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Teaching Computer Science from K through 12

содержание презентации «Teaching Computer Science from K through 12.ppt»
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1Teaching Computer Science from K 14At a local Montessori school (Bothell, WA)
through 12. Gary Kacmarcik Google, Inc. Each student has a project Create a
(garykac@google.com) Sylvie Giral Gameboy Advance (GBA) game.
Kacmarcik Whole Earth Montessori School, 15Case Study. Class goals: Teach how
Bothell, WA computers work Demystify the inner
(french@wholeearthmontessori.org). workings Teach programming Learn that the
2Motivation & Background. “How can programmer is in control Teach project
we best teach programming?” Desire to management Break complex ideas down into
teach our own kids, their friends, … subtasks Stretch goal: Get students to
Teaching experience From University to program outside of class.
pre-K Teaching K-7 for past 6 years 16General Overview of Class. Number
Programming (5th – 8th) for past year systems: binary, hexadecimal Electricity,
Google K-12 intergrouplet “bottom-up” self voltage Transistors, gates Boolean logic
organized group; 20% time. Hardware: LEDs, 4000-series CMOS Memory,
3Why does Google care? Low enrollment address decoders Storing things in memory
in Computer Science Low minority (images, text) CPU: registers,
representation Concern about entire instructions Programming: Compiler,
education pipeline: High School ? BS ? handling errors Variables, control flow,
MS/PhD. ... Programming tasks/tutorials.
4Filling the Pipeline. Working 17Why GBA Programming. Use games to
backwards: To graduate more MS/PhDs, you introduce programming Motivation is key to
need more students entering the BS learning to program GBA programming
programs To get more students entering the motivates from K through University Real
BS programs, you need to spark interest in programming language: C/C++ Students can
HS Focusing on HS seems obvious But... create entire project 2-D project Easily
5Problems with starting in HS. create their own art assets:
Inconsistent skill set Huge disparity http://code.google.com/p/spritely
between students WRT computer literacy Ownership of the project; sense of
Unlike Math, English, Science, ... accomplishment Easier to make link down to
Stereotypes already established Peer hardware No operating system, virtual
pressure “You’re not supposed to be machine Can link from transistors, memory,
interested in ...” Typically happens CPU, assembly language to the students
around/before 8th grade. program.
6Finally! The Topic for this Talk. High 18Alternate approaches. Alice (CMU -
School is too late to be starting (OK, Free) E.g., program the movement of an ice
it’s never really too late, but it would skater Make a short movie, tell a short
be much easier if we started earlier) HS story KPL (now Phrogram - $) “Kids
should be nurturing and developing seeds Programming Language” and others...
that were planted earlier. We shouldn’t 19Contrasts with our approach. These
have to undo stereotypes We should strive other approaches typically: Run in a
to avoid them in the first place. limited “sandbox” environment Very
7A Brief Diversion. Before we talk object-oriented Focus on drag-n-drop
about goals, a slight aside: How does a instead of typing Avoids problems with
phone work? How does a toilet work? How typos and syntax errors Use pre-generated
does a car work? Internal combustion graphics Don’t have to create their own
engine We can explain how these devices art assets Can use professionally-made
work in general, accessible terms graphics and sometimes: Provide a 3-D
Concrete, physical explanation. virtual world.
8A Brief Diversion (cont.). Now, how do 20Which approach is “better”? They each
computers work? Many explanations go have pros/cons Students will prefer one
something like: Mumbling something about over the other Our approach is motivated
‘0’s and ‘1’s Talk about memory, CPU, ALU by a desire to: Connect programming &
These aren’t wrong, but they aren’t hardware Give a real world programming
concrete Not accessible to many students experience But it suffers from: Requiring
They don’t walk away with a real text programming/compiling More limited
understanding. debugging facilities We’re trying to build
9A Brief Diversion (cont.). “Any a strong foundation Expect students to
sufficiently advanced technology is take other programming classes Java, C#,
indistinguishable from magic” Arthur C. C++, …
Clarke, 1973 Kids are growing up in this 21General Comments on Class. Disparity
magical world That’s good and bad If we in computer skill set Small, but
don’t give them the tools they need they noticeable even at this age Many of these
won’t be able to contribute effectively. skills can be taught earlier E.g., number
10Goals for Teaching Computer Science in systems, boolean logic Most of the steps
K-12. Three goals: Demystify computers for before programming can be made concrete
students in general Encourage students to But time must be spent creating materials.
learn programming Spark interest in 22When to introduce programming.
computer science Provide tools for Previously, we said between 6-8th grade
parents/educators. But we can lay the foundations earlier:
11Goals for Teaching Computer Science in General computer skills (? K) Boolean
K-12. First two goals are related: logic & flow charts (2nd) Alternate
Introduce programming and demystify number systems (3rd-4th)
computers early enough so that: We don’t Electricity/Transistors (4th-5th).
have to fight social issues We’re more 23Summary. Need to introduce programming
likely to ignite that spark of interest before HS Around 6-8 grade Need to
Last goal can be broken into 2 sub-goals introduce computer skills Throughout
Create ready-to-use materials Formalize Elementary School Basic skills and
the teaching of computer skills What pre-programming skills Need guidelines for
students should know at each grade level. what to teach Identify skills for each
12What / When to teach. What we grade level.
can/should teach in HS depends on what 24What about High School? Materials for
we’ve taught in earlier grades What set of Middle School can be used HS students can
skills do you wish your HS students teach MS students In Montessori
already had? How early can we teach these environment, common for older students to
skills? teach younger ones Caution: Don’t
13When to introduce programming. We introduce stereotypes! “Girls computer
should start teaching programming: After class” may be OK in HS But it’s not OK in
the ability to think abstractly Before MS Important to have mixed classes at this
stereotypes/societal influences Roughly age to break down stereotypes.
between 6th to 8th grade Some students are 25Google K-12 Teacher Focus Group.
ready in 5th grade Note: We don’t expect Invite middle and high-school teachers
students to master programming at this age Review early progress of material
Introduce, gain confidence, spark development Provide comments/feedback
interest. Discuss requirements Tentatively scheduled
14Case Study. Teaching programming to for 21 August 2008 Location: Google’s
5th-8th graders: Using a computer Fremont office Limited space Contact us if
engineering approach Work from bottom-up you’d like to be involved Gary Kacmarcik
Start with electricity, work up to (garykac@google.com) Jessica Einfeld
programming Class running for over a year (jessicae@google.com).
Teaching Computer Science from K through 12.ppt
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Teaching Computer Science from K through 12

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