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Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
Natural Selection = only mechanism that gives consistent Adaptive
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
What are the 2 main causes of genetic variation
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
5 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
How we get the 2 equations
How we get the 2 equations
Essential knowledge 1.A.1: Natural selection is a major mechanism of
Essential knowledge 1.A.1: Natural selection is a major mechanism of
Essential knowledge 1.A.1: Natural selection is a major mechanism of
Essential knowledge 1.A.1: Natural selection is a major mechanism of
Essential knowledge 1.A.1: Natural selection is a major mechanism of
Essential knowledge 1.A.1: Natural selection is a major mechanism of
e. An adaptation is a genetic variation that is favored by selection
e. An adaptation is a genetic variation that is favored by selection
e. An adaptation is a genetic variation that is favored by selection
e. An adaptation is a genetic variation that is favored by selection
e. An adaptation is a genetic variation that is favored by selection
e. An adaptation is a genetic variation that is favored by selection
e. An adaptation is a genetic variation that is favored by selection
e. An adaptation is a genetic variation that is favored by selection
e. An adaptation is a genetic variation that is favored by selection
e. An adaptation is a genetic variation that is favored by selection
e. An adaptation is a genetic variation that is favored by selection
e. An adaptation is a genetic variation that is favored by selection
e. An adaptation is a genetic variation that is favored by selection
e. An adaptation is a genetic variation that is favored by selection
e. An adaptation is a genetic variation that is favored by selection
e. An adaptation is a genetic variation that is favored by selection
e. An adaptation is a genetic variation that is favored by selection
e. An adaptation is a genetic variation that is favored by selection
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Essential knowledge 1.A.2: Natural selection acts on phenotypic
Essential knowledge 1.A.2: Natural selection acts on phenotypic
Essential knowledge 1.A.2: Natural selection acts on phenotypic
Essential knowledge 1.A.2: Natural selection acts on phenotypic
Essential knowledge 1.A.2: Natural selection acts on phenotypic
Essential knowledge 1.A.2: Natural selection acts on phenotypic
Essential knowledge 1.A.2: Natural selection acts on phenotypic
Essential knowledge 1.A.2: Natural selection acts on phenotypic
Essential knowledge 1.A.2: Natural selection acts on phenotypic
Essential knowledge 1.A.2: Natural selection acts on phenotypic
Essential knowledge 1.A.2: Natural selection acts on phenotypic
Essential knowledge 1.A.2: Natural selection acts on phenotypic
Essential knowledge 1.A.2: Natural selection acts on phenotypic
Essential knowledge 1.A.2: Natural selection acts on phenotypic
Peppered Moths, Variation, and the Industrial Revolution  Find the
Peppered Moths, Variation, and the Industrial Revolution Find the
Peppered Moths, Variation, and the Industrial Revolution  Find the
Peppered Moths, Variation, and the Industrial Revolution Find the
Peppered Moths, Variation, and the Industrial Revolution  Find the
Peppered Moths, Variation, and the Industrial Revolution Find the
Peppered Moths, Variation, and the Industrial Revolution  Find the
Peppered Moths, Variation, and the Industrial Revolution Find the
Peppered Moths, Variation, and the Industrial Revolution  Find the
Peppered Moths, Variation, and the Industrial Revolution Find the
Peppered Moths, Variation, and the Industrial Revolution  Find the
Peppered Moths, Variation, and the Industrial Revolution Find the
Peppered Moths, Variation, and the Industrial Revolution  Find the
Peppered Moths, Variation, and the Industrial Revolution Find the
Peppered Moths, Variation, and the Industrial Revolution  Find the
Peppered Moths, Variation, and the Industrial Revolution Find the
Peppered Moths, Variation, and the Industrial Revolution  Find the
Peppered Moths, Variation, and the Industrial Revolution Find the
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
c. Some phenotypic variations significantly increase or decrease
c. Some phenotypic variations significantly increase or decrease
c. Some phenotypic variations significantly increase or decrease
c. Some phenotypic variations significantly increase or decrease
c. Some phenotypic variations significantly increase or decrease
c. Some phenotypic variations significantly increase or decrease
c. Some phenotypic variations significantly increase or decrease
c. Some phenotypic variations significantly increase or decrease
c. Some phenotypic variations significantly increase or decrease
c. Some phenotypic variations significantly increase or decrease
c. Some phenotypic variations significantly increase or decrease
c. Some phenotypic variations significantly increase or decrease
c. Some phenotypic variations significantly increase or decrease
c. Some phenotypic variations significantly increase or decrease
c. Some phenotypic variations significantly increase or decrease
c. Some phenotypic variations significantly increase or decrease
c. Some phenotypic variations significantly increase or decrease
c. Some phenotypic variations significantly increase or decrease
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Genetic variation preserved how
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Essential knowledge 1.A.3: Evolutionary change is also driven by
Essential knowledge 1.A.3: Evolutionary change is also driven by
Essential knowledge 1.A.3: Evolutionary change is also driven by
Essential knowledge 1.A.3: Evolutionary change is also driven by
Essential knowledge 1.A.3: Evolutionary change is also driven by
Essential knowledge 1.A.3: Evolutionary change is also driven by
Essential knowledge 1.A.3: Evolutionary change is also driven by
Essential knowledge 1.A.3: Evolutionary change is also driven by
Essential knowledge 1.A.3: Evolutionary change is also driven by
Essential knowledge 1.A.3: Evolutionary change is also driven by
Essential knowledge 1.A.3: Evolutionary change is also driven by
Essential knowledge 1.A.3: Evolutionary change is also driven by
Essential knowledge 1.A.3: Evolutionary change is also driven by
Essential knowledge 1.A.3: Evolutionary change is also driven by
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
What is genetic drift
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
List as many categories of Evidence of Evolution as you can
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological evolution is supported by
2. Morphological homologies represent features shared by common
2. Morphological homologies represent features shared by common
2. Morphological homologies represent features shared by common
2. Morphological homologies represent features shared by common
2. Morphological homologies represent features shared by common
2. Morphological homologies represent features shared by common
2. Morphological homologies represent features shared by common
2. Morphological homologies represent features shared by common
2. Morphological homologies represent features shared by common
2. Morphological homologies represent features shared by common
2. Morphological homologies represent features shared by common
2. Morphological homologies represent features shared by common
2. Morphological homologies represent features shared by common
2. Morphological homologies represent features shared by common
2. Morphological homologies represent features shared by common
2. Morphological homologies represent features shared by common
2. Morphological homologies represent features shared by common
2. Morphological homologies represent features shared by common
2. Morphological homologies represent features shared by common
2. Morphological homologies represent features shared by common
2. Morphological homologies represent features shared by common
2. Morphological homologies represent features shared by common
Fraction of parent isotope remaining
Fraction of parent isotope remaining
Systematists use computer programs and mathematical tools when
Systematists use computer programs and mathematical tools when
Sorting Homology from Analogy
Sorting Homology from Analogy
Sorting Homology from Analogy
Sorting Homology from Analogy
Sorting Homology from Analogy
Sorting Homology from Analogy
Sorting Homology from Analogy
Sorting Homology from Analogy
Sorting Homology from Analogy
Sorting Homology from Analogy
Sorting Homology from Analogy
Sorting Homology from Analogy
Sorting Homology from Analogy
Sorting Homology from Analogy
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
L.O. 1.13
L.O. 1.13
Essential knowledge 1.B.1: Organisms share many conserved core
Essential knowledge 1.B.1: Organisms share many conserved core
Essential knowledge 1.B.1: Organisms share many conserved core
Essential knowledge 1.B.1: Organisms share many conserved core
Essential knowledge 1.B.1: Organisms share many conserved core
Essential knowledge 1.B.1: Organisms share many conserved core
Essential knowledge 1.B.1: Organisms share many conserved core
Essential knowledge 1.B.1: Organisms share many conserved core
Essential knowledge 1.B.1: Organisms share many conserved core
Essential knowledge 1.B.1: Organisms share many conserved core
Essential knowledge 1.B.1: Organisms share many conserved core
Essential knowledge 1.B.1: Organisms share many conserved core
Essential knowledge 1.B.1: Organisms share many conserved core
Essential knowledge 1.B.1: Organisms share many conserved core
b. Structural evidence supports the relatedness of all eukaryotes
b. Structural evidence supports the relatedness of all eukaryotes
b. Structural evidence supports the relatedness of all eukaryotes
b. Structural evidence supports the relatedness of all eukaryotes
b. Structural evidence supports the relatedness of all eukaryotes
b. Structural evidence supports the relatedness of all eukaryotes
b. Structural evidence supports the relatedness of all eukaryotes
b. Structural evidence supports the relatedness of all eukaryotes
b. Structural evidence supports the relatedness of all eukaryotes
b. Structural evidence supports the relatedness of all eukaryotes
b. Structural evidence supports the relatedness of all eukaryotes
b. Structural evidence supports the relatedness of all eukaryotes
b. Structural evidence supports the relatedness of all eukaryotes
b. Structural evidence supports the relatedness of all eukaryotes
b. Structural evidence supports the relatedness of all eukaryotes
b. Structural evidence supports the relatedness of all eukaryotes
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
L.O. 1.15
L.O. 1.15
Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are
Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are
Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are
Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are
Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are
Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are
Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are
Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are
Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are
Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are
Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are
Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are
Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are
Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are
Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are
Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are
Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are
Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are
Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are
Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are
Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are
Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are
Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are
Essential knowledge 1.B.2: Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are
Other even-toed ungulates
Other even-toed ungulates
c. Phylogenetic trees and cladograms can be constructed from
c. Phylogenetic trees and cladograms can be constructed from
c. Phylogenetic trees and cladograms can be constructed from
c. Phylogenetic trees and cladograms can be constructed from
c. Phylogenetic trees and cladograms can be constructed from
c. Phylogenetic trees and cladograms can be constructed from
c. Phylogenetic trees and cladograms can be constructed from
c. Phylogenetic trees and cladograms can be constructed from
c. Phylogenetic trees and cladograms can be constructed from
c. Phylogenetic trees and cladograms can be constructed from
c. Phylogenetic trees and cladograms can be constructed from
c. Phylogenetic trees and cladograms can be constructed from
c. Phylogenetic trees and cladograms can be constructed from
c. Phylogenetic trees and cladograms can be constructed from
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Classification terms
Species: Panthera pardus
Species: Panthera pardus
A valid clade is monophyletic, signifying that it consists of the
A valid clade is monophyletic, signifying that it consists of the
Branch point: where lineages diverge
Branch point: where lineages diverge
L.O. 1.19
L.O. 1.19
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation  when does evolution result in a new species
Speciation when does evolution result in a new species
Figure 24
Figure 24
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Prezygotic vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Allopatric vs
Hybrid Zones
Hybrid Zones
Fusion may lead to extinction of the polar bear
Fusion may lead to extinction of the polar bear
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Speed of Speciation
Essential knowledge 1.C.1: Speciation and extinction have occurred
Essential knowledge 1.C.1: Speciation and extinction have occurred
Essential knowledge 1.C.1: Speciation and extinction have occurred
Essential knowledge 1.C.1: Speciation and extinction have occurred
Essential knowledge 1.C.1: Speciation and extinction have occurred
Essential knowledge 1.C.1: Speciation and extinction have occurred
Essential knowledge 1.C.1: Speciation and extinction have occurred
Essential knowledge 1.C.1: Speciation and extinction have occurred
Essential knowledge 1.C.1: Speciation and extinction have occurred
Essential knowledge 1.C.1: Speciation and extinction have occurred
Essential knowledge 1.C.1: Speciation and extinction have occurred
Essential knowledge 1.C.1: Speciation and extinction have occurred
Essential knowledge 1.C.1: Speciation and extinction have occurred
Essential knowledge 1.C.1: Speciation and extinction have occurred
Essential knowledge 1.C.1: Speciation and extinction have occurred
Essential knowledge 1.C.1: Speciation and extinction have occurred
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
L.O. 1.21
L.O. 1.21
Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations
Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations
Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations
Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations
Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations
Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations
Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations
Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations
Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations
Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations
Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations
Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations
Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations
Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations
Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations
Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations
Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations
Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations
Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations
Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations
Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations
Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations
Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations
Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation may occur when two populations
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Essential knowledge 1.C.3: Populations of organisms continue to evolve
Essential knowledge 1.C.3: Populations of organisms continue to evolve
Essential knowledge 1.C.3: Populations of organisms continue to evolve
Essential knowledge 1.C.3: Populations of organisms continue to evolve
Essential knowledge 1.C.3: Populations of organisms continue to evolve
Essential knowledge 1.C.3: Populations of organisms continue to evolve
Essential knowledge 1.C.3: Populations of organisms continue to evolve
Essential knowledge 1.C.3: Populations of organisms continue to evolve
Essential knowledge 1.C.3: Populations of organisms continue to evolve
Essential knowledge 1.C.3: Populations of organisms continue to evolve
Essential knowledge 1.C.3: Populations of organisms continue to evolve
Essential knowledge 1.C.3: Populations of organisms continue to evolve
Essential knowledge 1.C.3: Populations of organisms continue to evolve
Essential knowledge 1.C.3: Populations of organisms continue to evolve
Essential knowledge 1.C.3: Populations of organisms continue to evolve
Essential knowledge 1.C.3: Populations of organisms continue to evolve
Essential knowledge 1.C.3: Populations of organisms continue to evolve
Essential knowledge 1.C.3: Populations of organisms continue to evolve
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are several hypotheses about the
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Learning Objectives
Concept 25
Concept 25
Concept 25
Concept 25
Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules is a testable hypothesis
Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules is a testable hypothesis
Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules is a testable hypothesis
Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules is a testable hypothesis
Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules is a testable hypothesis
Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules is a testable hypothesis
Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules is a testable hypothesis
Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules is a testable hypothesis
In 1953, Stanley Miller and Harold Urey tested the Oparin-Haldane
In 1953, Stanley Miller and Harold Urey tested the Oparin-Haldane
In 1953, Stanley Miller and Harold Urey tested the Oparin-Haldane
In 1953, Stanley Miller and Harold Urey tested the Oparin-Haldane
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
Organize the following terms into a flowchart
The Miller-Urey experiments still stimulate debate on the origin of
The Miller-Urey experiments still stimulate debate on the origin of
The Miller-Urey experiments still stimulate debate on the origin of
The Miller-Urey experiments still stimulate debate on the origin of
The Miller-Urey experiments still stimulate debate on the origin of
The Miller-Urey experiments still stimulate debate on the origin of
The Miller-Urey experiments still stimulate debate on the origin of
The Miller-Urey experiments still stimulate debate on the origin of
Laboratory simulations of early-Earth conditions have produced organic
Laboratory simulations of early-Earth conditions have produced organic
Laboratory simulations of early-Earth conditions have produced organic
Laboratory simulations of early-Earth conditions have produced organic
Laboratory simulations of early-Earth conditions have produced organic
Laboratory simulations of early-Earth conditions have produced organic
Laboratory simulations of early-Earth conditions have produced organic
Laboratory simulations of early-Earth conditions have produced organic
RNA may have been the first genetic material
RNA may have been the first genetic material
RNA may have been the first genetic material
RNA may have been the first genetic material
RNA may have been the first genetic material
RNA may have been the first genetic material
Short polymers of ribonucleotides can be synthesized abiotically in
Short polymers of ribonucleotides can be synthesized abiotically in
In the 1980s Thomas Cech discovered that RNA molecules are important
In the 1980s Thomas Cech discovered that RNA molecules are important
In the 1980s Thomas Cech discovered that RNA molecules are important
In the 1980s Thomas Cech discovered that RNA molecules are important
In the 1980s Thomas Cech discovered that RNA molecules are important
In the 1980s Thomas Cech discovered that RNA molecules are important
In the 1980s Thomas Cech discovered that RNA molecules are important
In the 1980s Thomas Cech discovered that RNA molecules are important
In the 1980s Thomas Cech discovered that RNA molecules are important
In the 1980s Thomas Cech discovered that RNA molecules are important
In the 1980s Thomas Cech discovered that RNA molecules are important
In the 1980s Thomas Cech discovered that RNA molecules are important
In the 1980s Thomas Cech discovered that RNA molecules are important
In the 1980s Thomas Cech discovered that RNA molecules are important
In the 1980s Thomas Cech discovered that RNA molecules are important
In the 1980s Thomas Cech discovered that RNA molecules are important
In the 1980s Thomas Cech discovered that RNA molecules are important
In the 1980s Thomas Cech discovered that RNA molecules are important

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1Organize the following terms into a 68of new RNA polymers. In the pre-biotic
flowchart. Adaptation, Environmental world, RNA molecules may have been fully
Change, Natural Selection, Species capable of ribozyme-catalyzed replication.
Changes, Variation exists. Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc.,
2Natural Selection = only mechanism publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
that gives consistent Adaptive Evolution. 69RNA-directed protein synthesis may
Relative fitness? 3 ways that it can have begun as weak binding of specific
affect phenotype distribution name and amino acids to bases along RNA molecules,
draw. which functioned as simple templates
3What are the 2 main causes of genetic holding a few amino acids together long
variation? Microevolution = Population =. enough for them to be linked. This is one
45 conditions of Hardy-Weinberg function of rRNA today in ribosomes. If
Equilibrium? Is it realistic? RNA synthesized a short polypeptide that
5How we get the 2 equations. behaved as an enzyme helping RNA
6Essential knowledge 1.A.1: Natural replication, then early chemical dynamics
selection is a major mechanism of would include molecular cooperation as
evolution. a. According to Darwins theory well as competition.
of natural selection, competition for 70Protocells can form by self-assembly.
limited resources results in differential Living cells may have been preceded by
survival. Individuals with more favorable protocells, aggregates of abiotically
phenotypes are more likely to survive and produced molecules. Protocells do not
produce more offspring, thus passing reproduce precisely, but they do maintain
traits to subsequent generations. b. an internal chemical environment from
Evolutionary fitness is measured by their surroundings and may show some
reproductive success. c. Genetic variation properties associated with life,
and mutation play roles in natural metabolism, and excitability. Copyright
selection. A diverse gene pool is 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing
important for the survival of a species in as Benjamin Cummings.
a changing environment. d. Environments 71In the laboratory, droplets of
can be more or less stable or fluctuating, abiotically produced organic compounds,
and this affects evolutionary rate and called liposomes, form when lipids are
direction; different genetic variations included in the mix. The lipids form a
can be selected in each generation. molecular bilayer at the droplet surface,
7e. An adaptation is a genetic much like the lipid bilayer of a membrane.
variation that is favored by selection and These droplets can undergo osmotic
is manifested as a trait that provides an swelling or shrinking in different salt
advantage to an organism in a particular concentrations. They also store energy as
environment. f. In addition to natural a membrane potential, a voltage cross the
selection, chance and random events can surface. Copyright 2002 Pearson
influence the evolutionary process, Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin
especially for small populations. g. Cummings.
Conditions for a population or an allele 72Liposomes behave dynamically, growing
to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium are: by engulfing smaller liposomes or giving
(1) a large population size, (2) absence birth to smaller liposomes. Fig. 26.12a.
of migration, (3) no net mutations, (4) Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc.,
random mating and (5) absence of publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
selection. These conditions are seldom 73If enzymes are included among the
met. h. Mathematical approaches are used ingredients, they are incorporated into
to calculate changes in allele frequency, the droplets. The protocells are then able
providing evidence for the occurrence of to absorb substrates from their
evolution in a population. To foster surroundings and release the products of
student understanding of this concept, the reactions catalyzed by the enzymes.
instructors can choose an illustrative Fig. 26.12b. Copyright 2002 Pearson
example such as: Graphical analysis of Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin
allele frequencies in a population Cummings.
Application of the Hardy-Weinberg 74Natural section could refine
equilibrium equation. protocells containing hereditary
8Learning Objectives. LO 1.1 The information. Once primitive RNA genes and
student is able to convert a data set from their polypeptide products were packaged
a table of numbers that reflect a change within a membrane, the protocells could
in the genetic makeup of a population over have evolved as units. Molecular
time and to apply mathematical methods and cooperation could be refined because
conceptual understandings to investigate favorable components were concentrated
the cause(s) and effect(s) of this change. together, rather than spread throughout
[See SP 1.5, 2.2] LO 1.2 The student is the surroundings. Fig. 26.13.
able to evaluate evidence provided by data 75As an example: suppose that an RNA
to qualitatively and quantitatively molecule ordered amino acids into a
investigate the role of natural selection primitive enzyme that extracted energy
in evolution. [See SP 2.2, 5.3] LO 1.3 The from inorganic sulfur compounds taken up
student is able to apply mathematical from the surroundings This energy could be
methods to data from a real or simulated used for other reactions within the
population to predict what will happen to protobiont, including the replication of
the population in the future. [See SP RNA. Natural selection would favor such a
2.2]. gene only if its products were kept close
9 by, rather than being shared with
10Essential knowledge 1.A.2: Natural competing RNA sequences in the
selection acts on phenotypic variations in environment. Copyright 2002 Pearson
populations. a. Environments change and Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin
act as selective mechanism on populations. Cummings.
To foster student understanding of this 76The most successful protocells would
concept, instructors can choose an grow and split, distributing copies of
illustrative example such as: Flowering their genes to offspring. Even if only one
time in relation to global climate change such protocell arose initially by the
Peppered moth b. Phenotypic variations abiotic processes that have been
are not directed by the environment but described, its descendents would vary
occur through random changes in the DNA because of mutation, errors in copying
and through new gene combinations. RNA. Copyright 2002 Pearson Education,
11Peppered Moths, Variation, and the Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
Industrial Revolution Find the moths in 77Evolution via differential
the pictures. Lets graph allele reproductive success of varied individuals
frequencies over time. presumably refined primitive metabolism
12 and inheritance. One refinement was the
13c. Some phenotypic variations replacement of RNA as the repository of
significantly increase or decrease fitness genetic information by DNA, a more stable
of the organism and the population. To molecule. Once DNA appeared, RNA molecules
foster student understanding of this would have begun to take on their modern
concept, instructors can choose an roles as intermediates in translation of
illustrative example such as: Sickle genetic programs. Copyright 2002 Pearson
cell anemia Peppered moth DDT Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin
resistance in insects d. Humans impact Cummings.
variation in other species. To foster 78Essential knowledge 1.D.2: Scientific
student understanding of this concept, evidence from many different disciplines
instructors can choose an illustrative supports models of the origin of life. a.
example such as: Artificial selection Geological evidence provides support for
Loss of genetic diversity within a crop models of the origin of life on Earth.
species Overuse of antibiotics. Evidence of student learning is a
14Genetic variation preserved how? Why demonstrated understanding of each of the
not perfection? following: 1. The Earth formed
15Learning Objectives. LO 1.4 The approximately 4.6 billion years ago (bya),
student is able to evaluate data-based and the environment was too hostile for
evidence that describes evolutionary life until 3.9 bya, while the earliest
changes in the genetic makeup of a fossil evidence for life dates to 3.5 bya.
population over time. [See SP 5.3] LO 1.5 Taken together, this evidence provides a
The student is able to connect plausible range of dates when the origin
evolutionary changes in a population over of life could have occurred. 2. Chemical
time to a change in the environment.[See experiments have shown that it is possible
SP 7.1]. to form complex organic molecules from
16Essential knowledge 1.A.3: inorganic molecules in the absence of
Evolutionary change is also driven by life. b. Molecular and genetic evidence
random processes. a. Genetic drift is a from extant and extinct organisms
nonselective process occurring in small indicates that all organisms on Earth
populations. b. Reduction of genetic share a common ancestral origin of life.
variation within a given population can Evidence of student learning is a
increase the differences between demonstrated understanding of each of the
populations of the same species. following: 1. Scientific evidence includes
17What is genetic drift? Give 2 molecular building blocks that are common
examples. to all life forms. 2. Scientific evidence
18Learning Objectives. LO 1.6 The includes a common genetic code.
student is able to use data from 79Animation: The Geologic Record
mathematical models based on the Right-click slide / select Play.
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium to analyze 80Present. Cenozoic. 65.5. 135. Millions
genetic drift and effects of selection in of years ago. Mesozoic. 251. Paleozoic.
the evolution of specific populations. Figure 25.14. Eurasia. North America.
[See SP 1.4, 2.1] LO 1.7 The student is Africa. India. South America. Australia.
able to justify data from mathematical Antarctica. Laurasia. Gondwana. Pangaea.
models based on the Hardy-Weinberg Madagascar.
equilibrium to analyze genetic drift and 81Continental drift has many effects on
the effects of selection in the evolution living organisms A continents climate can
of specific populations. [See SP 2.1] LO change as it moves north or south
1.8 The student is able to make Separation of land masses can lead to
predictions about the effects of genetic allopatric speciation The distribution of
drift, migration and artificial selection fossils and living groups reflects the
on the genetic makeup of a population. historic movement of continents For
[See SP 6.4]. example, the similarity of fossils in
19List as many categories of Evidence of parts of South America and Africa is
Evolution as you can. consistent with the idea that these
20Essential knowledge 1.A.4: Biological continents were formerly attached.
evolution is supported by scientific 82Mass Extinctions. The fossil record
evidence from many disciplines, including shows that most species that have ever
mathematics. a. Scientific evidence of lived are now extinct Extinction can be
biological evolution uses information from caused by changes to a species
geographical, geological, physical, environment At times, the rate of
chemical and mathematical applications. b. extinction has increased dramatically and
Molecular, morphological and genetic caused a mass extinction Mass extinction
information of existing and extinct is the result of disruptive global
organisms add to our understanding of environmental changes.
evolution. Evidence of student learning is 83A number of factors might have
a demonstrated understanding of eachof the contributed to these extinctions Intense
following: 1. Fossils can be dated by a volcanism in what is now Siberia Global
variety of methods that provide evidence warming resulting from the emission of
for evolution. These include the age of large amounts of CO2 from the volcanoes
the rocks where a fossil is found, the Reduced temperature gradient from equator
rate of decay of isotopes including to poles Oceanic anoxia from reduced
carbon-14, the relationships within mixing of ocean waters.
phylogenetic trees, and the mathematical 84The Cretaceous mass extinction 65.5
calculations that take into account million years ago separates the Mesozoic
information from chemical properties from the Cenozoic Organisms that went
and/or geographical data. ?? The details extinct include about half of all marine
of these methods are beyond the scope of species and many terrestrial plants and
this course and the AP Exam. animals, including most dinosaurs.
212. Morphological homologies represent 85The presence of iridium in sedimentary
features shared by common ancestry. rocks suggests a meteorite impact about 65
Vestigial structures are remnants of million years ago Dust clouds caused by
functional structures, which can be the impact would have blocked sunlight and
compared to fossils and provide evidence disturbed global climate The Chicxulub
for evolution. 3. Biochemical and genetic crater off the coast of Mexico is evidence
similarities, in particular DNA nucleotide of a meteorite that dates to the same
and protein sequences, provide evidence time.
for evolution and ancestry. 4. 86NORTH AMERICA. Chicxulub crater.
Mathematical models and simulations can be Yucat?n Peninsula. Figure 25.16.
used to illustrate and support 87Is a Sixth Mass Extinction Under Way?
evolutionary concepts. To foster student Scientists estimate that the current rate
understanding of this concept, instructors of extinction is 100 to 1,000 times the
can choose an illustrative example such typical background rate Extinction rates
as: Graphical analyses of allele tend to increase when global temperatures
frequencies in a population Analysis of increase Data suggest that a sixth,
sequence data sets Analysis of human-caused mass extinction is likely to
phylogenetic trees Construction of occur unless dramatic action is taken.
phylogenetic trees based on sequence data. 88Adaptive Radiations. Adaptive
22How Rocks and Fossils Are Dated. radiation is the evolution of diversely
Sedimentary strata reveal the relative adapted species from a common ancestor
ages of fossils The absolute ages of Adaptive radiations may follow Mass
fossils can be determined by radiometric extinctions The evolution of novel
dating A parent isotope decays to a characteristics The colonization of new
daughter isotope at a constant rate Each regions.
isotope has a known half-life, the time 89Worldwide Adaptive Radiations. Mammals
required for half the parent isotope to underwent an adaptive radiation after the
decay Radiocarbon dating can be used to extinction of terrestrial dinosaurs The
date fossils up to 75,000 years old For disappearance of dinosaurs (except birds)
older fossils, some isotopes can be used allowed for the expansion of mammals in
to date sedimentary rock layers above and diversity and size Other notable
below the fossil. radiations include photosynthetic
23Fraction of parent isotope remaining. prokaryotes, large predators in the
Remaining parent isotope. 1 2 3 4. Time Cambrian, land plants, insects, and
(half-lives). Accumulating daughter tetrapods.
isotope. Figure 25.5. 1. 2. 1. 4. 1. 8. 1. 90Clock analogy of History of Life. Fig.
16. 26.2. Copyright 2002 Pearson Education,
24Systematists use computer programs and Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
mathematical tools when analyzing 91The First Single-Celled Organisms. The
comparable DNA segments from different oldest known fossils are stromatolites,
organisms. 1. 1. 2. Deletion. 2. 1. 2. rocks formed by the accumulation of
Insertion. 3. 1. 2. 4. 1. 2. Figure sedimentary layers on bacterial mats
26.8-4. Stromatolites date back 3.5 billion years
25Sorting Homology from Analogy. When ago Prokaryotes were Earths sole
constructing a phylogeny, systematists inhabitants from 3.5 to about 2.1 billion
need to distinguish whether a similarity years ago.
is the result of homology or analogy 92The First Eukaryotes. The oldest
Homology is similarity due to shared fossils of eukaryotic cells date back 2.1
ancestry Analogy is similarity due to billion years Eukaryotic cells have a
convergent evolution Convergent evolution nuclear envelope, mitochondria,
occurs when similar environmental endoplasmic reticulum, and a cytoskeleton
pressures and natural selection produce The endosymbiont theory proposes that
similar (analogous) adaptations in mitochondria and plastids (chloroplasts
organisms from different evolutionary and related organelles) were formerly
lineages Bat and bird wings are homologous small prokaryotes living within larger
as forelimbs, but analogous as functional host cells An endosymbiont is a cell that
wings. lives within a host cell.
26Learning Objectives. LO 1.9 The 93The prokaryotic ancestors of
student is able to evaluate evidence mitochondria and plastids probably gained
provided by data from many scientific entry to the host cell as undigested prey
disciplines that support biological or internal parasites In the process of
evolution. [See SP 5.3] LO 1.10 The becoming more interdependent, the host and
student is able to refine evidence based endosymbionts would have become a single
on data from many scientific disciplines organism Serial endosymbiosis supposes
that support biological evolution. [See SP that mitochondria evolved before plastids
5.2] LO 1.11 The student is able to design through a sequence of endosymbiotic
a plan to answer scientific questions events.
regarding how organisms have changed over 94Plasma membrane. Cytoplasm. DNA.
time using information from morphology, Ancestral prokaryote. Nucleus. Endoplasmic
biochemistry and geology. [See SP 4.2] LO reticulum. Photosynthetic prokaryote.
1.12 The student is able to connect Mitochondrion. Nuclear envelope. Aerobic
scientific evidence from many scientific heterotrophic prokaryote. Mitochondrion.
disciplines to support the modern concept Plastid. Ancestral heterotrophic
of evolution. [See SP 7.1] LO 1.13 The eukaryote. Ancestral photosynthetic
student is able to construct and/or eukaryote. Figure 25.9-3.
justify mathematical models, diagrams or 95Key evidence supporting an
simulations that represent processes of endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria and
biological evolution. [See SP 1.1, 2.1]. plastids: Inner membranes are similar to
27L.O. 1.13. plasma membranes of prokaryotes Division
28Essential knowledge 1.B.1: Organisms is similar in these organelles and some
share many conserved core processes and prokaryotes These organelles transcribe
features that evolved and are widely and translate their own DNA Their
distributed among organisms today. a. ribosomes are more similar to prokaryotic
Structural and functional evidence than eukaryotic ribosomes.
supports the relatedness of all domains. 96Plants, fungi, and animals colonized
Evidence of student learning is a the land about 500 million years ago. The
demonstrated understanding of each of the colonization of land was one of the
following: 1. DNA and RNA are carriers of pivotal milestones in the history of life.
genetic information through transcription, There is fossil evidence that
translation and replication. [See also cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic
3.A.1 ] 2. Major features of the genetic prokaryotes coated damp terrestrial
code are shared by all modern living surfaces well over a billion years ago.
systems. [See also 3.A.1] 3. Metabolic However, macroscopic life in the form of
pathways are conserved across all plants, fungi, and animals did not
currently recognized domains. [See also colonize land until about 500 million
3.D.1]. years ago, during the early Paleozoic era.
29b. Structural evidence supports the Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc.,
relatedness of all eukaryotes. [See also publishing as Benjamin Cummings.
2.B.3, 4.A.2] To foster student 97The gradual evolution from aquatic to
understanding of this concept, instructors terrestrial habitats required adaptations
can choose an illustrative example such to prevent dehydration and to reproduce on
as: Cytoskeleton (a network of land. For example, plants evolved a
structural proteins that facilitate cell waterproof coating of wax on the leaves to
movement, morphological integrity and slow the loss of water. Plants colonized
organelle transport) Membrane-bound land in association with fungi. Fungi aid
organelles (mitochondria and/or the absorption of water and nutrients from
chloroplasts) Linear chromosomes the soil. The fungi obtain organic
Endomembrane systems, including the nutrients from the plant. This ancient
nuclear envelope. symbiotic association is evident in some
30Learning Objectives. LO 1.14 The of the oldest fossilized roots. Copyright
student is able to pose scientific 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing
questions that correctly identify as Benjamin Cummings.
essential properties of shared, core life 98Plants created new opportunities for
processes that provide insights into the all life, including herbivorous
history of life on Earth. [See SP 3.1] LO (plant-eating) animals and their
1.15 The student is able to describe predators. The most widespread and diverse
specific examples of conserved core terrestrial animals are certain arthropods
biological processes and features shared (including insects and spiders) and
by all domains or within one domain of certain vertebrates (including amphibians,
life, and how these shared, conserved core reptiles, birds, and mammals). Copyright
processes and features support the concept 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing
of common ancestry for all organisms. [See as Benjamin Cummings.
SP 7.2] LO 1.16 The student is able to 99The terrestrial vertebrates, called
justify the scientific claim that tetrapods because of their four walking
organisms share many conserved core limbs, evolved from fishes, based on an
processes and features that evolved and extensive fossil record. Reptiles evolved
are widely distributed among organisms from amphibians, both birds and mammals
today. [See SP 6.1]. evolved from reptiles. Most orders of
31L.O. 1.15. modern mammals, including primates,
32Essential knowledge 1.B.2: appeared 50-60 million years ago. Humans
Phylogenetic trees and cladograms are diverged from other primates only 5
graphical representations (models) of million years ago. Copyright 2002
evolutionary history that can be tested. Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as
a. Phylogenetic trees and cladograms can Benjamin Cummings.
represent traits that are either derived 100Learning Objectives. LO 1.32 The
or lost due to evolution. To foster student is able to justify the selection
student understanding of this concept, of geological, physical, and chemical data
instructors can choose an illustrative that reveal early Earth conditions. [See
example such as: Number of heart SP 4.1].
chambers in animals Opposable thumbs 101Essential knowledge 2.E.1: Timing and
Absence of legs in some sea mammals b. coordination of specific events are
Phylogenetic trees and cladograms necessary for the normal development of an
illustrate speciation that has occurred, organism, and these events are regulated
in that relatedness of any two groups on by a variety of mechanisms. Observable
the tree is shown by how recently two cell differentiation results from the
groups had a common ancestor. expression of genes for tissue-specific
33Other even-toed ungulates. proteins. b. Induction of transcription
Hippopotamuses. Pakicetus. Rodhocetus. factors during development results in
Common ancestor of cetaceans. Dorudon. sequential gene expression. Evidence of
Living cetaceans. 70. 60. 50. 40. 30. 20. student learning is a demonstrated
10. 0. Pelvis. Tibia. Key. Millions of understanding of each of the following: 1.
years ago. Femur. Foot. Figure 22.20. Homeotic genes are involved in
34c. Phylogenetic trees and cladograms developmental patterns and sequences. 2.
can be constructed from morphological Embryonic induction in development results
similarities of living or fossil species, in the correct timing of events. 3.
and from DNA and protein sequence Temperature and the availability of water
similarities, by employing computer determine seed germination in most plants.
programs that have sophisticated ways of 4. Genetic mutations can result in
measuring and representing relatedness abnormal development. 5. Genetic
among organisms. d. Phylogenetic trees and transplantation experiments support the
cladograms are dynamic (i.e.,phylogenetic link between gene expression and normal
trees and cladograms are constantly being development. 6. Genetic regulation by
revised), based on the biological data microRNAs plays an important role in the
used, new mathematical and computational development of organisms and the control
ideas, and current and emerging knowledge. of cellular functions. .
35Learning Objectives. LO 1.17 The 102Concept 25.5: Major changes in body
student is able to pose scientific form can result from changes in the
questions about a group of organisms whose sequences and regulation of developmental
relatedness is described by a phylogenetic genes. Studying genetic mechanisms of
tree or cladogram in order to (1) identify change can provide insight into
shared characteristics, (2) make large-scale evolutionary change.
inferences about the evolutionary history 103Changes in Rate and Timing.
of the group, and (3) identify character Heterochrony is an evolutionary change in
data that could extend or improve the the rate or timing of developmental events
phylogenetic tree. [See SP 3.1] LO 1.18 It can have a significant impact on body
The student is able to evaluate evidence shape The contrasting shapes of human and
provided by a data set in conjunction with chimpanzee skulls are the result of small
a phylogenetic tree or a simple cladogram changes in relative growth rates.
to determine evolutionary history and 104Changes in Spatial Pattern.
speciation. [See SP 5.3] LO 1.19 The Substantial evolutionary change can also
student is able create a phylogenetic tree result from alterations in genes that
or simple cladogram that correctly control the placement and organization of
represents evolutionary history and body parts Homeotic genes determine such
speciation from a provided data set. [See basic features as where wings and legs
SP 1.1]. will develop on a bird or how a flowers
36Classification terms. Phylogeny = parts are arranged.
Inferred from homologous structures and 105Hox genes are a class of homeotic
molecular data Systematics = Taxonomy = genes that provide positional information
Binomial nomenclature DKPCOFGS look at during development If Hox genes are
table of 3 domains Taxon Phlyogenetic Tree expressed in the wrong location, body
Cladogram and clades. parts can be produced in the wrong
37Species: Panthera pardus. Genus: location For example, in crustaceans, a
Panthera. Family: Felidae. Order: swimming appendage can be produced instead
Carnivora. Class: Mammalia. Phylum: of a feeding appendage.
Chordata. Kingdom: Animalia. Domain: 106The Evolution of Development. The
Bacteria. Domain: Archaea. Domain: tremendous increase in diversity during
Eukarya. Figure 26.3. the Cambrian explosion is a puzzle
38A valid clade is monophyletic, Developmental genes may play an especially
signifying that it consists of the important role Changes in developmental
ancestor species and all its descendants. genes can result in new morphological
Figure 26.10. (b) Paraphyletic group. (c) forms.
Polyphyletic group. (a) Monophyletic group 107Changes in Genes. New morphological
(clade). A. A. A. B. B. B. Group ? Group forms likely come from gene duplication
??? C. C. C. D. D. D. E. E. Group ?? E. F. events that produce new developmental
F. F. G. G. G. genes A possible mechanism for the
39Branch point: where lineages diverge. evolution of six-legged insects from a
Taxon A. Taxon B. Sister taxa. Taxon C. many-legged crustacean ancestor has been
Taxon D. Taxon E. ANCESTRAL LINEAGE. Taxon demonstrated in lab experiments Specific
F. Basal taxon. Taxon G. This branch point changes in the Ubx gene have been
forms a polytomy: an unresolved pattern of identified that can turn off leg
divergence. This branch point represents development.
the common ancestor of taxa AG. Figure 108Hox gene 6. Hox gene 7. Hox gene 8.
26.5. Ubx. About 400 mya. Artemia. Drosophila.
40L.O. 1.19. Figure 25.24.
41 109Changes in Gene Regulation. Changes in
42 morphology likely result from changes in
43Speciation when does evolution the regulation of developmental genes
result in a new species? Species defined = rather than changes in the sequence of
Macroevolution = What are 2 main types of developmental genes For example,
reproductive isolation? threespine sticklebacks in lakes have
44Figure 24.3_a. Prezygotic barriers. fewer spines than their marine relatives
Postzygotic barriers. Gametic Isolation. The gene sequence remains the same, but
Reduced Hybrid Viability. Reduced Hybrid the regulation of gene expression is
Fertility. Hybrid Breakdown. Mechanical different in the two groups of fish.
Isolation. Habitat Isolation. Temporal 110RESULTS. Result: No. The 283 amino
Isolation. Behavioral Isolation. (i). (g). acids of the Pitx1 protein are identical.
(a). (c). (e). (l). (h). (f). (d). (j). Test of Hypothesis A: Differences in the
(b). (k). Individuals of different coding sequence of the Pitx1 gene? Pitx1
species. VIABLE, FERTILE OFFSPRING. MATING is expressed in the ventral spine and
ATTEMPT. FERTILIZATION. mouth regions of developing marine
45Prezygotic vs. Postzygotic. Describe sticklebacks but only in the mouth region
various methods of prezygotic: isolation: of developing lake sticklebacks. Result:
habitat, behavioral, temporal, mechanical, Yes. Test of Hypothesis B: Differences in
gametic Describe various methods of the regulation of expression of Pitx1?
postzygotic: Reduced hybrid viability, Marine stickleback embryo. Lake
Reduced hybrid fertility, Hybrid stickleback embryo. Close-up of mouth.
breakdown. Close-up of ventral surface. Figure
46Allopatric vs. Sympatric speciation 25.25b.
has to do with geographic isolation. 111Learning Objectives. LO 2.31 The
Allopatric: Sympatric: student can connect concepts in and across
47Hybrid Zones. Figure 24.14-4. Possible domains to show that timing and
outcomes: Isolated population diverges. coordination of specific events are
Hybrid zone. Reinforcement. OR. Fusion. necessary for normal development in an
OR. Gene flow. Hybrid individual. organism and that these events are
Population. Barrier to gene flow. regulated by multiple mechanisms. [See SP
Stability. 7.2] LO 2.32 The student is able to use a
48Fusion may lead to extinction of the graph or diagram to analyze situations or
polar bear. Figure 24.4. Grizzly bear (U. solve problems (quantitatively or
arctos). Polar bear (U. maritimus). Hybrid qualitatively) that involve timing and
grolar bear. coordination of events necessary for
49Speed of Speciation. Gradualism normal development in an organism. [See SP
Punctuated Equilibrium & Adaptive 1.4] LO 2.33 The student is able to
radiation. justify scientific claims with scientific
50Essential knowledge 1.C.1: Speciation evidence to show that timing and
and extinction have occurred throughout coordination of several events are
the Earths history. Speciation rates can necessary for normal development in an
vary, especially when adaptive radiation organism and that these events are
occurs when new habitats become available. regulated by multiple mechanisms. [See SP
b. Species extinction rates are rapid at 6.1] LO 2.34 The student is able to
times of ecological stress. [See also describe the role of programmed cell death
4.C.3] To foster student understanding of in development and differentiation, the
this concept, instructors can choose an reuse of molecules, and the maintenance of
illustrative example such as: Five major dynamic homeostasis. [See SP 7.1].
extinctions Human impact on ecosystems 112Essential knowledge 3.C.1: Changes in
and species extinction rates ?? The names genotype can result in changes in
and dates of these extinctions are beyond phenotype. Alterations in a DNA sequence
the scope of this course and the AP Exam. can lead to changes in the type or amount
51Learning Objectives. LO 1.20 The of the protein produced and the consequent
student is able to analyze data related to phenotype. [See also 3.A.1] Evidence of
questions of speciation and extinction student learning is a demonstrated
throughout the Earths history. [See SP understanding of the following: DNA
5.1] LO 1.21 The student is able to design mutations can be positive, negative or
a plan for collecting data to investigate neutral based on the effect or the lack of
the scientific claim that speciation and effect they have on the resulting nucleic
extinction have occurred throughout the acid or protein and the phenotypes that
Earths history. [See SP 4.2]. are conferred by the protein. b. Errors in
52L.O. 1.21. DNA replication or DNA repair mechanisms,
53Essential knowledge 1.C.2: Speciation and external factors, including radiation
may occur when two populations become and reactive chemicals, can cause random
reproductively isolated from each other. changes, e.g., mutations in the DNA.
a. Speciation results in diversity of life Evidence of student learning is a
forms. Species can be physically separated demonstrated understanding of the
by a geographic barrier such as an ocean following: 1. Whether or not a mutation is
or a mountain range, or various pre-and detrimental, beneficial or neutral depends
post-zygotic mechanisms can maintain on the environmental context. Mutations
reproductive isolation and prevent gene are the primary source of genetic
flow. b. New species arise from variation.
reproductive isolation over time, which 113c. Errors in mitosis or meiosis can
can involve scales of hundreds of result in changes in phenotype. Evidence
thousands or even millions of years, or of student learning is a demonstrated
speciation can occur rapidly through understanding of each of the following:
mechanisms such as polyploidy in plants. Changes in chromosome number often result
54Learning Objectives. LO 1.22 The in new phenotypes, including sterility
student is able to use data from a real or caused by triploidy and increased vigor of
simulated population(s), based on graphs other polyploids. [See also 3.A.2] 2.
or models of types of selection, to Changes in chromosome number often result
predict what will happen to the population in human disorders with developmental
in the future. [See SP 6.4] LO 1.23 The limitations, including Trisomy 21 (Down
student is able to justify the selection syndrome) and XO (Turner syndrome). [See
of data that address questions related to also 3.A.2, 3.A.3] d. Changes in genotype
reproductive isolation and speciation. may affect phenotypes that are subject to
[See SP 4.1] LO 1.24 The student is able natural selection. Genetic changes that
to describe speciation in an isolated enhance survival and reproduction can be
population and connect it to change in selected by environmental conditions. [See
gene frequency, change in environment, also 1.A.2, 1.C.3] To foster student
natural selection and/or genetic drift. understanding of this concept, instructors
[See SP 7.2]. can choose an illustrative example such
55Essential knowledge 1.C.3: Populations as: Antibiotic resistance mutations
of organisms continue to evolve. a. Pesticide resistance mutations Sickle
Scientific evidence supports the idea that cell disorder and heterozygote advantage
evolution has occurred in all species. b. Evidence of student learning is a
Scientific evidence supports the idea that demonstrated understanding of the
evolution continues to occur. To foster following: 1. Selection results in
student understanding of this concept, evolutionary change.
instructors can choose an illustrative 114Learning Objectives. LO 3.24 The
example such as: Chemical resistance student is able to predict how a change in
(mutations for resistance to antibiotics, genotype, when expressed as a phenotype,
pesticides, herbicides or chemotherapy provides a variation that can be subject
drugs occur in the absence of the to natural selection. [See SP 6.4, 7.2] LO
chemical) Emergent diseases Observed 3.25 The student can create a visual
directional phenotypic change in a representation to illustrate how changes
population (Grants observations of in a DNA nucleotide sequence can result in
Darwins finches in the Galapagos) A a change in the polypeptide produced. [See
eukaryotic example that describes SP 1.1] LO 3.26 The student is able to
evolution of a structure or process such explain the connection between genetic
as heart chambers, limbs, the brain and variations in organisms and phenotypic
the immune system. variations in populations. [See SP 7.2].
56Learning Objectives. LO 1.25 The 115Concept 27.2: Rapid reproduction,
student is able to describe a model that mutation, and genetic recombination
represents evolution within a population. promote genetic diversity in prokaryotes.
[See SP 1.2] LO 1.26 The student is able Prokaryotes have considerable genetic
to evaluate given data sets that variation Three factors contribute to this
illustrate evolution as an ongoing genetic diversity: Rapid reproduction
process. [See SP 5.3]. Mutation Genetic recombination.
57Essential knowledge 1.D.1: There are 116Essential knowledge 3.C.2: Biological
several hypotheses about the natural systems have multiple processes that
origin of life on Earth, each with increase genetic variation. The imperfect
supporting scientific evidence. Scientific nature of DNA replication and repair
evidence supports the various models. increases variation. b. The horizontal
Evidence of student learning is a acquisitions of genetic information
demonstrated understanding of each of the primarily in prokaryotes via
following: Primitive Earth provided transformation (uptake of naked DNA),
inorganic precursors from which organic transduction (viral transmission of
molecules could have been synthesized due genetic information), conjugation
to the presence of available free energy (cell-to-cell transfer) and transposition
and the absence of a significant quantity (movement of DNA segments within and
of oxygen. 2. In turn, these molecules between DNA molecules) increase variation.
served as monomers or building blocks for [See also 1.B.3] ?? Details and specifics
the formation of more complex molecules, about the various processes are beyond the
including amino acids and nucleotides. scope of the course and the AP Exam. c.
[See also 4.A.1] 3. The joining of these Sexual reproduction in eukaryotes
monomers produced polymers with the involving gamete formation, including
ability to replicate, store and transfer crossing-over during meiosis and the
information. 4. These complex reaction random assortment of chromosomes during
sets could have occurred in solution meiosis, and fertilization serve to
(organic soup model) or as reactions on increase variation. Reproduction processes
solid reactive surfaces. [See also 2.B.1] that increase genetic variation are
5. The RNA World hypothesis proposes that evolutionarily conserved and are shared by
RNA could have been the earliest genetic various organisms. [See also 1.B.1, 3.A.2,
material. 4.C.2, 4. C3] ?? The details of sexual
58Learning Objectives. LO 1.27 The reproduction cycles in various plants and
student is able to describe a scientific animals are beyond the scope of the course
hypothesis about the origin of life on and the AP Exam. However, the similarities
Earth. [See SP 1.2] LO 1.28 The student is of the processes that provide for genetic
able to evaluate scientific questions variation are relevant and should be the
based on hypotheses about the origin of focus of instruction.
life on Earth. [See SP 3.3] LO 1.29 The 117Learning Objectives. LO 3.27 The
student is able to describe the reasons student is able to compare and contrast
for revisions of scientific hypotheses of processes by which genetic variation is
the origin of life on Earth. [See SP 6.3] produced and maintained in organisms from
LO 1.30 The student is able to evaluate multiple domains. [See SP 7.2] LO 3.28 The
scientific hypotheses about the origin of student is able to construct an
life on Earth. [See SP 6.5] LO 1.31 The explanation of the multiple processes that
student is able to evaluate the accuracy increase variation within a population.
and legitimacy of data to answer [See SP 6.2].
scientific questions about the origin of 118Essential knowledge 4.C.3: The level
life on Earth. [See SP 4.4]. of variation in a population affects
59Concept 25.1: Conditions on early population dynamics. a. Population ability
Earth made the origin of life possible. to respond to changes in the environment
Chemical and physical processes on early is affected by genetic diversity. Species
Earth may have produced very simple cells and populations with little genetic
through a sequence of stages: 1. Abiotic diversity are at risk for extinction. [See
synthesis of small organic molecules 2. also 1.A.1, 1.A.2, 1.C.1] To foster
Joining of these small molecules into student understanding of this concept,
macromolecules 3. Packaging of molecules instructors can choose an illustrative
into protocells 4. Origin of example such as: California condors
self-replicating molecules. Black-footed ferrets Prairie chickens
60Early Earth. Spontaneous generation Potato blight causing the potato famine
vs. biogenesis. Although there is no Corn rust affects on agricultural crops
evidence that spontaneous generation Tasmanian devils and infectious cancer b.
occurs today, conditions on the early Genetic diversity allows individuals in a
Earth were very different. There was very population to respond differently to the
little atmospheric oxygen to attack same changes in environmental conditions.
complex molecules. Energy sources, such as To foster student understanding of this
lightning, volcanic activity, and concept, instructors can choose an
ultraviolet sunlight, were more intense illustrative example such as: Not all
than what we experience today. animals in a population stampede. Not
61Abiotic synthesis of organic molecules all individuals in a population in a
is a testable hypothesis. In the 1920s, disease outbreak are equally affected;
A.I. Oparin and J.B.S. Haldane some may not show symptoms, some may have
independently postulated that conditions mild symptoms, or some may be naturally
on the early Earth favored the synthesis immune and resistant to the disease. c.
of organic compounds from inorganic Allelic variation within a population can
precursors. They reasoned that this cannot be modeled by the Hardy- Weinberg
happen today because high levels of oxygen equation(s). [See also 1.A.1].
in the atmosphere attack chemical bonds. 119Bottleneck Effect. Original
Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., population. Bottlenecking event. Surviving
publishing as Benjamin Cummings. population. Figure 23.10-3.
62In 1953, Stanley Miller and Harold 120Case Study: Impact of Genetic Drift on
Urey tested the Oparin-Haldane hypothesis the Greater Prairie Chicken. Loss of
by creating, in the laboratory, the prairie habitat caused a severe reduction
conditions that had been postulated for in the population of greater prairie
early Earth. They discharged sparks in an chickens in Illinois The surviving birds
atmosphere of gases and water vapor. had low levels of genetic variation, and
Fig. 26.10. Copyright 2002 Pearson only 50% of their eggs hatched.
Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin 121Figure 23.11. Post-bottleneck
Cummings. (Illinois, 1993). Pre-bottleneck
63 (Illinois, 1820). Greater prairie chicken.
64The Miller-Urey experiments still Range of greater prairie chicken. (a).
stimulate debate on the origin of Earths Percentage of eggs hatched. Number of
early stockpile of organic ingredients. alleles per locus. Population size.
Alternate sites proposed for the synthesis Location. Illinois 19301960s 1993. 5.2
of organic molecules include submerged 3.7. 1,00025,000 <50. 93 <50.
volcanoes and deep-sea vents where hot Kansas, 1998 (no bottleneck). 750,000. 99.
water and minerals gush into the deep 5.8. Nebraska, 1998 (no bottleneck).
ocean. Another possible source for organic 75,000 200,000. 5.8. 96. (b).
monomers on Earth is from space, including 122Researchers used DNA from museum
via meteorites containing organic specimens to compare genetic variation in
molecules that crashed to Earth. (Amino the population before and after the
acids have been found in meteorites). bottleneck The results showed a loss of
Copyright 2002 Pearson Education, Inc., alleles at several loci Researchers
publishing as Benjamin Cummings. introduced greater prairie chickens from
65Laboratory simulations of early-Earth populations in other states and were
conditions have produced organic polymers. successful in introducing new alleles and
The abiotic origin hypothesis predicts increasing the egg hatch rate to 90%.
that monomers should link to form polymers 123Effects of Genetic Drift: A Summary.
without enzymes and other cellular Genetic drift is significant in small
equipment. Researchers have produced populations Genetic drift causes allele
polymers, including polypeptides, after frequencies to change at random Genetic
dripping solutions of monomers onto hot drift can lead to a loss of genetic
sand, clay, or rock. Similar conditions variation within populations Genetic drift
likely existed on the early Earth when can cause harmful alleles to become fixed.
dilute solutions of monomers splashed onto 124Learning Objectives. LO 4.25 The
fresh lava or at deep-sea vents. Copyright student is able to use evidence to justify
2002 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing a claim that a variety of phenotypic
as Benjamin Cummings. responses to a single environmental factor
66RNA may have been the first genetic can result from different genotypes within
material. Life is defined partly by the population. [See SP 6.1] LO 4.26 The
inheritance. Today, cells store their student is able to use theories and models
genetic information as DNA, transcribe to make scientific claims and/or
select sections into RNA, and translate predictions about the effects of variation
the RNA messages into enzymes and other within populations on survival and
proteins. Many researchers have proposed fitness. [See SP 6.4].
that the first hereditary material was 125Essential knowledge 4.C.4: The
RNA, not DNA. RNA WORLD Because RNA can diversity of species within an ecosystem
also function as an enzymes, it helps may influence the stability of the
resolve the paradox of which came first, ecosystem. a. Natural and artificial
genes or enzymes. ecosystems with fewer component parts and
67Short polymers of ribonucleotides can with little diversity among the parts are
be synthesized abiotically in the often less resilient to changes in the
laboratory. If these polymers are added to environment. [See also 1.C.1] b. Keystone
a solution of ribonucleotide monomers, species, producers, and essential abiotic
sequences up to 10 based long are copied and biotic factors contribute to
from the template according to the maintaining the diversity of an ecosystem.
base-pairing rules. If zinc is added, the The effects of keystone species on the
copied sequences may reach 40 nucleotides ecosystem are disproportionate relative to
with less than 1% error. Copyright 2002 their abundance in the ecosystem, and when
Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as they are removed from the ecosystem, the
Benjamin Cummings. Fig. 26.11. ecosystem often collapses.
68In the 1980s Thomas Cech discovered 126Learning Objectives. LO 4.27 The
that RNA molecules are important catalysts student is able to make scientific claims
in modern cells. RNA catalysts, called and predictions about how species
ribozymes, remove introns from RNA. diversity within an ecosystem influences
Ribozymes also help catalyze the synthesis ecosystem stability. [See SP 6.4].
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http://900igr.net/kartinka/anglijskij-jazyk/shablon-more-animatsiej-212350.html
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the woman - 9 , : The wife is the key to the house. . ; . . A womans tongue wags like a lambs tail. Der mann- .

The english-speaking countries - The English-speaking countries. Scotland. Australia. Great Britain. USA. Disneyland.

The green movement - One of the largest victories in the given campaign can name refusal of flooding of an oil platform brent spar as it contained many toxic substances. Their features. Green color which is used by participants of movement as the general emblem, serves as a symbol of the nature, hope and updating.

The animals - PARROT. BOBCAT. The animals which live in the forest. SEA-HORSE. GRIFFIN. POLAR BEAR. PANDA. SEAL. HIPPO. BEAR. SQUIRREL. LION. FOX. GORILLA. The animals which live in the polar regions. The animals which live in a SAVANNA. FISH. SNAKE. BISON. EMU. The ANIMALS of our planet. CAMEL. SCORPIO. GIRAFFE.

Hippy - The idea of equality and freedom lies in hippies ideology. Mottos, slogans. Epigraph. And if you make evil as an answer to violence you increase it twice. The origin. Ideology.Values. Also it consists in rejection from modern cities, technological progress. They prefer living in forests as our ancestors did.

Youth subcultures - biker. raver. hippie. hacker. subculture. skinhead. rocker. punk. goth. mod.

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