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Defensive Sites
Defensive Sites
Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
Mont Saint-Michel
Carcassonne, France
Carcassonne, France
Sites favoring commerce
Sites favoring commerce
Pittsburgh, the point
Pittsburgh, the point
Chicagos site
Chicagos site
Different interpretations of Manhattans site
Different interpretations of Manhattans site
Different interpretations of Manhattans site
Different interpretations of Manhattans site
Print from Don Meinig, Continental America, 1800-1867 (New Haven &
Print from Don Meinig, Continental America, 1800-1867 (New Haven &
Chicago represents the industrial city in the American imagination
Chicago represents the industrial city in the American imagination
The rail lines created a pattern west of Chicago they formed radial
The rail lines created a pattern west of Chicago they formed radial
Dizzying time-space compression
Dizzying time-space compression
Shipping rates were held in check by competition between water and
Shipping rates were held in check by competition between water and
Chicagos role was as coordinator of north-south and east-west flows
Chicagos role was as coordinator of north-south and east-west flows
Chicagos role was as coordinator of north-south and east-west flows
Chicagos role was as coordinator of north-south and east-west flows
Logging & Lumber
Logging & Lumber
Transformation of nature
Transformation of nature
Transformation of nature
Transformation of nature
The crucial shift: treating grain as a fluid element rather than
The crucial shift: treating grain as a fluid element rather than
The crucial shift: treating grain as a fluid element rather than
The crucial shift: treating grain as a fluid element rather than
The first assembly line was a disassembly line
The first assembly line was a disassembly line
How beef was shipped long distance
How beef was shipped long distance
Chicagos dominance was indicated by its debts in the recession of
Chicagos dominance was indicated by its debts in the recession of
Chicagos dominance was indicated by its debts in the recession of
Chicagos dominance was indicated by its debts in the recession of
Caldwell County Courthouse Lockhart, TX
Caldwell County Courthouse Lockhart, TX
Site, Situation and the Industrial City

: Paul Adams. , . , Site, Situation and the Industrial City.ppt zip- 2448 .

Site, Situation and the Industrial City

Site, Situation and the Industrial City.ppt
1Site, Situation and the Industrial 21America. Rudyard Kipling.
City. or how technology created a second 22Rise to regional dominance. Chicago
nature. The information and graphics in rose to the position of the dominant
this presentation are drawn from William western city in the U.S. by 1870
Cronon, Natures Metropolis (New York population of 1 million by 1890, up to
& London: W.W. Norton & Company, from only 4,500 people in 1840 the city
1991). grew by 19,000 people each year for 50
2Definitions. Site: the relationship years passed up St. Louis during the Civil
between a city and the physical War but urban dominance involves more than
environment and landscape in which it is just population size.
located Situation: the relationship 23In the mid 19th century Chicago vied
between a city and the rest of the urban with St. Louis for the role of the leading
system in which it is located. city in the West Why? Why St. Louis?
3Defensive Sites. Print from Don Meinig, Continental
4Mont Saint-Michel. America, 1800-1867 (New Haven &
5Mont Saint-Michel. London: Yale University Press, 1993).
6Would this be a good type of place for 24The rail lines created a pattern west
urban growth in the 21st century? No, of Chicago they formed radial lines, like
there is no longer a need for this kind of a funnel (W. to E.) or a sprinkler (E. to
protection, so isolation becomes a W.) east of Chicago they formed a trunk
disadvantage Yes, 21st century cities to New York.
depend (among other things) on tourism 25Dizzying time-space compression.
money, and Mont Saint-Michel is a prime 26Shipping rates were held in check by
tourist destination Isolation has gone competition between water and rails.
from being essential to being an 27Chicagos role was as coordinator of
inconvenience to being an amenity, Site north-south and east-west flows. lumber
characteristics are evaluated differently traveled from north to south. hardware had
in different periods of a cultures to be directed from east to west.
evolution. 28Chicago as a case study of spatial
7Carcassonne, France. This defensive linkages in the industrial era. logging
city is invaded by some 3,000,000 tourists & lumber grain shipping meat
annually! slaughtering and packing debt.
8Sites favoring commerce. 29Logging & Lumber. north-south axis
9Ascent to Regional Primacy in the summer-winter seasonality economically
Industrial Era (summary). By stimulating marginal totally depended on Chicago:
the production of basic commodities By lumber market labor market land market
then handling these commodities (as a credit market.
break-in-bulk point) By assuming the risks 30Transformation of nature.
of investing in these commodities then 31Grain Shipping. best soil in the U.S.
reaping the profits (when investment paid lay under the tallgrass prairie steel plow
off) and by using economies of scale (1822) was able to cut heavy sod the
Industrial cities dominated their impetus for rapid land conversion lay in
hinterlands during the industrial era Chicagos monetary instruments and
First created then helped destroy rural grain-handling technologies Chicago Board
towns. of Trade introduced grading system for
10Pittsburgh, the point. Allegheny grain (1848) grain elevators required
River. Monongahela River. Ohio River. graded grain, drastically reduced
Originally a defensive site, but perfect per-bushel overhead costs due to waste and
for river-based commerce and later for labor.
industry 32The crucial shift: treating grain as a
11Chicagos site. In the mid 19th fluid element rather than discrete items.
century Chicago vied with St. Louis for new way (Chicago Board of Trade) old way
the role of the leading city in the West (selling by the bag).
Why Chicago? Why St. Louis? Print from Don 33Meat Slaughtering & Packing. 20-40
Meinig, Continental America, 1800-1867 million bison eliminated in 25 years about
(New Haven & London: Yale University 2000 per day grain farms and cow pastures
Press, 1993). replaced the open prairie as European
12Chicagos situation. Given a certain peoples replaced Native Americans Union
technological system (a culture complex Stockyard: 10 miles of feed troughs,
consisting of artifacts, sociofacts & 500,000 gallons of water/day, 2,300 pens
mentifacts) And given a certain landscape economies of scale allowed Chicago meat
Chicagos site predisposed it to be packers to undercut the prices of local
dominant within the urban system butcher shops throughout the Midwest.
Entrepreneurs and investors took advantage 34The first assembly line was a
of its site (some made money and some lost disassembly line.
it) to turn this city into the leading 35Meat Slaughtering & Packing. Any
city of the Midwest. city creates a market that encourages both
13Different interpretations of settlement and land conversion Industrial
Manhattans site. ? 1764 1807 ? era infrastructure (i.e. the train and
http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~b refrigeration combined) made it possible
kyn/Map/NY.1807.html. for the city to exert this influence over
http://www.carto.com/chighlights/us_east.h a wider area The stockyards, originally at
ml. the south end of the city, became a focus
14Chicagos Site, Situation & of activity and a nucleus of new urban
Infrastructure. What was seen as a wild growth The stockyards even became a
onion field by the Native Americans was popular tourist destination and people
seen as a point of least distance between could watch the animals being slaughtered.
two inland waterways by the European 36How beef was shipped long distance.
settlers. Different perception of the 37Debt. Credit flows are normally hidden
resources inherent in a site Water access & private Bankruptcy filings bring
spurred initial investment frenzy in the them into the public record Q: Were 19th
1830s Barge shipping provided competition c. Chicago debtors different from debtors
that kept down the cost of rail shipping in Peoria? Study of 1873 financial panic
in the summer Rail shipping (main lines to shows invisible economic links Peorias
NY) took over for water in the winter. hinterland is local while Chicagos
15Print from Don Meinig, Continental stretched from the Gulf coast to Lake
America, 1800-1867 (New Haven & Superior and from the Mississippi to Cape
London: Yale University Press, 1993). Cod!
16First and second nature. FIRST NATURE. 38Chicagos dominance was indicated by
SECOND NATURE. animals & plants in an its debts in the recession of 1873-74.
area reflect climate, soil, topography, Compare to Peoria.
etc. animals & plants in an area 39Fate of the American small town. The
reflect shipping, investing, and human American small town (Optimo City)
diet. the most important flows are energy evolved from a fort, struggled for the
flows. the most important flows are cash county seat, is laid out in a grid, bears
flows. natural complexity makes prediction evidence of dependency on the railroad, is
difficult. social complexity makes racially and economically segregated, is
prediction difficult. still tied to its rural hinterlands, is
17Chicago represents the industrial focused on a courthouse square, and is
city in the American imagination. dirty both threatened and enchanted by the
rough uncivilized dynamic creative promise of growth. J. B. Jackson (1952).
corrupt. 40Fate of the American small town. Small
18A CHICAGO POEM. Hog butcher for the town founded in the 19th c. is now in
World Tool Maker, Stacker of Wheat, Player retreat Architecture from 19th c. remains
with Railroads and the Nations Freight but the purpose for the town has been
Handler; Stormy, husky, brawling, City of undermined and the buildings are often
the big shoulders. Carl Sandburg. empty Automobile and freeway formed the
19CHICAGO IMAGES. Chicago is a city of basis of a different type of spatial
Working people, who came to earn their organization Long-distance travelers pass
daily bread in heavy industries--steel, through, dont stay the night Residents no
packing, railroads, farm equipment. They longer gravitate toward the center of town
came seeking more than bread though. There for routine shopping Residents go to
has always been in this city, this distant cities for major shopping at
cockeyed wonder of a town, a quest for regional shopping centers Witold
beauty. Studs Terkel. Rybczynski (1995).
20CHICAGO IMAGES. Chicago the jazz 41Caldwell County Courthouse Lockhart,
baby--the reeking, cinder-ridden, joyous TX. Mike Flanery:
Baptist stronghold, Chicago the chewing http://courthouses.flanery.net/index.html.
gum center of the world, the bleating 42SUMMARY. Site and situation work
slant-headed rendez-vous of sociopaths and together At a given point in history,
pants makers--in the name of the seven within a particular culture, a certain
Holy Imperishable Arts, Chicago salutes site may be perceived as advantageous or
you. Ben Hecht. disadvantageous It may present a threat or
21CHICAGO IMAGES. I have struck a an opportunity Much of the judgment rests
city--a real city--and they call it on technology, especially transportation
Chicago. The other places do not count. and storage technology Part of this
Having seen it, I urgently desire never judgment relates to the potential of a
to see it again. It is inhabited by city to interact with other cities (its
savages and its air is dirt. Also it situation).
says that it is the boss town of
Site, Situation and the Industrial City.ppt
http://900igr.net/kartinka/anglijskij-jazyk/site-situation-and-the-industrial-city-228626.html
c

Site, Situation and the Industrial City

Site, Situation and the Industrial City

City Ukraine - Sources. It is a very important port and one of the most beautiful cities in Ukraine . The cities of Ukraine. Odessa is situated at the Black Sea coast. From 1918 to 1934 years Kharkov was the official capital of Ukraine. The cities of Ukraine. Dnepropetrovsk Dnepropetrovsk is a dynamic and lively city.

The green movement - The main objective to achieve the decision of global environmental problems, including by attraction to them of attention of the public and the authorities. National offices Green Peace are opened in 43 countries of the world as the independent units working over achievement of the purposes of the national projects.

London city - ANSWER THE QUESTIONS. It is the financial and () centre of Great Britain. Today, covers, of, millions, London, with, a vast area, inhabitants. Where is a fashionable shopping and entertainment centre situated? At night it is almost deserted. MAKE UP SENTENCES. Congratulations! The job is done!

The english-speaking countries - Disneyland. Australia. Scotland. USA. Great Britain. The English-speaking countries.

City London - The best places of the West End. Trafalgar Square. The 1700s the Queen's Residence was a gift from Henry Ford. Here are the historical places as well as the famous parks. The Cathedral of Saint Paul. Tower Bridge. Queen Victoria Memorial. To the east the large area called the East End. Cleopatra's Needle.

the woman - ; The wife is the key to the house. Un homme- . A man - . , . A womans tongue wags like a lambs tail. . As great a pity to see a woman cry as a goose go barefoot. , , .

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