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Sounds of Music

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1Sounds of Music. Fall 2010 New York 19you just groan when it comes to this
State Coaches Workshop. event. Never worry about Sounds of Music.
2The Competition. Each team will build First of all the kids have to do the
one wind instrument and one percussion research and the building. Just offer them
instrument. Each instrument must be able a few websites (coming) or books and be a
to play a12-tone tempered scale. (modern great cheerleader. If you really don’t
piano scale - octave with incidentals). want to do it find a tech teacher who is
3Shaded piano key is middle C. up to the challenge. Building is the tough
Instrument 1 is the wind instrument. The part. After that it will fall into place.
range is suited for brass or woodwind Music teachers will be harder to coerce,
instruments including flute, trumpet, pan but once involved are fabulous.
pipe, recorder, clarinet, French horn, 20Choosing the Instruments. Well, the
etc. Instrument 2 is the percussion rules have narrowed that down for you -
instrument. The range is suited for almost one wind and one percussion. When the
any percussion instrument, metallaphone, students select their instruments it is a
vibraphone, xylophone, marimba, etc. good idea to make sure they know how to
4Instrument 1. Brass or woodwind play them first. Students frequently want
instrument. Must be able to play a C major to make an exotic instrument. It is better
scale. May use a range in their to go with an instrument that will
performance from F3 (F below middle C) to actually work and is easy to play.
G5 which is 27 notes. Music must be Ordinary sometimes works very well and
written in treble clef. wins more points in the long run.
5Instrument 2. Percussion instrument. 21The Instrument is a Flop! It happens.
Must be able to play a G scale May use a Our philosophy was that we needed students
range in their performance from C2(two to go through the process once to see
octaves below middle C) to D4( one note where the problems were. So, keep the
above middle C) Music must be written in building materials cheap in the beginning.
the bass clef. When they master the technique and realize
6Setting Up. Teams have 5 minutes to it can be better go for more. For
set up. Instruments should be made so that instance, a PVC flute is fairly cheap and
they can be easily dismantled and put back easy. Copper usually sounds better, but
together. Judging takes place in three should be the final result ….unless your
parts. It is encouraged that at the PVC flute is wonderful.
regional and state levels judge move from 22Building. Though a tech room is good,
room to room as is done at nationals. Each much can be done without the tech room.
judge will have approximately 5 minutes to Simple equipment works fine. Planning is
mark their portion of the scoring form. key. Time in a tech room can be reduced by
7Judging: Performance. Each team member researching, planning, diagramming, and
will play the required scale and will play having measurements determined ahead of
the full range of their instrument. time. Students don’t realize that planning
Maximum of 6 points. 1 octave - 8 notes 1 is very important to good results.
point 1 octave - 13 notes 2 points 1.5 23Don’t Worry About Originality. Though
octaves - 12 notes 3 points 1.5 octaves - it is a factor. We have reduced the
18 notes 4 points 2 octaves - 16 notes 5 emphasis on originality and creativity.
points 2 octaves - 27 notes 6 points Each Sometimes you can boost originality simply
instrument will also be awarded up to 5 by changing the material something is made
points for sound quality (comparison to from. A trombone made of PVC is common,
actual instrument). but to make it from metal that fits
8Judging: Performance. The two members together well is great… and not easy to
together must play the required piece, do.
“Shenandoah”, as a duet. They must furnish 24Workmanship. This is very important.
their music to the judge. They may not We have had instruments fall apart before
just turn in a copy of the rules page. they are judged. Cardboard gets wet if it
There must be a harmony portion. 10 rains and is less likely to withstand wear
points. They must also perform a piece and tear. Use wood or metal. Maybe
that they have chosen or written, also in something can be glued but perhaps it
harmony. This piece should show off the should be welded or put together with
quality of their instruments and the full screws to make it stronger. Glue does not
range, if possible. They must be careful always hold. Make sure things are put
not to play outside of the range. 15 together well.
points. 25Tweaking. With this event as with any
9Judging: Performance. Each piece is other construction event there is a great
scored using the following criteria: deal of tweaking. With xylophones and that
Harmony -avoid unison - shows out of tune family of instruments trying to make sure
notes Rhythm- be careful of syncopation, that the instrument is producing the best
practice!! Intonation - tone can change sound takes time. This is a huge learning
whether it is in tune Dynamics - there process. Damping is a huge problem and
should be louder and softer portions Duet they will have to experiment to find the
Quality - is one merely keeping a beat, do best way to avoid too much damping or
both add to the performance? Blend - did allowing too much reverberation. The kind
they use instruments to compliment each of materials it is made from also affects
other or does one drown out the other? the sound considerably. You may need to
Other (to be listed)- cleverly chosen add resonators if the sound is too soft.
music, etc. 26Practice. “It needs to be done by
10Judging: Workmanship. The judge will Christmas”. Christmas come and goes, along
evaluate the creativity and originality (5 with a few other holidays and the days
points). Flute vs a reed instrument - reed keep passing by at an alarming rate
would get more points. Regular piano vs a because the instrument isn’t complete.
typewriter piano - typerwriter is more They must finish it in time not only for
clever, took more engineering skill tweaking, but for practice, practice and
(usually). The variety (5 points). One more practice. Go over the characteristics
wind, one percussion. of their performance that will be judged
11Judging: Workmanship. All instruments with them.
must be made from scratch - no kits. 27Range of the Instrument. Range is
Exception: strings made for instruments - important. A single octave will get you
not applicable this year. Judges will look through the event, but going for something
for use of commercial reeds, reed blocks, more such as the 1.5 octave and 18 notes
mouthpieces, etc. which are specifically will give the team more versatility and
stated as not being allowed. Interviewing more points. Limiting your range makes it
students about the construction is also an tough to find music that they enjoy
important part of this section of judging. playing and the judges will enjoy hearing.
Total points for construction is 15. 28Choosing Music. Think about the
12Judging: Worksmanship. It is important instruments that are being played. If you
when building an instrument that all have a flute and a xylophone you will not
energy come from the student. By blowing want to choose a heavy classical piece
through a tube, striking an object or by like Wagner’s “Ride of the Valkyries” or a
using a pump operated by hands or feet, Tchaikovsky piece. Choose something light
the energy must originate from the and airy - Mozart or “California
student. All instruments must move easily Dreaming”. Keep it light. Choosing a
through an 80 cm door. Avoid oversized fast-paced tune for a pan pipe or soda
instruments. Low tones don’t necessarily bottle instruments can leave the team
mean big tubes or parts. Have students member ready to collapse before they
think about their building materials. finish the piece.
13Judging: Knowledge. Students will be 29What to Study. Waves Transverse with
asked a number of questions (usually 3, 5, crests and troughs Longitudinal with
or 6) about their instrument and sound compressions and rarefactions.
production. 30 points Each student is 30What to Study. Sound Properties Pitch
expected to participate. One student and frequency Intensity and amplitude
answering all questions will affect the (Decibel scale) Speed of sound Human
grading negatively. perception of hearing and the ear.
14Judging: Knowledge. Examples of 31What to Study. Behavior of sound waves
questions used in the past: How did you Interference Beats Doppler Effect Movement
tune your instrument? What is your primary around a boundary Reflection, refraction
vibrator on your wind instrument? What and diffraction Bernoulli Effect.
factors can be changed on your wind 32What to Study. Natural frequency
instrument to ensure that a note is in Timbre Forced Vibration (sound box)
tune? Describe the Bernoulli effect. What Standing wave Node - points that appear to
is the mathematical relationship for stand still due to destructive
determining the length of your pipes on interference. Antinode Fundametal
your xylophone? Draw, describe, explain a frequencies and Harmonics.
standing wave. Why did you use that 33What to Study. Mathematical
building material rather than… calculations of harmonic frequencies and
15Judging: Knowledge. The number of where the nodes are. To properly mount the
questions depends on time. With 50 or 60 parts of a marimba, xylophone or other
teams, 3 questions is about the maximum. percussion instrument you need to know
However, multiple portions to questions where the node nearest the end is.
gives the examiner leeway for the variety 34What to Study. Resonance Closed-end vs
of instruments. More questions is opened-end air column instruments.
obviously a better way to judge knowledge. 35Sources. Books: Any book by Bart
At states and Nationals questions must be Hopkins, but his Musical Instrument
chosen very strategically since we Design: Practical Information for
typically use only 3. Question difficulty Instrument Design is the best. Available
should increase from regional to state to on sale for $12.89 at Amazon. Very
National levels. At a regional students thorough. They suggest a couple of others
should know the characteristics of a wave. which are okay, but more specific.
By the state they should be able to 36Sources. Website:
describe a standing wave. And at the www.phys.unt.edu/~matteson/1251-001/mwf30.
National they should be able to discuss p Excellent powerpoint about wind
how the wave is produced in their instruments. Especially informative about
instrument. bell shape in brass instruments.
16Bonus Points. Each team will receive 4 http://positron.ps.uci.edu/~dkirkby/music/
points for each of the following: They tml/lectures/Lecture12.pdf Mostly about
must furnish music with team name and wind instruments. Good illustrations. It
number on it. They must write their music is a pdf of a powerpoint. Good reference.
in the correct clefs and correctly notate 37Sources. Websites: Physics of Sound
it. All music must be played in the and Music
correct range. They must use only http://hendrix2.uoregon.edu/~dlivelyb/phys
allowable materials in construction. 52/home.html home page This person has a
Additionally, each team that follows all great sense of humor and offers good
rules will receive 16 bonus points. explanations as he teaches. Also some good
17Putting Together a Team. You need at diagrams.
least one musician. And once you get that 38Sources. Websites:
person you will have him or her forever. http://www.school-for-champions.com/scienc
They think that all they can do is play an /sound.htm Good information on general
instrument, but they suddenly realize they physics topics including sound.
are good at a lot of things. Due to their http://method-behind-the-music.com/ Good
discipline and passion for music they will site for general information on music and
stick to it. You are halfway there. physics.
18The “Other” Team Member. You need a 39Sources. Websites
good physics student. Most don’t know they http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/soun
are good at physics. You will probably / My favorite. Gives good information to
have to invite them. And those that are get students started. Will need to go to
good in physics don’t realize they are other sources for specific needs, but this
probably good at music. Just look for is great for the beginning. Well
someone who likes math. Music is based on organized.
mathematical relationships and is as much 40Questions? Patty Sherman
math as it is physics. Shermanp@roadrunner.com I can email a copy
19Okay, Now About that Coach. Most of of this presentation if you want it.
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Sounds of Music

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