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Skills development in the study of history

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Skills development in the study of history

Skills development in the study of history.ppt
1Skills development in the study of 51an upper room at his store; his wife told
history. The Atlantic slave trade some of her friends that he had not lodged
exemplar. Analysing and applying. The at home for two weeks together, I have
approaches contained within these seen these two kept misses, as they are
materials are for exemplification purposes there called, at his store; he was
only. Practitioners should adapt these to afterwards stabbed in an attempt to arrest
suit the needs of their learners. a runaway slave, and died in about ten
Practitioners should refer to SQA days.. Source A is a slave owner
documentation at all times. Practitioners describing how slaves pay their owners for
are encouraged to share good practice by time off. The cost is dependent on the
contacting Education Scotland through skill of the slave, and how badly they are
customer services. needed. If owners dont receive the money
2The Atlantic slave trade exemplar the slave gets flogged. The author alludes
National 3 Higher. This exemplar should to the use of prostitution among female
be read in conjunction with Section 1: slaves to raise the money. Other women
Introductory advice and guidance. These cook, clean, pick or sell. The author
examples are adaptable and will help to describes the situation of his friend, who
stimulate further development of kept two female slaves above his shop as
approaches to learning and teaching. None mistresses/concubines.
of the presentations included in this 52Paraphrasing. Extension/alternative
support are designed to be used with ideas Learners could be challenged to see
learners in their current form. The who can come up with a paraphrase in the
presentations provide advice, guidance and quickest time. They must recite their
exemplars for practitioners to reflect on paraphrase without looking at the source.
in their own planning for learning and Other learners then assess how good it
teaching, and if used should be adapted to was. Working backwards, the practitioner
suit the learners and setting. could supply learners with a list of
3The Atlantic slave trade exemplar paraphrases and the learners match these
National 3 Higher. Practitioners should to the correct sources.
always refer to the relevant SQA 53Paraphrasing. Recording information
documentation when creating materials so Paraphrasing lends itself well to being
as to include material for all relevant recorded as a podcast or vodcast, while
skills and knowledge. As the approaches blogging could also useful here.
are transferable across the study of any 54Summarising. Overview Summarising
historical unit due to the focus on the involves the learner putting only the main
pathways to develop skills, this could be idea(s) from the source material into
an opportunity for practitioners to share his/her own words. As with paraphrasing,
their skills with other practitioners in this activity requires the learner to
the delivery of history by leading CPD understand context and have an accurate
sessions for colleagues. Practitioners comprehension of the text. Skills
could also use this opportunity to share Understanding Applying Analysing.
and develop skills in interdisciplinary 55Summarising. How it works 1.
and intersector contexts, eg through Glow Summarising involves the learner putting
Meets etc. only the main idea(s) from the source
4Recording information. There are a material into his/her own words. This is a
number of traditional ways to record the useful skill and works well with
information, such as jotters, diary note-taking. 2. The lower the word limit,
entries, posters, postcards, collages etc. the harder the task becomes. 3. Learners
Where possible ICT can support the can compare their summaries after the task
recording of information for most of the for added comprehension.
following activities in a number of new, 56Summarising. Source A is from the 1837
interesting and exciting ways: Blogs printing of American Slavery as it is:
Glowblogs offer an excellent way to record Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses Slaves
information. The learners could take turns belonging to merchants and others in the
updating the blog with information or they city, often hire their own time, for which
could each run their own blog. Wordpress they pay various prices per week or month,
may be an option for those without access according to the capacity of the slave.
to Glow. Podcasts Podcasts provide The females who thus hire their time,
learners with a platform that can reach pursue various modes to procure the money;
thousands. They can aid the development of their masters making no inquiry how they
literacy skills and provide feedback from get it, provided the money comes. If it is
people outwith the school environment. not regularly paid they are flogged. Some
Audacity is an excellent piece of software take in washing, some cook on board
for this purpose. vessels, pick oakum, sell peanuts,
5Recording information. Emodo profile &c., while others, younger and more
This secure social networking site for comely, often resort to the vilest
practitioners and learners offers a pursuits. I knew a man from the north who,
familiar-looking site for learners to though married to a respectable southern
update. Practitioners could ask learners woman, kept two of these mulatto girls in
to pretend to be someone highlighting the an upper room at his store; his wife told
journey of a slave over a period of weeks. some of her friends that he had not lodged
Emails Collaborating with another at home for two weeks together, I have
school, learners can exchange emails with seen these two kept misses, as they are
details about the information they have there called, at his store; he was
learned. Different schools could research afterwards stabbed in an attempt to arrest
the story of different slaves and exchange a runaway slave, and died in about ten
their results at the end of every week, days.. Some slaves had to pay their
including interesting facts or stories owners money for the time they werent
about the slaves journey etc. Powerpoint, working. Prices varied depending on the
Prezi and smartboard presentations skill of the slave. Women afforded this by
Learners will be familiar with PowerPoint. picking or selling food, or carrying out
Creating their own requires planning and domestic duties like washing or cooking
an understanding of the sequence of their (on ships). Others, younger women, turned
information. to prostitution. A friend of author kept
6Recording information. Twitter two slaves as mistresses above his shop.
Practitioners may wish to explore the idea 57Summarising. Extension/alternative
of learners writing in the style of a ideas Learners could be challenged to see
tweet. Twitters 140-character limit who can come up with a summary in the
presents a challenge for learners. It is a quickest time. They must recite the
good method for summarising learning. summary without looking at the source.
Practitioners should exercise professional Other learners then assess how good it
judgement prior to engaging with any was. Working backwards, the practitioner
social media platform. Video Learners could supply learners with a list of
can film themselves role-playing a scene, summaries and the learners match these to
as news reporters, characters from the the correct sources.
period of study, modern historians 58Summarising. Recording information
evaluating the past etc. Talking heads Summarising lends itself well to being
Learners can record themselves acting as recorded as a podcast. Practitioners may
the talking head of a character, answering wish to explore setting a 50-word
questions about the period they lived in. challenge where learners can only use a
Infographics Infographics are also worth maximum of 50 words.
exploring. Piktochart is one of many 59Thinking skills grid. Overview This
online web applications that allows activity can help learners revision and
learners to create infographics easily. understanding of subtopics within the
7Recording information. Video games larger topics and units. Skills
There are now many games that offer a Remembering Applying Analysing Creating.
level of creativity in exploring new ways 60Thinking skills grid. How it works 1.
to record information. Little Big Planet Learners draw six columns on an A4 (or
provides creative opportunities for larger) sheet of paper, landscape
interactive information presentation, and orientation. 2. Each column focuses on a
some excellent examples can be found on different piece of knowledge they have
video-sharing websites. Minecraft This learned throughout a subtopic. 3. As they
is another creative platform for learners are both processing the information and
to use to interact with history. It has recording it in different ways, this
been used by practitioners to build activity caters to all types of learners.
medieval villages (after lesson planning) 4. Learners can compare their summaries
and could be used to build plantations, a after the task for added comprehension.
slave galley, recreations of the buildings 61Interesting response (What have I
the tobacco lords built and other scenes found interesting about this topic?).
from the period. Photographs Digital Emotional response (What do I love and
cameras have made it easy to quickly take hate about the topic?). Negative response
photos, and they offer a great opportunity (The bad points about the topic). Positive
for recording evidence in the classroom response (The good points about the
(and outside). topic). Creative response (Draw pictures
8List of activities. Group or pair about the topic). Overview response (What
discussion Fish diagram Discussion were the main points about the topic?).
questions with a report Collage Conversion 62Slaves were treated as cargo. Up to
Perfect answer Filling in the gaps 50,000 a year were being transported in
Paraphrasing Summarising Thinking skills the late 1700s. The heat and awful
grid Skimming Scanning Sequencing Odd one conditions led to many slaves dying. Over
out Exchanging viewpoints Jigsaw. 400,000 slaves died on British ships
9Group or pair discussion: stimulus during the Middle Passage. Ships could
questions. Overview This activity have a loose pack or a tight pack,
encourages learners to think about eventually more ships went for tight pack
questions that may lead to a particular as more slaves equalled more money. Slaves
answer and share them with their peers. It were treated as cargo. Slaves had to lie
has the potential to challenge learners, on their backs in the hold, so more could
who may think creatively about possible be fitted in. Disease was rife. Discipline
alternative questions, and encourages was strong to avoid any chance of
thinking about different interpretations rebelling floggings, torture and
and understandings within the support of a hangings. Slaves would sometimes be
peer group. Skills Remembering brought up on deck for exercise. The crew
Understanding Applying. had it in their best interests to keep the
10Group or pair discussion: stimulus slaves alive as it meant more money. There
questions. How it works Learners are given were lots of Scottish doctors on ships to
high-level open questions. Learners are look after slaves. I would hate to have
encouraged to think of as many answers as been a slave (or doctor) on the Middle
possible. Learners then share their Passage ships. The cramped quarters, poor
answers with their peers. Learners can supplies and bad treatment from the
discuss, with their peers, the answers sailors would have been awful. My friends
they have come up with and justify how and family could have died around me. The
they arrived at a particular answer. Middle Passage. Interesting response (What
11Group or pair discussion: stimulus have I found interesting about this
questions. Questions Do you think racism topic?). Emotional response (What do I
increased or decreased with the widespread love and hate about the topic?). Negative
use of slavery? What were the humanitarian response (The bad points about the topic).
concerns over slavery? Why was widespread Positive response (The good points about
support for abolition of slavery slow in the topic). Creative response (Draw
materialising? To what extent did religion pictures about the topic). Overview
play a part in the development of the response (What were the main points about
slave trade? How did the trade affect the topic?).
Africa as a continent? 63Thinking skills grid.
12Group or pair discussion: stimulus Extension/alternative ideas Columns could
questions. Recording information If be added or taken away. The learners
practitioners maintain a Twitter account choices could be discussed during the
for learning and teaching purposes, they lesson to aid other learners and provoke
may wish to tweet learner responses. This debate. Examining the learners choices
could be one possible way to record can provide insight into the
information from this activity. Discussion practitioners own approach to the course,
around the questions could be recorded as providing a good opportunity for
a podcast. reflective thinking .
13Fish diagram. Overview This activity 64Thinking skills grid. Recording
encourages learners to think about the information This can be recorded as a
causes of questions. This offers learners PowerPoint or smartboard presentation, as
the opportunity to investigate the reasons a Prezi, an infographic, on a blog or as a
we have particular questions and offer poster. The drawing column could be
alternative answers/approaches. It has the created in a generic paint package on a
potential to challenge learners, who may computer.
think creatively about possible 65Skimming. Overview Introducing
alternative questions, and encourages learners to skimming (and scanning) can
thinking about different interpretations help develop their engagement with texts
and understandings. Skills Remembering and encourage them to approach their
Understanding Applying Creativity. reading of texts and sources more
14Fish diagram. How it works Learners analytically. Skills Understanding
use the fish diagram to add their reasons Analysing Evaluating.
in the Reason 14 boxes along the fins. 66Skimming. How it works 1. The learner
They then fill in any additional 'skims' the text, looking for the gist of
information about these reasons in the the piece. 2. This involves reading the
lines leading to the centre, for example title, subtitles, paragraph headings and
they could write racist attitudes along any annotations, followed by the first and
the fins and then explain why people fear last paragraphs. 3. This provides the
death on the Details lines. learner with a good idea of what the text
15Fish diagram. What were the reasons is about before a deeper reading (or not,
behind the growth of the slave trade? as the case may be).
Believed Africans were inferior to Whites. 67Skimming. 1. The learner is given an
Labour needed for New World development. article (or book) and told they have a
eg David Hume Darwin also used. Christians strict 5 (10) minutes to find out what it
believed Africans were heathens. Felt is about. 2. After the time is up, they
Africans needed 'saving'. Native Indians have 5 minutes to write down everything
poor slaves; criminals had finite they have learned about the article or
contracts. Slave factories set up. book without looking at it again. 3. Once
African tribes raided inland for slaves the 5 minutes are up, they take it in
(to profit). turns with a partner to explain what the
16Fish diagram. Recording information piece was about (without notes). 4. After
This activity could be recorded on a this, the learners compare the notes they
PowerPoint, a smartboard, a poster, a took and discuss their choices as well as
whiteboard or in a general paint program. the techniques they used. 5. New material
17Discussion questions with a report. is given out and the learners repeat the
Overview This activity encourages learners process.
to think about questions that may lead to 68Scanning. Overview Introducing
a particular answer, share them with their learners to scanning (and skimming) can
peers and create a report for others to help develop their engagement with texts
learn from. It has the potential to and encourage them to approach their
challenge learners, who may think reading of texts and sources more
creatively about possible alternative analytically. Skills Understanding
questions, and encourages thinking about Analysing Evaluating.
different interpretations and 69Scanning. How it works 1. The learner
understandings within the support of a 'scans' the text with rapid eye movements,
peer group, with the ultimate focus being looking only for the specific information
on the report. Skills Remembering they require, which the practitioner can
Understanding Applying Creating. define author, date written/published,
18Discussion questions with a report. information on a specific topic or key
How it works Learners are given a series words. 2. The information can then be
of leading questions which enable them to underlined, highlighted or noted down. 3.
develop their understanding of a topic This method works best if only a
from simple observations to more particular part of the text is relevant to
high-level questioning and hopefully the learner, and saves reading the whole
reflective learning. Learners produce a piece.
draft report for the class. 70Scanning. 1. The learner is given an
19Discussion questions with a report. article (or book) and told they have a
Consider the following questions, discuss strict 5 minutes to find out a specific
your ideas with a partner/group and use piece of information the practitioner
this information to draft a report. Why defines. 2. After the time is up, the
did certain goods became more popular as a learners explain what techniques they used
result of the slave trade? Who benefitted to find the information. 3. New material
from the trading of these goods? In what is given out and the process is repeated,
ways did the sales of tobacco and sugar with learners now aware of and
change Scotland? Draft a report on the implementing the successful methods of
question: 'From 1707 to 1766 fewer than 30 scanning. 4. Four different pieces of
direct slave voyages left Scotland, information could be given to groups and
therefore the economic impact of the slave each learner asked to find one piece. The
trade on Scotland was minimal.' How group is only finished when everyone has
accurate is this view? found their piece of information. 5. This
20Discussion questions with a report. could be used in a competition between
Consider the following questions, discuss different groups once the learners are
your ideas with a partner/group and use confident in their scanning abilities.
this information to draft a report. How 71Sequencing. Overview Introducing
did one race of people come to believe learners to sequencing can help them
that it was right to enslave another and understand the importance of coherence and
to profit from their unpaid labour? What cohesion within a piece of text. Skills
effects did creating a racial slave system Understanding Applying Analysing.
have on those who owned slaves? Why did 72Sequencing. How it works 1. The
those who were enslaved rarely use learners reorganise the mixed-up pieces of
violence to resist their oppression? In text into a logical order. 2. Learners can
what ways did slaves attempt to create do this by themselves, in pairs or in
families and their own cultures and groups. 3. Sequencing can also be done on
societies in the face of such violent the smartboard using touch-screen
oppression? Draft a report on the software, with learners and dragging and
question: What led many in British society dropping text into the right order. 4.
to conclude that the slave trade was Examples of text to sequence might be:
wrong? essays (cut up into paragraphs) a
21Discussion questions with a report. text-based source (cut up into sentences)
Extension/alternative ideas Learners could a transcript from a speech academic
create their own questions for discussing articles (cut up into paragraphs) 5. This
a wider topic, pinpointing areas that need is an excellent activity for raising
to be studied to fully answer the awareness of how the learners own essay
question. These could be put to their should be structured (ie beginning,
peers. Learners could also, on completion middle, end).
of an essay, work backwards to provide the 73Sequencing. Mixed up. Consequently,
questions that they had to answer to reach T.M. Devine has recently posed the
their conclusions. far-from-rhetorical question Did slavery
22Discussion questions with a report. make Scotia great?. Williams was heavily
Recording information Using a criticised, although his detractors
Twitter-style 140-character limit to underestimated the true extent of the
summarise answers to the initial questions overall relationship as they narrowly
can be effective, as can recording the focused on the profits of the maritime
discussion on tape or video. The report trade in slaves. . Devine now argues that
can be written and posted on a blog for Scotland could provide more fertile
learners to view each others different ground for historians who seek to
writing techniques and standards. establish that slavery had a profound
23Source analysis with a report. impact on Scottish industrialisation as it
Overview This activity encourages learners was a relatively poor society in 1750
to think about questions that relate to which underwent rapid growth whilst
sources, share them with their peers and dependent on slave economies for raw
create a report for others to learn from. materials as well as external markets for
It has the potential to challenge exports, in addition to capital transfers
learners, who may think creatively about to the burgeoning industries in
possible alternative questions, and manufacturing, mining and agriculture[D].
encourages thinking about different More recently, Joseph Inikori reinforced
interpretations and understandings within the view that slavery and overseas trade
the support of a peer group with the were the principal determinants of a
ultimate focus being on the report. Skills commercial revolution in England. For
Remembering Understanding Applying Inikori, commerce with slave-based
Creating. economies in an Atlantic system dependant
24Source analysis with a report. How it on chattel slavery had significant
works Learners are given a source to multiplier effects on English
examine. They are then given a series of industrialisation as well as shipping and
leading questions which enable them to on the commercial and financial
develop their viewpoints on the source infrastructure[Y]. These issues have
from simple observations to more promoted vigorous academic debate since
high-level questioning and hopefully the publication of Eric Williamss
reflective learning. Sources should be pioneering text Capitalism and Slavery in
differentiated for the different levels of 1944. Williams defined an exploitative
ability in the class. Learners produce a global relationship in which the profits
draft report for the class. of the slave trade and commerce with the
25Source analysis with a report. Source slave colonies were crucial to the
A is a passage drawn from Jean Barbot, industrial development of Great
Barbot on Guinea: The Writings of Jean Britain[L]. The two most controversial
Barbot on West Africa 1678-1712. (This questions regarding chattel slavery and
source was chosen by Simon Newman, Great Britain in the modern era are
Professor of American Studies at the economic in nature: how profitable was the
University of Glasgow.) 'Among the Moors West India trade and how did slavery
are persons engaged in various influence the industrial and agricultural
occupations, those at the coasts being development of the nation? However, whilst
mostly merchants, fishermen, goldsmiths, there is a mature yet inconclusive
canoe-men, house-builders, salt-makers, historiography regarding the impact on
roofers, farmers, potters, porters, etc. England, the relationship between chattel
Each is engaged in his occupation in order slavery and Scotland remains obscure.
to gain a livelihood and even to become 74Sequencing. Correct order. The two
rich, since nowadays, having studied us most controversial questions regarding
Europeans, they are as ambitious and chattel slavery and Great Britain in the
greedy as formerly they were simple and modern era are economic in nature: how
content with the necessities of life, not profitable was the West India trade and
even being acquainted with the use of how did slavery influence the industrial
clothes. Of all their occupations, that of and agricultural development of the
the merchant is the most honourable. The nation? These issues have promoted
agents and merchants usually come out to vigorous academic debate since the
the ships in small, neat canoes paddled by publication of Eric Williamss pioneering
two Moors, they themselves sitting in the text Capitalism and Slavery in 1944.
middle on a little wooden stool and having Williams defined an exploitative global
beside [each of] them a cutlass, a pipe relationship in which the profits of the
and a small reed basket to contain slave trade and commerce with the slave
whatever they buy on the ship... Those who colonies were crucial to the industrial
buy on their own account do not usually development of Great Britain[L]. Williams
sell the goods again until the ships have was heavily criticised, although his
left, in order to make more gain. They detractors underestimated the true extent
also make much profit on the goods they of the overall relationship as they
buy for others, since they hand over the narrowly focused on the profits of the
goods to them at a much higher price than maritime trade in slaves. . More recently,
they gave for them, or else they hand over Joseph Inikori reinforced the view that
short weight... These Moorish merchants do slavery and overseas trade were the
not trade only in gold but also in slaves, principal determinants of a commercial
whom they bring to the ships in fairly revolution in England. For Inikori,
large numbers when there are wars. But in commerce with slave-based economies in an
peacetime, as was the case on the whole Atlantic system dependant on chattel
Gold Coast in 1682, there is little trade slavery had significant multiplier effects
in these and they are very dear... Hardly on English industrialisation as well as
ever is ivory traded, because such ivory shipping and on the commercial and
as they have there comes from far inland financial infrastructure[Y]. However,
or from Quaqua or Congo, and because they whilst there is a mature yet inconclusive
use it for trumpets, bracelets, and other historiography regarding the impact on
things they make and use, which means that England, the relationship between chattel
ivory is dear there. Hardly any wax is slavery and Scotland remains obscure.
available, since they employ it to make Consequently, T.M. Devine has recently
candles (whose use they have known for posed the far-from-rhetorical question
some time).'. Did slavery make Scotia great?. Devine
26Source questions with a report. What now argues that Scotland could provide
is this source describing? When was it more fertile ground for historians who
written? Why do you think Jean Barbot seek to establish that slavery had a
wrote this book? What is Jean Barbots profound impact on Scottish
attitude towards Africans on the West industrialisation as it was a relatively
Coast? How economically important is poor society in 1750 which underwent rapid
slavery for the average trader on the West growth whilst dependent on slave economies
Coast? for raw materials as well as external
27Source analysis with a report. Source markets for exports, in addition to
B is a passage drawn from William Smith, A capital transfers to the burgeoning
New Voyage to Guinea: Describing The industries in manufacturing, mining and
Customs, Manners, Soil, Climate, Habits, agriculture[D].
Buildings, Education, Manual Arts, 75Sequencing. Mixed up. However, slavery
Agriculture, Trade, Employments, was not hereditary, and the children of
Langauges, Ranks of Distinction, slaves were usually regarded as being free
Habitations, Diversions, Marriages, and members of the household of their parents
whatever else is memorable among the master. People living in West Africa, both
Inhabitants, 1745. (This source was chosen free and enslaved, did not see their lives
by Simon Newman, Professor of American as being shaped or dominated by trade with
Studies at the University of Glasgow.) the Europeans and the transatlantic slave
'The Negroe Town of Cape Coast [British trade. However, the massive size of the
trading headquarters] is very large and transatlantic slave trade meant that in
populous. The Inhabitants, tho Pagans, wars and raids a very great number of West
are a very civilizd Sort of People, for Africans were captured and sold to the
which they are beholding to their frequent Europeans. Enslaved Africans who were sold
Conversation with the Europeans. They are to the Europeans and transported to the
of a warlike Disposition, tho in time of Americas would experience a very different
Peace, their chief Employment is fishing, form of slavery to those who were slaves
at which they are very dexterous, in Africa. Most stayed on or near the
especially with a Cast-Net, wherewith they coast, and they knew little of the heavily
take all Sorts of Surface Fish, nor are populated African interior. Slavery had
they less acquainted with the Hook and been an important social institution in
Line for the Ground Fish. It is very West Africa long before the arrival of the
pleasant to see a Fleet, consisting of Europeans. The transportation of over ten
Eighty or a Hundred Canoes, going out a million African slaves to the Americas
Fishing from Cape Coast in a Morning, and implies an absolute European dominance of
returning in from Sea well freighted in West Africa that simply did not exist. But
the Evening, which may be seen every day those West Africans who were taken in
during the dry Seasons, except Tuesday chains to the New World suffered very
which is their Fittish Day, or Day of different experiences. In Africa slavery
Rest. They frequently venture abroad in was predominantly a system of organising
the Rains, tho they are sometimes drove labour in a society with many people but
in again, at the approach of a Turnadoe, limited opportunities for land ownership
before they have been two Hours abroad. and economic survival. West Africans
The Grand Caboceroe [powerful intermediary controlled the trade in gold, ivory,
between Europeans and local people] of spices and eventually slaves, and
this Town, is a Christian, namd Thomas historians continue to debate whether West
Osiat. He was carried when young to Africans should be regarded primarily as
Ireland, where his Master dying, left him victims of or participants in the
in Care with a Widow, whome Name was transatlantic slave trade. In Europe land
Pennington, who kept the Crown or Faulcon was the main form of wealth-producing
Tavern near the Change in Cork. She took property, but in much of West Africa
Care of his Education, and had him rulers and the elite owned land, and
baptizd by the Reverend Dr. Maul, now slaves became an important form of
Lord Bishop of Cloyne. After having wealth-producing property, enabling their
obtaind his Freedom, in this Manner, he owners to profit from the land they rented
in Time returnd home to Cape Coast, where from local rulers. Relatively few
he now lives in very great Grandeur, and Europeans settled on the West African
is of the utmost Service to the English, coast, and many of those who did were soon
both for the carrying on their Trade in struck down by yellow fever, malaria and
the Inland Country, and preserving Peace other diseases.
with all the neighbouring Powers, 76Sequencing. Correct order. The
especially the Town of Elmina...'. transportation of over ten million African
28Source questions with a report. What slaves to the Americas implies an absolute
is this source describing? When was it European dominance of West Africa that
written? Why do you think William Smith simply did not exist. Relatively few
has written this book? What is William Europeans settled on the West African
Smiths opinion of the Africans he coast, and many of those who did were soon
describes? What bearing, if any, does struck down by yellow fever, malaria and
Smiths religion have on his account? How other diseases. Most stayed on or near the
does Smiths account compare with coast, and they knew little of the heavily
Barbots? populated African interior. West Africans
29Source questions with a report. controlled the trade in gold, ivory,
Extension/alternative ideas Learners could spices and eventually slaves, and
create their own questions for discussion historians continue to debate whether West
beyond the sources, pinpointing areas that Africans should be regarded primarily as
need to be explored further to fully victims of or participants in the
answer the question. Different sources transatlantic slave trade. Slavery had
could be presented to different groups and been an important social institution in
instead of a report, learners could create West Africa long before the arrival of the
a presentation on the source to the other Europeans. In Europe land was the main
groups. form of wealth-producing property, but in
30Source questions with a report. much of West Africa rulers and the elite
Recording information Recording the owned land, and slaves became an important
discussion on tape or video can be form of wealth-producing property,
effective. The report could be written and enabling their owners to profit from the
posted on a blog for learners to view each land they rented from local rulers.
others different writing techniques and However, slavery was not hereditary, and
standards. If the learners are creating a the children of slaves were usually
presentation instead of a report, using regarded as being free members of the
PowerPoint or Prezi may be a good way to household of their parents master. In
record the information. Africa slavery was predominantly a system
31Collage. Overview This activity asks of organising labour in a society with
learners to represent their views on an many people but limited opportunities for
issue or concept in a visual, creative and land ownership and economic survival.
engaging way. It encourages learners not However, the massive size of the
only to communicate effectively, but also transatlantic slave trade meant that in
to develop their interpretation skills in wars and raids a very great number of West
considering other peoples work. Skills Africans were captured and sold to the
Understanding Applying Analysing. Europeans. Enslaved Africans who were sold
32Collage. How it works Each group is to the Europeans and transported to the
given a relevant word, idea, issue or Americas would experience a very different
concept that they must represent using a form of slavery to those who were slaves
range of provided materials. Such in Africa. People living in West Africa,
materials might include magazines, both free and enslaved, did not see their
newspapers, sticky shapes, coloured card lives as being shaped or dominated by
and paper, marker pens, scissors, glue and trade with the Europeans and the
pens. Groups must discuss what their key transatlantic slave trade. But those West
term/concept means and record how they Africans who were taken in chains to the
decide to represent this, with supporting New World suffered very different
reasons. The practitioner may wish to experiences.
establish certain criteria for the 77Sequencing. Recording information
collages in order to add a challenge Sequencing can be stuck into jotters or
aspect to the activity (this is an posted on blogs. The discussion over the
opportunity to involve learners in right order of the pieces could be
creating success criteria and for recorded as a vodcast or podcast.
practitioners to ensure differentiation is 78Odd one out. How it works Odd one out
effectively planned into learning so that is an activity that can be used as a
all learners are fully involved, engaged springboard for initial exploration of the
and challenged). topic or as a tool to consolidate
33Collage. How it works Learners are knowledge. Learners are encouraged to
given a time limit to complete the task. explore for themselves the similarities
Groups can present their work to others or and differences between ideas and to
groups can navigate around the room to foster an understanding relationship
consider the work of each group. Each between them. Overview Odd one out is an
group should discuss and take notes on the activity that can be used as a springboard
work of others. Discussion can take place for initial exploration of the topic or as
about what each group felt the other a tool to consolidate knowledge. Learners
groups were trying to represent and how are encouraged to explore for themselves
they interpreted this. the similarities and differences between
34Resistance. Active resistance. ideas and to foster an understanding
Unhappy. Damaging property. Wants change. relationship between them. Skills
Mental. Physical. Arson. Running away. Remembering Understanding Applying
Working slowly. Passive resistance. Analysing.
35Collage. Recording information 79Odd one out. How it works Learners are
Presenting the collage as a poster is the given a set of key words, ideas, places,
best traditional method for this activity, events or people, depending on the
but allowing a group to create a poster on learning area and topic. Learners must
a computer is also a good approach. Little decide on the odd one out in each grid or
Big Planet could also be used as a way of list. Often there may be no right or wrong
creating collages. answers and any word might be the odd one
36Conversion. Overview Being able to out. Learners must therefore give a
take information and convert it into justified and valid response as to why
another format demonstrates understanding they chose a particular word and the
and also develops analytical skills. This nature of the relationship between the
activity engages learners with source other words on the list. A discussion
material from the area of study. It also afterwards might concentrate on how
provides learners with an opportunity to learners made the connections between the
make a choice about how they want to words, the processes involved and whether
develop their understanding. Skills the group work has helped learners to see
Applying Analysing Evaluating Creating. different connections which they otherwise
37Conversion. How it works Learners are might not have considered.
presented with an event, source or idea. 80Odd one out. Possible answers A it
Practitioners should ensure that the is the only one set on the Middle Passage
presented material is explained and that B it is the only one where black people
learners have the opportunity to discuss are guarding the slaves C it is the only
or ask questions about it. Learners are one to show the method of oppression D
then given options about how they would the only image that shows the slaves
like to convert the presented information. without their captors or means of
38Conversion. Groups select from any of incarceration. Source A:
the following (found in Olaudah Equianos http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/
autobiography) Being taken from his home etailsKeyword.php?keyword=e019&recordC
The Middle Passage Life as a slave On unt=1&theRecord=0. Source B:
being freed Groups convert your chosen http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/
text into a new format, which they will etailsKeyword.php?keyword=c017&recordC
present to the class. Possibilities unt=2&theRecord=0. Source C:
include: a mind map a storyboard a play a http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/
creative story a diary entry a comic strip etailsKeyword.php?keyword=JCB_01203-2&
a poem a flow diagram a song Groups: ecordCount=3&theRecord=0. Source D:
explain/perform their piece to the whole http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/Slavery/
class explain which source they chose and etailsKeyword.php?keyword=hazard2&reco
why explain the conversion it has gone dCount=1&theRecord=0.
through: why did they choose to present it 81Odd one out. Extension/alternative
in this form, what are the key elements of ideas Learners could create their own odd
the text and how have they expressed and one out boards, either by themselves or in
emphasised these? groups, and have a discussion about the
39Conversion. Recording information The choices.
method of recording depends mainly on the 82Odd one out. Recording information
way the learner converts the data. Recording this activity and the debate
Needless to say most, if not all, of the that ensues on video is perhaps the best
recording suggestions would work here. method. Learners could also be presented
40Perfect answer. Overview This activity with the pictures and asked to write a
helps the learners to work as a group to blog post describing which one is the odd
develop 'perfect' answers to a question. one out.
It involves peer learning and the sharing 83Exchanging viewpoints. Overview This
of the learners knowledge on the subject. activity can be used to develop learners
Skills Understanding Applying Evaluating. understanding of different points of view
41Perfect answer. How it works Learners regarding a debatable topic. Not only must
work in groups. Numbered questions are they listen to others, but they have to
placed around the room. Each member of the describe the views of other learners.
group is given a number. In numerical Skills Applying Analysing Evaluating
order, learners take it in turns to go and Creating.
find a question (these must be answered in 84Exchanging viewpoints. How it works
numerical order: learner 1 finds question Each learner will need a name tag that can
1, then learner 2 finds question 2 and so be easily swapped with a partner. A
on). Once the learner has found the question which provokes debate should be
question they return to the group and tell posed to the class. This might be a new
everyone what it is. The group develop as topic or one that learners have already
detailed an answer as possible. The studied if using the task for revision.
learner who found the question takes the Learners are given a short amount of time
perfect answer to the practitioner. The to consider their answer to the question
practitioner can accept the answer, ask and instructed that they will have to
for an expansion or give a clue to take describe their view to another learner. A
back to the group to discuss and find the time limit is set during which learners
perfect answer. The process is then must describe their view and at least one
repeated until the group has provided the reason why they have this view. Learners
perfect answer. The next learner then exchange their name tags so that they are
goes and finds the next question and the wearing each others.
process begins again. 85Exchanging viewpoints. How it works
42Perfect answer. Importance of slave Learners must then find a new partner and
trade to British economy. Question 1 In instead of describing their own view, they
what ways did profits from the slave trade describe the view of the person whose name
shape cities like Glasgow and Liverpool? tag they are wearing. Once the time is up,
Question 3 Why were tropical crops and the they again swap name tags, find a new
profits they provided important to the partner and describe the view of the
British economy? Question 2 To what extent person whose tag they are wearing. This
did the slave trade affect Britains can be done as few or as many times as
maritime industry? Question 4 Who profited required, depending on the time available.
from the slave trade and how did they Learners write down as many of the
maximise profits? different views as they can remember.
43Perfect answer. Recording information After a period of time the learners are
Blogs could be used to record the perfect asked to place their name tags on a large
answers, although they could also be piece of paper and to express and explain
recorded on tape. A poster provides an the view of the learner named. The learner
alternative way of recording the answers. named can then add further points of
44Filling in the gaps. Overview This clarification or correct any errors.
activity requires the learner to 86Should the slave trade be made
understand context and vocabulary in order illegal? Rory Slave owner Absolutely
to identify the correct words or type of not. Slaves have a limited period of use
words that belong in the deleted parts of seven years is the best we can get out of
a text. Words are deleted from a passage them. What will we do if we cant replace
according to a word-count formula or them? Kirsten Ship owner Most of my
various other criteria, eg all adjectives, business involves trading slaves and goods
all words that have a particular letter to Africa. If we make it illegal Ill lose
pattern. The passage is presented to thousands of pounds. Marco Slave Yes, it
learners, who insert the correct words in has ruined millions of African lives. I
the gaps as they read to construct was taken from my family when I was five,
appropriate meaning from the text. Skills and my sister and my brother were taken
Understanding Applying Analysing. ten years earlier. Josh
45Filling in the gaps. How it works 1. Anti-abolitionist No! They are uncivilised
Words are deleted from a passage according and do not deserve freedom! They were made
to a word-count formula or various other to work. Amy Pro-abolitionist It has to
criteria, eg all adjectives, all words be! It is a deplorable act and distinctly
that have a particular letter pattern. 2. un-Christian.
The passage is presented to learners, who 87Exchanging viewpoints. Recording
insert correct words in the gaps as they information Recording on video is a great
read to construct appropriate meaning from medium for this activity, although each
the text. 3. The missing words can be group recording themselves is also a good
presented in a separate box, but for approach. Learners might record themselves
higher levels it is more constructive for as talking heads, defending their
the learners to come up with the words viewpoint. Alternatively, each learner
themselves. could make notes.
46Filling in the gaps. The American 88Interrogation (also called hot
Revolution had a _______ effect on trade, seating). Overview This activity calls on
and tobacco investors _______. However, the practitioner, or a learner or group of
many _______ Glaswegians had _______ into learners, to play the role of a character
trade with the West Indies, importing from the period of time being studied.
_______ and making rum, and by the end of Skills Understanding Remembering
the 18th century Glasgow had become Evaluating.
Britains biggest _______ of sugar. 89Interrogation (also called hot
Glasgow _______ as the second city of the seating). How it works The practitioner,
British Empire during the 19th century, learner or groups of learners pose as a
_______ wealth from heavy engineering, character from the period of study (eg an
shipbuilding and _______ _______. This anti-abolitionist). This can be a famous
period saw _______ growth in the citys character, an anonymous person or a group
population and _______ size and it was of people. The remaining learners can
_______ this era that Victorian Glasgow question and interrogate the character(s)
was _______. on any aspect of the history period they
47Filling in the gaps. are studying. The actor(s) must stay in
Extension/alternative ideas Learners could role throughout the interrogation,
be challenged to come up with their own sticking to what should be his/her
fill in the gaps passages for other opinions (for example defending the slave
learners to complete. trade). It can work well if participants
48Filling in the gaps. Recording are given an opportunity to revise the
information This works well in jotters and topic/the characters stance, as questions
on blogs, or practitioners could tweet and answers can then be prepared.
learners interpretation of the missing 90Interrogation (also called hot
words. Practitioners are also encouraged seating). Characters could be: A tobacco
to explore Glow Blogs and Glow Wikis. lord. A plantation slave. A ships
49Paraphrasing. Overview Paraphrasing captain. A member of parliament. William
involves the learner putting a passage Wilberforce. An African tribesman. Olaudah
from source material into his/her own Equiano. A slave owner. A child born into
words. This activity requires the learner slavery.
to understand context and have an accurate 91Interrogation (also called hot
comprehension of the text. Skills seating). Recording information Recording
Understanding Applying Analysing. on video or tape is a good approach for
50Paraphrasing. How it works 1. Learners this activity. The podcast can be
should use alternative wording to the revisited at a later date for learners to
authors throughout the paraphrase. 2. evaluate and reflect on their questions
Explain that it is important that learners and answers.
use their own words but they should make 92Jigsaw. Overview For more complex
it clear that they are presenting someone work, this activity provides learners with
elses ideas, eg According to Professor the opportunity to develop expertise in
Tom Devine... 3. It is important that one area of a subject and then return to
learners cite their sources. their group with 'experts' from the other
51Paraphrasing. Source A is from the areas to tackle the whole subject. Skills
1837 printing of American Slavery as it Understanding Applying Analysing.
is: Testimony of a Thousand Witnesses 93Jigsaw. How it works The learners are
Slaves belonging to merchants and others in groups of four (or however many pieces
in the city, often hire their own time, of evidence you want to provide). They are
for which they pay various prices per week split up and move to four different
or month, according to the capacity of the stations, where they spend 10 minutes
slave. The females who thus hire their learning about one area of the problem.
time, pursue various modes to procure the After the time limit, everyone returns to
money; their masters making no inquiry how their original group, which now has four
they get it, provided the money comes. If experts on the four different areas of the
it is not regularly paid they are flogged. subject. Working together, the learners
Some take in washing, some cook on board use the information they have learnt to
vessels, pick oakum, sell peanuts, tackle the task on the subject.
&c., while others, younger and more 94Jigsaw. Recording information Poster
comely, often resort to the vilest work is a good method for recording
pursuits. I knew a man from the north who, information in this activity, as are blog
though married to a respectable southern posts. A podcast from each group on their
woman, kept two of these mulatto girls in findings can also prove interesting.
Skills development in the study of history.ppt
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Skills development in the study of history

Skills development in the study of history

The green movement - "Green" movement in the world. The countries in which there are offices Greenpeace. The main objective to achieve the decision of global environmental problems, including by attraction to them of attention of the public and the authorities. National offices Green Peace are opened in 43 countries of the world as the independent units working over achievement of the purposes of the national projects.

The animals - The animals which live in the OCEAN. WHALE. GORILLA. BISON. LION. BOBCAT. KOALA. EMU. The animals which live in the rainforest and tropics. SCORPIO. The ANIMALS of our planet. The animals which live in the polar regions. SEAL. SQUIRREL. POLAR BEAR. PARROT. CAMEL. SEA-HORSE. FLAMINGO. TIGER. STARFISH.

the woman - - , - ; - . , , . . . . . The wife is the key to the house. ; 9 , :

The english-speaking countries - Great Britain. The English-speaking countries. Disneyland. Scotland. USA. Australia.

The first flight - In addition to it the dogs must be patient. Epilogue. Technical characteristics. The beginning of the exploration. Dogs were alive and very happy. Firstly, scientific employees tamed dogs. Americans achievements. All other things are very easy to do. Belka and Strelka made a flight 19 august 1960.

Painting - But we can feel something strange, which makes us happier. Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky. Battle of Chesma. Water lilies 1895. I think that the best work of Levitan is "March". The golden Plyos. Ivan Konstantino- vich Aivazovsky. It is the main idea of this picture. It has peaceful and harmonic coloring.

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