Курсы английского
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Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics
Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics
Employment schematic
Employment schematic
Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics
Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics
Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics
Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics
Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics
Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics
London 2012
London 2012
Source: London2012
Source: London2012
Source: London2012
Source: London2012
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Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics Tracy Kornblatt Centre for Cities at ippr

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1Setting the Bar: A review of the 16pressure from the Games has an impact on
developmental role of the Olympics Tracy the way political agents work with each
Kornblatt Centre for Cities at ippr 22 other and the community Can unite, or
January 2007. divide, and have lasting impacts Political
2About the Centre. Economic focus: not red tape on projects is often averted –
enough research on the economics of urban which can be a good or bad thing Political
regeneration – we aim to fill this leaders become a part of the image of the
knowledge gap Comparative context: using Games.
lessons and sharing best practises from 17Social Impacts. The Games have had the
the U.S., Canada, and Europe Inform, power to uproot, unite, improve, and
connect: feedback our findings to local destroy neighbourhoods in the host city
officials, Whitehall, private sector Often efforts to hide ‘blemishes’
stakeholders. Convene together and further Enhancing civic pride – both locally and
the dialogue. nationally – Atkinson et al 2006
3Outline. Why am I here? Background Health/sport impact?
behind the Games as economic development 18
catalysts Framework for thinking about the 19Example: Atlanta. Political cohesion:
impacts London 2012 Questions for already racially-charge politics became
discussion. even more polarised Politicians were seen
4 to be working more with the business
5Background – Games as Economic community and not enough with residents
Development Catalysts. Games are growing Social impacts: low-income housing
in bid popularity Since 1984, steady decreased – displacement impacts While
increase in the number of bids, the cost upper-income neighbourhoods were able to
involved, and the profile of cities successfully move a venue out of their
bidding Common theme of ‘economic community, lower income neighbourhoods
development’ Bidding cities operating were unable to do the same.
under an “unquestioned assumption that the 20Image impacts. The Olympics attract
Games will bring economic and social larger television audiences than anything
benefits to those who host them” (Burstyn, else except “unscheduled accidents”
2000). But the evidence is mixed. (Tomlinson, 2000) Image carries great risk
6Although most people are familiar with and reward possibilities Smaller cities
the ‘Barcelona effect,’ there are other may have more to gain, more prominent
important host stories. 1960: Rome First cities may have more to risk Business
‘big’ Games: airport, roads, street investment gains, tourism gains – but not
lighting 1972: Munich Public debt; always.
negative image, infrastructure 1976: 21
Montreal Serious public debt: finally paid 22Sydney. Put Sydney – and Australia --
off in 2006 1984: Los Angeles Landmark on the map Particular investment in image:
profit, little infrastructure. worldwide ad campaigns, time with media
71992 Barcelona Large-scale public Increase in convention bookings and
investment; put on the map 1996 Atlanta tourism (actual impact is difficult to
‘Coca-cola Games’, temporary venues 2000 estimate with Sept. 11 impact) (Chalip,
Sydney Image success, development 2002) Increase in international businesses
disappointment 2004 Athens Early to tell, opening an office in Sydney Low US
but some image issues. viewership.
8Difficulties assessing the impact of 23London 2012. Source: BBC.
the Games. Infrequent, unique – attempting 24Source: London2012.com.
different things International contexts 25London 2012. London 2012 Games
Most reporting is ‘official’ coordinated with the Lower Lea Valley
Counterfactual is difficult to assess redevelopment 4 of London’s most deprived
‘Soft’ impacts that are difficult to boroughs: Hackney, Tower Hamlets, Waltham
quantify. Forest, and Newham Costs: ?2bn operating
9Key impacts the Games can have on costs; ?3.3bn in infrastructure Employment
economic development. Short term economic impact: (2005-2016): 8,000 jobs NE London,
stimulus Infrastructure Political cohesion 39,000 Greater London, 8,000 jobs UK
Social impacts Image impacts. (Blake 2005).
10Short-term economic stimulus. Year. 26Promoted benefits. London 2012
Games Site. Estimated Employment. Source. predicts impacts (UK-wide): in business,
Geography. 1992. Barcelona. 296,640 jobs. tourism, culture, volunteering, sport
Brunet, in Blake, 2005. Spain. 1996. Additional London benefits: local
Atlanta. 24,742 FT/PT jobs 77,026 jobs. employment?, boost to Lower Lea Valley
Baade and Matheson Humphreys and Plummer. Regeneration, housing, athletic
Atlanta. 2000. Sydney. 5,300 jobs each facilities, public park, transport
year in 12-year Games period. Madden. New improvements, long-term employment Each
South Wales. Regional Development Agency has been
11Employment schematic. Source: Preuss, working on strategies to capitalise on
1978 in Preuss 1998. Olympic impacts.
12Employment continued… Most employment 27Setting the Bar: Lessons for London.
is in the construction and Keep expectations, pressures reasonable
hospitality/services sectors Most jobs are Jobs will be mostly in greater London, but
short-term, some entry-level Very maybe not so local Benefits of the Games
different depending on the level of will be mostly in greater London Soft
secondary infrastructure Consider where benefits – civic pride, social impacts
the investment is coming from – should not be overlooked Costs should be
public/private? Areas where longer-term updated and clarified.
benefits can accrue: Expansion in tourism 28Closing Thoughts. Although perceived
and construction sectors ‘Alien industry’. as a development dream, the Games are
13Infrastructure. The ideal is to risky and the impacts are not clear-cut
pull-forward investment that matches with Difficult to compare – evidence base is
post-Games demand This can be a thin Many studies on impacts are not
substantial benefit, but also risky reliable A broader range of impacts needs
Minimise investment in Games-only consideration There are benefits, but it’s
structures Temporary venues Use of not a windfall, so host cities have to
dedicated roads and busses. match investments with post-games
14 priorities, manage risk, and think
15Example: Barcelona. Unique context: carefully before bidding.
decades of under-investment in urban 29Questions for Discussion. Are cities
infrastructure Had an existing GMP plan bidding for economic development reasons,
(1976) of investments they wanted to make or political reasons. Or something else?
Used the Games to pull forward large-scale Are the Games worth the risks? For what
infrastructure projects: Ring road, new cities might bidding be best? Have the
city centre roads, traffic management Games become too big? What now? What more
system, airport expansion, can London/the UK do to maximise the
telecommunications facilities, waterfront benefits of the Games?
redevelopment, housing, renewal of parks 30questions/comments?
and squares all over the city. t.kornblatt@ippr.org
16Political cohesion. Sudden, unique www.ippr.org/centreforcities.
Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics Tracy Kornblatt Centre for Cities at ippr.ppt
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Setting the Bar: A review of the developmental role of the Olympics Tracy Kornblatt Centre for Cities at ippr

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