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The Advance of Democracy: Third French Republic, United Kingdom,
The Advance of Democracy: Third French Republic, United Kingdom,
From 1815-1870 liberals agitated for constitutionalism,
From 1815-1870 liberals agitated for constitutionalism,
Paris Commune
Paris Commune
Paris Commune
Paris Commune
Paris Commune
Paris Commune
Parliamentary Primacy
Parliamentary Primacy
Parliamentary Primacy
Parliamentary Primacy
Parliamentary Primacy Continued
Parliamentary Primacy Continued
Troubles of the Third French Republic
Troubles of the Third French Republic
Troubles of the Third French Republic
Troubles of the Third French Republic
Dreyfus Affair (1886-89)
Dreyfus Affair (1886-89)
Dreyfus Affair (1886-89)
Dreyfus Affair (1886-89)
Dreyfus Affair (1886-89)
Dreyfus Affair (1886-89)
The Strength and Weakness of the Republic
The Strength and Weakness of the Republic
Weaknesses Not the stuff of leadership for the modern age
Weaknesses Not the stuff of leadership for the modern age
The Radical Socialists
The Radical Socialists
The British Constitutional Monarchy
The British Constitutional Monarchy
Extension of Suffrage
Extension of Suffrage
The Conservatives
The Conservatives
British Political Changes after 1900
British Political Changes after 1900
British Political Changes after 1900
British Political Changes after 1900
A War Against Poverty
A War Against Poverty
A War Against Poverty
A War Against Poverty
The Irish Question
The Irish Question
The Irish Question
The Irish Question
The Irish Question
The Irish Question
Home Rule
Home Rule
German Empire was a federation of 25 German monarchies under the
German Empire was a federation of 25 German monarchies under the
The Catholic Church
The Catholic Church
The Catholic Church
The Catholic Church
Repression of Socialism
Repression of Socialism
The German Empire after 1890: William II
The German Empire after 1890: William II
Young Wilhelm
Young Wilhelm
German Naval Power
German Naval Power
Developments Elsewhere, general Observations
Developments Elsewhere, general Observations
Democratic Advances
Democratic Advances
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The Advance of Democracy: Third French Republic, United Kingdom, German Empire

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1The Advance of Democracy: Third French 23universities Being member of Anglican
Republic, United Kingdom, German Empire. Church no longer required.
Section: 14.74. 24Gladstone did institute some
2From 1815-1870 liberals agitated for provisions for workers in his second
constitutionalism, parliamentarians, civil ministry (1880-1885) Workers’
liberties, responsible ministers 1871-1914 compensation, Fourth ministry (1892-94) he
male suffrage (the Vote) was extended to campaigned for shorter working hours.
the working class (Republicans) 25The Conservatives. Disraeli
Governments extended this own their own (conservative) Followed in Tory tradition
within monarchical/aristocratic paradigms. Leaned somewhat on the landed aristocracy
How did the role of government change from side Not supporters of business (or
the Congress of Vienna to the laissez faire) Under Disraeli (2nd
establishment of a Unified Germany? ministry 1874-80) public sanitation
3Mass political parties emerged improved workplace conditions improved
Governments in part became more responsive regulation of housing conditions of the
to counteract the spread of socialism, poor.
became more humanitarian Saw the need to 26British Political Changes after 1900.
assume responsibility to social/economic Labor became an independent political
problems of industrialization The welfare force Rise of labor caused the liberal
state began. party to pass a social welfare program
4Sept. 1870 Napoleon lost the Caused liberals to abandon laissez-faire,
Franco-Prussian War the revolutionaries of took up policy of gov intervention and
Paris proclaimed the Republic Their social legislation for working class
provisional go wanted to continue the war Sickness, accident, old-age, unemployment
but it was hopeless Jan 1871 the siege of insurance, right to strike, minimum wage
Paris ended In order to make peace with a were their crusades.
legitimate government Bismarck insisted on 27Liberals (1906-1916) led by Herbert
free elections for members of a National Asquith (prime minister) & Lloyd
Assembly. France: The Establishment of the George (chancellor of exchequer) were in
Third Republic. control of the gov Pushed through major
5Elections led to large monarchist program of social welfare Sickness,
presence in the National Assembly (400 out accident, old age, unemployment insurance
of 600) Republicans were distrusted by were adopted Minimum wage law enacted
French people, especially in rural areas Strikes permitted.
as violent, stupid in foreign policy, 28A War Against Poverty. Lloyd George
unfriendly to Church, and too socialistic called for a progressive income and
in property views Monarchists are again inheritance tax forcing the landed
split between two royal houses and aristocracy to pay Called it a “war
checkmated each other (b/t Bourbons and budget” intended to defeat poverty House
Orleanist) Paris republicans refused to of Lords objected Parliament Act of 1911
accept the National Assembly (they had Deprived H of Lords of all veto power in
defended France when Nap surrendered) money matters and only a delaying power in
Civil war between National Assembly all other matters Gov also called for
(Versailles) and the Paris republicans salaries for parliament members
ensued. Conservative became party of industry,
6Paris Commune. Paris Commune lasted laissez faire, Manchester School and
from (March to May 1871) Was a revival of landed wealth Labor party replaced the
Jacobinism (’93) more than a social liberal party after the liberal party
revolution Republicans characterized by split (split over Ireland) Party of
patriotic, anti-bourgeois, workers, social programs, government
anti-aristocrats/clergy, pro price, wage intervention.
control, and working condition supervision 29Government also called for salaries
But not sweepingly socialist Communards for parliament members Conservative became
burned public buildings, murdered party of industry, laissez faire,
archbishop of Paris. Manchester School and landed wealth Labor
7National Assemblies armies finally party replaced the liberal party after the
triumphed 330 thousand were denounced 38 liberal party split (split over Ireland)
thousand were arrested 20,000 were Party of workers, social programs,
executed 7, 500 were deported to New government intervention.
Caledonia Third Republic born amidst class 30The Irish Question. Ireland was
hatred and terror Some saw socialism incorporated into the UK as a defensive
rising within the republicans This led to measure against pro-French Irish during
fierce reaction, which is what Marx was French Rev. Irish Reps of Parliament were
hoping for. obstructionists as a means of protest Why?
8Parliamentary Primacy. Monarchist of Irish peasants were defenseless against
the assembly were evenly divided b/t landlords and were obliged to pay tithes
Bourbons and Orleanists Bourbon to Church of Ireland (Anglican) even thou
candidate’s insistence of the white flag they were Catholic Gladstone
(of his family) led to monarchist blocking disestablished the Church of Ireland and
each others power Assembly adopted initiated protective laws for Irish
Constitutive laws in 1875 (not a peasants and helped them buy out absentee
constitution). Henri, comte de Chambord landlords.
AKA: A Bourbon. 31Home Rule.
9Basically a new republic was 32German Empire was a federation of 25
established Called for: President, German monarchies under the Prussian
Parliament (2 chambers) Senate (indirect Kaiser Did not develop constitutionalism
suffrage) Chamber of Deputies (direct or democracy in a strong way Bismarck has
suffrage) Council of ministers (headed by consolidated power and leaned on the
a premier). National Liberals. Bismarck and the German
10Parliamentary Primacy Continued. Roles Empire, 1871 – 1890.
of these new posts were clarified in 1877 33He usually tried to have a majority in
when President Marshal MacMahon tried to Reichstag but still followed Realpolitik
dismiss a premier (who was supported by (no philosophical loyalty except to the
the chamber) President dissolved the emperor) Legislative power of the lower
Chamber but they were restored in election house were very restricted and upper
Napoleon’s authoritarianism still fresh in chamber (princes) was favored by the gov
their minds. But even they did not favor his actions
11Premier and the council became the (democratic concessions).
true executive (under eye of the 34The Catholic Church. Syllabus of
legislature) Dozen or more political Errors (1864) Called all Catholics to
parties prevented any president or premier support the interests of the Pope
from dissolving the Chamber What emerged Denounced government encroachment in
was an unstable coalition government educational and church affairs 1870 dogma
process What seems like a radical change of papal infallibility in matter of faith
in the Third Republic is really a and morals This pronouncements came as Bis
continuation The machinery of the state was trying to consolidate unity of empire
(ministers, prefectures, courts, police, (to be subordinate to empire) Remember
army were still centralized and run the Absolutism!! And centralization of power?
same way Napoleon I had done. 35Catholics in the south had organized a
12Troubles of the Third French Republic. strong Center party and upheld church
Gov had changed so often since 1789 that pronouncements In 1871 Bismarck launched
they all seemed temporary Minor Kulturkampf (Battle for modern
philosophical questions now seemed like civilization) He was eagerly supported by
deep fundamental issues Monarchy v liberals They were anticlerical and
republicanism Upper class, Catholics, army disapproved of the Church influence in
conservatives hated the republic. public and private life Jesuits were
13Some middle class supported the Third expelled Some bishops were arrested or
Republic b/c they felt bad about the exiled Restrictions upon Catholic worship
brutal way Commune was repressed, saw no and education (later he backed off) Knew
other alternative Republicanism expanded that he would need the support of Center
as it became less revolutionary Won both party Realized he had overestimated the
houses in 1879 Radicalism was reduced to danger.
founding compulsory schools that denied 36Repression of Socialism. 1879
clerical influence. protective tariffs were established (to
14Dreyfus Affair (1886-89). the liberals dismay) to finance the
Republicanism came under assault for next government and placate the agricultural
25 years Captain Dreyfus, a Jewish army and industrial interests Industrialism in
officer, was found guilty of treason and empire also brought socialism German
deported to Devil’s Island Evidence Social Democratic party was founded in
emerged that he was innocent & that 1875 Was a fusion of Marxian socialists
guilty man was Major Esterhazy, an and reformist of Ferdinand Lassale
adventurer with gambling debts Army (Basically a moderate socialism) Bismarck
refused to reopen the case & admit still equated it with Paris Commune,
error Staff officer Major Henry even violence.
forged documents to confirm Dreyfus’s 372 assassination attempts on the
guilt. emperor (neither by SDP) gave him an
15anti-Semites, anti-republicans, excuse Bismarck set out to end socialism
royalists, militarist and the “best” (failed) 1878 to 1890 socialism was driven
people said that reopening the case would underground meetings forbidden, newspapers
be unpatriotic Conservatives and closed down 1880s he also used carrot
republicans took sides Conservatives approach Reforms were made through social
supported the military Republicans legislations Workers insurance (for
supported Dreyfus Dreyfus was pardoned in sickness, old age, accidents) This is
1899 Fallout prompted the increase in years ahead of GB, France, AND US 1890 at
republicanism Series of laic laws in 1905 75 Bismarck was forced to retire.
led to a Separation of church and state in 38The German Empire after 1890: William
France. II. William I died in 1888 Frederick III
16The Strength and Weakness of the (his son) died (of cancer) three months
Republic. Born unwanted and accidentally after coming to the throne William II
Strengths it now had loyalty of mass of (Fred’s son) 1888-1918 came to the throne
French It became domesticated 29 and full of ideas about his personal
republicanism showed that republicanism power uncomfortable in presence of elder
(so militant before 1870) to be compatible statesmen (Bismarck) whom he saw
with law, order, parliament, prosperity, respectfully as an old fogy.
tolerance France was a population of 39argued with Bismarck about anti-
painters, writers, scholars, scientists, socialist legislation, foreign affairs
bankers, bourgeois, and farmers living Bismarck ordered ministers not to meet
comfortably on the savings of generations. with him unless he was present 1890 he
17Weaknesses Not the stuff of leadership retired Bismarck was known as “dropping
for the modern age (technological, the pilot” Kaiser Replaced Bismarck as the
industrial power) lagged behind Germany dominant political figure (and led Germany
industrially entrepreneurs not willing to to WWI).
take risks Plagued by short lived 40Young Wilhelm.
ministries (political instability) 50 41A New Course. Wilhelm I led Germany on
between 1871-1914 (disruptive to new course colonial expansion Naval
continuity). expansion GB won’t like this aggressive
18The Radical Socialists. French labor diplomatic policy dropped the
still discontented Still longed for a antisocialist laws expanded the social
“social republic” The Radical Socialist welfare system Social Democrats elected
Party were radical republicans Patriotic, 110 members to the Reichstag Retained none
anti clerical, for the small shopkeepers, of the highest government offices Imperial
small propertied people Not necessarily Germany was moving toward a conflict with
pro labor Took steps to prevent social constitutional interests and democracy.
legislation, blocked strikes and prevented 42German Naval Power.
unionization. 43Developments Elsewhere, general
19Further alienated the French workers Observations. Political scene in Italy Had
from politics Third Republic had to become a constitutional monarchy in 1860
contend with disgruntled workforce, and completed unification in 1870 Unsteady
monarchists, church, army interests and trasformismo (crossing over) Deputies
finally GERMANY in WWI It survived WWI but moved from one party to another for favors
was knocked out in 1940. Popes refused to recognize the Italian
20The British Constitutional Monarchy. kingdom and forbade Catholics to
GB was the greatest example of a peaceable participate (but they did anyway) Vote was
parliamentary government Queen Victoria extended to the working class Poverty and
(1837-1901) and her reign mark era of illiteracy remained problems (south)
material, literary progress, political Direction of the future was unclear.
stability Liberal and conservative (heirs 44Austria-Hungary. Emperor-King Francis
of Whigs and Tories) took form in the Joseph ruled through ministries responsive
1850s Gladstone and Disraeli. to both legislatures Francis Joseph
21Extension of Suffrage. March of dominated foreign affairs and military
egalitarian democracy was cautious and questions and help broaden powers of
slow in GB Reform Bill of 1832 gave vote decree Socialism was repressed and offset
to just 1/8 adult male pop 1867 Reform by social provisions Most serious problem
Bill (the Second Reform Bill) Vote was was agitation by various nationalities
extended to most workers extended from 1 Austria introduced universal male suffrage
to 2 mil adopted by Disraeli Conservatives In Hungary the Magyars resisted universal
Lord Derby called it a “leap in the dark”. male suffrage as it would undermine the
22Reform Bill 1884: Under liberal Magyar political position.
control vote was extended to rural areas 45Democratic Advances. Other countries
enfranchising ? of male pop 1918 Universal introduced universal male suffrage Vote
male suffrage women over 30 also included for women was less advanced Europe as a
gov is still controlled by the wealthy not whole remained monarchical Parliaments
until 1911 were salaries of HOC paid But were largely restricted United States,
parties actually tried to outdo one Britain, and France were the most advanced
another rather than reverse each other democracies.
(healthy politics). 46Expansion of the vote was leading to
23Liberals. Gladstone (liberal) Leaned mass political parties Socialist Religious
somewhat more on the industrial and Constitutionalism and democracy was
commercial side More willing to pioneer replacing older political organizations
Forster Education Act of 1870 developed Criticism of corporations, financial
idea of Public education introduced secret institutions, and European ideas and
ballot, legalized labor unions, attitudes provoked opposition Socialism
examinations for civil service posts, was a growing force criticisms of
eliminated the sale of commissions in the imperialism began critics eventually
army, abolished religions tests in influenced many outside Europe.
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