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Defenestration of Prague
Defenestration of Prague
Defenestration of Prague
Defenestration of Prague
Defenestration of Prague
Defenestration of Prague
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The 30 Years War 1618-1648

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1The 30 Years’ War 1618-1648. 10aiding the Habsburg enemies Gustavus
2Historical Background. Because of the Adolphus experienced success in the North
execution of Jan Hus in 1415, Bohemia was so the Emperor reluctantly requested the
a hotbed of contention between Protestants services of Wallenstein once again.
and Catholics. (Bohemia consisted of 11The Swedish Phase (1630-1635).
Bohemia, Silesia, Moravia and Lusatia). By Gustavus Adolphus suffered a wound in
1600, Protestants outnumbered Catholics in battle in 1632 and died By 1634, the
Bohemia but the Protestants were Swedes were at the point of defeat Things
fragmented into denominations or sects looked very bad for Protestants in Germany
Emperor Rudolph II issued a Letter of until…
Majesty granting some limited freedoms and 12The French Phase (1635-1648).
tolerance to Protestants but Rudolph died Wallenstein had been so angry at the
before Protestants fully enjoyed the Emperor at his dismissal, he turned on the
limited freedoms Catholics forbade Emperor in hopes of creating his own
Protestants to build churches in towns empire In response, the Emperor had
where Protestant churches did not already Wallenstein’s own troops murder
exist Ferdinand II was to be the new King Wallenstein Some of the Protestant Princes
of Bohemia and Protestants feared for the jumped ship and joined forces with the
worst. Emperor France couldn’t stand to watch the
3The Defenestration of Prague. Habsburg power increase so the French
Protestants set up a meeting with Catholic officially entered the war on the side of
officials in Prague on May 23, 1618. the Protestants Neither side possessed the
Meeting went badly, the Protestants seized power to knock out the other so the
two Catholic officials and tossed them out fighting dragged on until 1643.
the window; for kicks they tossed a 13The Peace of Westphalia (1648). The 30
secretary, too. This event is known as The Years’ War officially ended in 1648 with
Defenestration of Prague. The word the Peace of Westphalia The treaties
defenestrate comes from Latin word for recognized the sovereignty of the 300+
“window” and means “out the window” German princes The treaties disallowed
Survived the fall because they landed in a papal meddling in German religious affairs
dungheap or ditch; Catholics claimed The treaties upheld the Peace of Augsburg,
angels saved them This was the spark that added Calvinism to the list of religions
ignited the 30 Years’ War. allowed in German states and nullified the
4Defenestration of Prague. Edict of Restitution.
5The 30 Years’ War. Four Phases of the 14Immediate Results of the 30 Years’
30 Years’ War: The Bohemian Phase The War. After the Peace in 1648, the northern
Danish Phase The Swedish Phase The French states in Germany remained primarily
Phase. Protestant while the southern states in
6The Bohemian Phase (1618-1625). Germany remained primarily Catholic The
Fighting between Catholics and Protestants United Provinces and Switzerland won
began soon after the Defenestration in recognition as independent states German
1618 The Protestants used a force made up princes won the right to form alliances
mostly of Czechs and deposed Ferdinand, and sign treaties as long as they didn’t
King of Bohemia; they chose Frederick V to declare war on the Holy Roman Empire
take his place The Holy Roman Emperor, Sweden won cash and land in the Baltic
Ferdinand II, used funds from the Catholic region France won the region of Alsace.
League and the Spanish Habsburgs to build 15Political Fallout from the 30 Years’
an army The Catholic forces crushed the War. Because Spain lost territory and
Protestants at the Battle of White France gained territory, France stood
Mountain and the Jesuits attempted to win alone as the most powerful nation on the
over those Protestants who weren’t continent France also benefited from the
inclined to fight The defeat and the fragmentation of the Holy Roman Empire and
propaganda had a different effect than the weakening of the Habsburg family
intended. influence PoW= the political power of the
7The Bohemian Phase (1618-1625). As the Holy Roman Empire faded into oblivion; the
fighting went on, mercenaries joined the Habsburg family remained wealthy and
fray looking to make some money in the war strong, though, and would go on to rule
Albrecht von Wallenstein, born a Czech the Austro-Hungarian Empire later.
Protestant, offered his services to the 16The Aftermath in Germany. Though
Emperor Reluctantly the Emperor Germans seemed to win politically and
commissioned Wallenstein and his 125,000 religiously, the Germans lost in other
soldiers Wallenstein and his men unleashed ways German homes, businesses and farms
destruction on Germany The Emperor had no were destroyed en masse during the war The
control over Wallenstein or his men, German population took a major hit
though During the fighting in Bohemia, the (millions dead from battle, disease and
Spanish attacked the holdings of Frederick starvation over the course of the war and
along the Rhine River Frederick and the the years immediately following) and the
Protestants had their hands full already German population decreased by as much as
and could not win back the land from 20% according to some sources.
Spain. 17Aftermath in Germany (continued). Food
8The Danish Phase (1625-1630). Habsburg shortages plagued Germany and worsened the
enemies all over Europe were horrified at suffering of Germans who survived
Wallenstein’s antics King Christian IV of Inflation crushed the German economy; food
Denmark decided to enter the war to help shortages and rising prices coincided with
the Protestants turn the tide in Germany the massive influx of gold and silver into
Wallenstein proved to be too much for Spain Trade routes in and around Germany
Christian Feeling confident after virtually disappeared Ironically, a very
Wallenstein’s successes, the Emperor few towns grew as refugees moved in for
issued the Edict of Restitution in 1629 safety.
The Edict outlawed all sects of 18Things You Must Remember. The 30 Years
Christianity other than Catholicism and War began as a war of religion and
Lutheranism Lutheranism took a hit, developed into an international war of
though, because the Edict restored politics While the war started as a
Protestant-held once-Catholic lands to the religious war, the war healed no religious
Church, effectively undoing the Peace of wounds France proved that international
Augsburg. politics would be more important in the
9The Danish Phase (1625-1630). The coming centuries than religion No
Habsburgs reached the pinnacle of their participant in the 30 Years War possessed
power by 1630 Also by 1630, the Emperor a large enough army to knock out its
felt pressure from across Europe to opponents; Louis XIV would learn from
control Wallenstein because he had become this.
too powerful and unpredictable The Emperor 19You must remember this … Continued).
made Wallenstein back off. The Alsace region would be hotly contested
10The Swedish Phase (1630-1635). even as late as World War II The Holy
Protestantism on the continent seemed to Roman Empire historically had more
be in trouble so King Gustavus Adolphus of influence in Germany than anywhere else in
Sweden entered his 100,000-man army in the Europe; therefore, the sovereignty of the
contest Gustavus Adolphus hoped to help German princes essentially meant the end
the Protestants in Germany but he also of the Holy Roman Empire Because the vast
hoped to exert his influence in the region majority of the fighting took place in
The French, at the urging of Cardinal Germany, the German states suffered more
Richelieu, subsidized the Swedish forces than any other participants.
France hoped to undermine the Habsburgs by
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The 30 Years War 1618-1648

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