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McDonalds: Homogenous or Hybrid
McDonalds: Homogenous or Hybrid
McDonalds: Homogenous or Hybrid
McDonalds: Homogenous or Hybrid
McDonalds: Homogenous or Hybrid
McDonalds: Homogenous or Hybrid
Sociology 2: Class 17: Globalization, Culture, Identity

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Sociology 2: Class 17: Globalization, Culture, Identity

Sociology 2: Class 17: Globalization, Culture, Identity.ppt
1Sociology 2: Class 17: Globalization, 20re-invented) Ex: Quebecois in Canada
Culture, Identity. Copyright 2011 by Political processes and social
Evan Schofer Do not copy or distribute circumstances shape and alter identities.
without permission. 21Perspectives on identity/culture.
2Announcements. Midterm exams available Empirical evidence: Strongly supports the
for review during office hours (NOTE social constructionist perspective 1.
LOCATION!!!): Office hours locations for Culture/identity is not innate and
Feb 28-March 4: Beth Gardner, Erin Evans, unchanging Example: Balkan conflict
& Natasha Miric: SST603 Rachael between Serbs and Croats Primordialist
Chatterson: SST 682; Drew Duncan: SST 619 claim: Hatred is centuries old: There
After this week, email your TA to see your will always be blood on the Balkan soil
exam Final exam coming up Review sheet Evidence: Surveys suggest that trust and
will be out soon Section next week: Final intermarriage were very high in 1980s,
exam review Todays Class: Globalization before political conflict began.
& Culture What is culture, and how 22Perspectives on identity/culture. 2.
does globalization affect it? Is Culture/identity is often the product (not
culture/identity a source of conflict? cause) of political struggle Example:
3Review: Cultural Globalization. Balkan political leaders strategically
Culture refers to many things: 1. invoked ethnicity, stoked hatreds to gain
Popular culture: movies, music, clothing support Inflammatory speech about external
2. World Society Theory: Culture = common threat = a powerful frame to garner
norms, cognitive models, scripts. 3. Group social/political support Elites &
culture/identity: Shared beliefs, social movement groups frame selectively,
traditions, world-views, way of life thereby constructing the conflict along
Example: An indigenous that shares a certain lines Is fight against Al Qaeda a
particular religion, language, cuisine, fight against an Islamic group? A bunch of
etc. Example: National groups (e.g., the Saudis? A bunch of oil-rich bourgeoisie?
French). 23Culture and Conflict. Samuel
4Cultural Globalization. Question: Is Huntington: Clash of Civilizations A.
there such a Orange County culture? If so, There are distinct civilizations in the
what are some of its distinctive features? world, with different histories, beliefs,
Food? Language? Accent? Worldview? and cultures Ex: Western, Confucian,
5Globalization and Culture. One obvious Islamic, Hindu, Latin American B. These
trend: Western (often American) culture is will become the main fault lines of
increasingly dominant around the globe Ex: conflict in the future Replacing the Cold
English is arguably the primary global War battles over ideologies.
language And, many local languages are 24Culture and Conflict. Why will there
dying out Ex: Western music, clothing are be conflict among civilizations? 1.
popular everywhere Other examples from Differences in civilizations are
readings? Personal experiences? fundamental Different language, history,
6Perspectives: Globalization & religion, beliefs about individuals,
Culture. 1. Modernization theory Dominant families, and groups These differences
view in 1950s and 1960s, now criticized are more fundamental than beliefs about
Prediction: Traditional cultures would political ideologies and political
die out, as everyone became modern and regimes. (Reader, p. 28) 2.
rational Modernization theorists thought Globalization: The world gets smaller
this was a good thing Primitive cultures Globalization increases and intensifies
were replaced by advanced ones Local interactions among civilizations.
identities were replaced by modern social 25Culture and Conflict. 3. Economic
& political identities Superstition modernization is separating people from
replaced by rationality, science, local identities (p. 28) Local identities
enlightenment. are dying out, allowing groups to organize
7Perspectives: Globalization & under broad civilizations For him,
Culture. 2. Marxism / World-System Theory civilizations are primordial more so than
Argues that power & culture are local identities Example: There are many
intertwined Marx: Ideas of a society are Islamic sects (often in conflict with each
the ideas of the ruling class Western other); If those sects unite under
economic domination is accompanied by Islam, the potential for conflict
cultural domination Often called Cultural increases Result: There is greater
Imperialism Westerners can effectively civilization consciousness in non-West.
spread their culture via colonialism (and 26Culture and Conflict. Huntingtons
later via media, advertising) This helps prediction: These cultural differences
maintain economic dominance Non-Western will lead to greater global conflict: A
people may reject their own culture, clash of civilizations Either among
prefer to wear Western clothes, listen to civilizations or the West versus the
Lady Gaga, and eat at McDonalds. rest Issue: Sociologists have been very
8Perspectives: Globalization & critical of this view: The general idea of
Culture. 3. World Society Theory Argues coherent civilizations And, the
that a key facet of globalization is the primordial view of culture
emergence of a world culture Embodied, 27Perspectives on identity/culture.
in part, in international associations Bowen: The Myth of Global Ethnic
Global culture provides norms, scripts, Conflict Argues against Huntington (But
and models that shape the behavior of focuses on civil war, not global conflict)
governments Consequence: Governments, Also: Optional reading: Hironaka: Ethnic
laws, societies are becoming increasingly Conflict in Weak States Issue: There are
isomorphic Contrast w/ World System many bloody conflicts raging in developing
Theory: World culture may relate to countries Westerners often attribute them
historical dominance of West. But, to enduring ethnic hatreds Treat them as
culture is not principally a mechanism of sad but inevitable And, many fear
furthering the dominance of the West Huntington-like conflict of West vs. the
Rather, it now evolves somewhat Rest
independently of the interests of powerful 28Perspectives on identity/culture.
countries Ex: Environmentalism, human Question: Do ethnic hatreds explain civil
rights wars? Bowen: No Civil wars are a product
9Perspectives: Globalization & of political struggle made worse by weak
Culture. 4. Homogenization vs. governments, poverty Emphasis on ethnic
Hybridization: A view from anthropology identity/conflict = a Western stereotype
Reading: Martell: Is Globalization not at all describing what is happening
Homogenous or Hybrid? Homogenization: on the ground.
Becoming similar or uniform throughout 29Perspectives on identity/culture.
Latin: Homo = same; gen = make Homogenized Example: Katangan revolt in the Congo From
milk = mixed up really well so that the Hironaka 2005 Typical account: war is
fat doesnt separate out from the liquid result of tribalism and ethnicity (p.
Hybrid: A new breed created by joining two 131, citing Young) Actually, Katangans
or more varieties (e.g., of plant) Refers arent an ethnic group! Katanga a province
to the mixing or blending of cultures. (like a US state) filled with many
10Homogenization vs. Hybridization. different ethnic groups which fought on
Martell: Is Globalization Homogenous or both sides Rather, the war was rooted in
Hybrid? Issue: The homogenization economics and politics For instance:
thesis Also called the McDonaldization Katanga was wealthy; they wanted to stop
Thesis (Ritzer) The idea that global people from migrating, taking jobs.
information flows and capitalism will 30Perspectives on identity/culture.
result in cultural uniformity We all eat Issue: Katangan war did help solidify the
at McDonalds, watch the same TV shows Ex: Katangan cultural identity People began
1.1 billion viewers of Baywatch in 1990s to be willing to die for Katanga But, it
(p. 91) Fits with theories we discussed: would be a mistake to assume that conflict
Modernization: Everyone modernizes Marx / was caused by strong cultural identities
World-system Theory: Everyone dominated by Example: Cold War: I knew people in high
global capitalists, Western media World school that wanted to Nuke those commie
Society Theory: Spread of global Russian bastards Even strong identities
norms/models. can dissolve; Or, be replaced by others
11Homogenization vs. Hybridization. (e.g., desire to fight radical Islamic
Criticisms of the Homogenization view 1. fundamentalists).
Observed exceptions to a single dominant 31Local Reactions to Globalization. So,
culture Example: India has a vibrant film if globalization doesnt inevitably lead
industry Bollywood Hasnt been wiped out to ethnic conflict whats up with Al
by American films 2. Media & Qaeda? The general issue: How can we
consumption are only a part of culture understand reactions against the West?
Watching similar TV or movies doesnt 32Local Responses to Globalization.
erase many other cultural differences Local reactions against Western culture,
(beliefs, religious views, etc) 3. Global imperialism: 1. Opt out. Ignore or shun
culture can be seen as increasingly the external culture Examples: Many
fragmented More and more cable TV stations indigenous groups, the Amish Historically
Shift from mass consumerism to niche most common. Arguably the most
consumption. authentically traditional response to
12Homogenization vs. Hybridization. outsiders Typical outcome: children
Criticisms of the Homogenization view 4. abandon traditional culture; traditional
Homogenization view treats receivers of groups shrink or disintegrate Many
culture as very passive Argument: People traditional societies do not have strong
dont just passive absorb culture Instead: institutions of social control cant
they play an active role Accepting some compete with Western education, media,
ideas and rejecting others Example: Even labor market.
McDonalds, supposedly the source of 33Local Responses to Globalization.
uniformity, has to adapt to local Reactions against Western culture,
demands/customs 5. The dominant culture imperialism: 2. Reactionary movements:
isnt pure it reflects influences from Social movements that attack the system,
other cultures Asian, Latin American, offer an alternative Examples: French
African cultures influence Western music, social movement against American food,
media, food, etc. popular culture; Some Islamic
13Homogenization vs. Hybridization. fundamentalists. Note: Some movements
Hybridization. Culture & consumption attack a specific (or symbolic) part of
reflect hybridization mixing and the dominant culture. Others are total
recombining Also called creolization a rejections of it. Examples from readings,
new language created by mixing others. personal experience?
Issue studied by Anthropologists Locals 34Local Responses to Globalization.
are influenced by global culture, but also Kurzman reading: Bin Laden and other
re-interpret it and adapt it to their Thoroughly Modern Muslims Argument: There
lives. Local cultural entrepreneurs have are two kinds of reactionary movements:
gradually mastered the alien forms which Traditional and Modern Traditional
reach them through the transnational Reactionary Movements: Ex: The Taliban in
commodity flows and in other ways, taking Afghanistan Mostly fight to get outsiders
them apart, tampering and tinkering with to leave Usually organized by actual
them in such a way that the resulting new indigenous people Participants are usually
forms are more responsive to, and at the local Not very common
same time in part outgrowths of, local 35Local Responses to Globalization.
everyday life (Ulf Hannerz). Examples??? Kurzman reading: Bin Laden and other
14McDonalds: Homogenous or Hybrid? Thoroughly Modern Muslims Modern
McDonalds in Japan & Taiwan Fried Reactionary Movements: Ex: Bin Laden &
shrimp burger; Chicken rice-cake burger. Al Qaeda Typically organized by highly
15McDonalds: Homogenous or Hybrid? educated people More like a social
McArabia! The idea of hybridization was movement Sophisticated use of media, etc
originally about how local people Not really a very local response at all
transformed global culture But, examples Argument: These are modern social
from the West also illustrate the process. movements.
16Homogenization vs. Hybridization. 36Reactionary Movements. Reactionary
Example: Indian film industry Bollywood movements are just like other social
Mumbai Tamil film industry Chennai movements. They rely on: Resource
Clearly reflects local tradition mobilization: resources, organizational
Video\Bollywood_Trailer.mp4 But also capacity Political opportunity structure:
absorption of Western ideas but is it allies, lapses in repression Framing: Use
homogenization or hybridization? of symbols, imagery (often religious).
Video\Endhiran_-_Official_Trailer_-_HQ.flv 37Reactionary Movements. Example:
Video\Best_action_scene_ever._ever._ever._ Radical Islamic fundamentalist groups
-_Endhiran_Robot.flv. Resource mobilization: Leaders are highly
17Homogenization vs. Hybridization. educated Some even have degrees from
Martells conclusion: Homogenization American universities Oil rich countries
thesis is too simple but it needs to be have tremendous resources It is easy to
revised rather than rejected (p. 90) find donors for any pro-Islamic cause.
Hybridization is an important cultural 38Reactionary Movements. Example:
process But, global homogenizing forces Radical Islamic fundamentalist groups
(like cultural imperialism) do exist It Political opportunity structure Radical
isnt either/or, but both groups clearly took advantage of friendly
18Culture, Identity, & Conflict. regimes (e.g., the Taliban) to train,
Issue: Is conflict inevitable when build capacity Relative lack of repression
globalization brings cultures into contact in US is an opportunity Note: Increased
with each other? Does globalization of security after 9/11 means fewer
Western/American culture generate opportunities for protest/attacks Note:
conflict? Huntington: Clash of These groups also attack pro-US regimes
Civilizations And, more generally: Can like Egypt but repression is much
ideas like culture, ethnicity, and greater.
identity explain conflict Ex: Genocide 39Reactionary Movements. Ex: Radical
in Balkans, Rwanda Ex: Conflict between Islamic fundamentalist groups Framing: Use
radical Islamic groups and of symbols, imagery Religion provides a
Western/Christian/capitalist societies powerful set of images Enemy isnt just
Answer: It depend on what you think bad, but evil & satanic Another
ethnicity / identity is frame: attacking imperialism, the
19Perspectives on identity/culture. Two system Standing up for the little guy,
views of identity/ethnicity/culture: 1. fighting the bully Reactionary movements
Primordial view Culture/ethnicity/identity always claim to authentically represent
is primordial. It is deeply rooted, locals; that they arent part of the
fundamental, and enduring Consequently, system Ex: Leaders dont emphasize
cultural differences are difficult to educational degrees or wealth; They
overcome Conflict often results This view emphasize the small village they came
is common in media, popular culture. from.
20Perspectives on identity/culture. 2. 40Reactionary Movements. Issue for
The social constructionist view: future discussion: How would strategies
Culture/ethnicity/identity are malleable: for dealing with Al Qaeda differ if we
They change over time and with social think of it as a modern social movement?
context People exhibit different Rather than a traditional reactionary
identities in different contexts movement
Identities disappear and return (or are
Sociology 2: Class 17: Globalization, Culture, Identity.ppt
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Sociology 2: Class 17: Globalization, Culture, Identity

Sociology 2: Class 17: Globalization, Culture, Identity

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