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Social Protection in China

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1Social Protection in China ---- Reform 16“Harmonious society”.
& Development in the Background of 173) New economic situation: Rapid
marketization, globalization & economic growth and the governments’
urbanization. Prof. Xinping Guan (Nankai growing financial capacity 4) Rapid
University, China). industrialization & urbanization after
2The Background --The 30-year Economic entering into WTO ---- Causing more
Reform. Before the reform, China had a low rural-urban migration The changing pattern
economic development with a higher welfare of economic development: ---- From the
protection The economic reform: to provide current labour-intensive to the
more economic opportunities and economic technology-intensive.
security for Chinese people by 182. The new ideology and principles of
marketization and a more open economy. social protection. From the
32. The main trends of Socioeconomic economic-centered to the “harmonious
Changes in China in the last three decades society” guided More emphasis on social
Marketization: The economic system reform equity and the human-centered principle
Globalization: The open-door policy More claims of government’s responsibility
Urbanization: rural-urban migration. and people’s rights in social protection
4II. Institutional Transition in Social To pay more attention to the social
Protection. 1. The Social Protection protection to the vulnerable groups.
systems before the reform. 19To reinforce the government’s
5Changes in the urban social protection intervention, and increase the
system. The food guarantee. Food market. government’s social expenditure.
The job guarantee. Labor market. Public 20Source: China Statistic Yearbook
health care. Semi-commercial. Partly user (2007).
pay. Public education, etc. “Labour 213. Some new actions in social
insurance”. “Social insurance”. Welfare protection. The reinforcement and
housing. Housing market. Social Relief for enlargement of the urban pension system
the “Three Nos”. Before the reform. After The improvement of social assistance
the reform. Social Assistance for all the system The further reform of the health
poor. care system The better provision of
62. The social protection transition housing benefits in cities The starting
during the reform. actions to include rural migrant into
7Changes in the rural social protection urban social protection.
system. Public (collective) farmland. 22IV. The new social protection agenda
Household farmland responsibility. Public for the next decade. 1. The socio-economic
health care. Commercialized. Public changes next Structural change in economic
education. Public education. Collective pattern--- may cause more laid-off
care. Social assistance. “Five Guarantee”. Urbanization: More rural people move into
“Five Guarantee”. Disaster Relief. cities Ageing population: Higher need in
Disaster Assistance. Before the reform. welfare provision.
After the reform. 232. The challenges for the next decade.
83. Characteristics of social Social inequality and the relative poverty
protection transition. Partial Continuous action against absolute poverty
marketization of social services The The balance of economic competition and
decline of the governmental social social protection Better social protection
expenditure in the period of the reform. for the vulnerable groups: The unemployed,
9 rural migrants, the disabled, etc. Higher
10From the traditional universal model needs in social welfare provisions for the
to a more selective welfare system: ---- emerging “aged population”.
more targeting Institutional gap within 243. Policy choices in discussion
the urban reduced, but the rural-urban gap (Institutional arrangements of social
enlarged, and Rural welfare declines. protection) -- How and to what extent the
114. The socio-economic explanations. government should intervene? Welfare vs.
Market reform: to have an institutional Market Universal vs. selective Government
coordination between welfare and economic vs. NGOs Equality vs. Efficiency Social
systems, and to apply the market mechanism governance: Global, national, and local.
in welfare system. Globalization: social 254. Some significant tasks for the next
policy falls into a dilemma when China decade. Back to the middle way and have a
enters into the globalizing world economy. developmental welfare system Increase
-- to enlarge the social welfare programs social protection for the rural people,
to deal with the increasing social including the rural migrants, based on a
problems; -- to reduce social expenditure. urban-rural integrated social protection
12The political system: the social system Preparing for the future ageing
policy is more sensitive to the society.
political/social instability and complains 26Thanks.
from the worse-off groups. Neo-liberal 27
impacts Ideological changes during the 28
process of market reform and 29
globalization. 30
13International Economic Competition 31
Caused by Globalization. Government’s 32
Flexibility in Social Policy. Social 33
Problems Caused by Marketization and 34
Globalization. . Economic Growth. Social 35The development in specific areas of
Stability. social policy. 1. The Development of
145. The achievement and problems in the Social Assistance since 2002.
economic and social transition in the last 36The Urban Minimal Living Security.
three decades. The Achievement A long term 37The Rural Minimal Living Security.
economic development and the increase of 38Current social Assistance systems in
income per capita Decline of poverty rate China.
(by both market reform and the public 392. Social Insurances. Pension: the
actions) Higher living quality and better current system was established in 1997,
provisions in education, health, etc. for and reformed and improved since 2001; To
most of Chinese people. valid the personal account by central
15The Problems -- Higher inequality (The government’s expenditure. The development
growing Gini Coefficient) -- “Absolute of the social insurance programmes of
poverty” still remain, while “relative medical insurance, unemployment,
poverty increase -- Social protection to occupational injury and maternity. But the
the vulnerable groups has been relatively rural social insurance is still in no
decline as a result of the government’s progress.
social expenditure, especially in health 40
care, etc. -- Unable to solve the social 41
problem caused by urbanization and the 42
rural labor migration -- Latent problems 43
in the future “ageing society”. 44
16III. The New development (since 2002). 45
Background 1) The government’s stronger 46
responses to the negative consequences of 472. The new trends for the next decade.
the economic and social reform in 1990s Back to the middle way Towards a
(inequality, Poverty, etc.), and the urban-rural integrated social policy
intension to solve the problems by a system Preparing for the future aging
better social protection system 2) The society.
changing politic-ideological environment: 48Thanks.
More emphasis on social equity More 49
“human-centered” policy orientation
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Social Protection in China

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