций о текстах на английском
Урок

Английский язык

29 тем
Картинки