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How are stars made
How are stars made
Watching stars being born
Watching stars being born
How does a star “die”
How does a star “die”
The end of a Sun-like star For a star like the Sun, no more nuclear
The end of a Sun-like star For a star like the Sun, no more nuclear
On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars
On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars
On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars
On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars
On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars
On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars
On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars
On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars
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The Birth and Death of Stars

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1The Birth and Death of Stars. On-line 9like the Sun, no more nuclear fusion can
Lesson. take place, so the centre of the star will
2What are Stars? Stars are large balls then keep collapsing. On-line Lessons: The
of hot gas. They look small because they Birth and Death of Stars. Eventually it
are a long way away, but in fact many are can become almost as small as the Earth,
bigger and brighter than the Sun. The heat but with the same mass as a whole star!
of the star is made in the centre by This very dense object is called a White
nuclear fusion reactions. There are lots Dwarf. A piece of White Dwarf the size of
of different colours and sizes of star. a mobile phone would weigh as much as an
On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of elephant on the Earth! Simulation of the
Stars. Death of the Sun.
3How are stars made? Stars are made (or 10On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death
“born”) in giant clouds of dust and gas. of Stars. The end of a Sun-like star The
Sometimes part of the cloud shrinks outer parts of the star (that formed the
because of gravity. As it shrinks it Red Giant) then drift off into space and
becomes hotter and when it is hot enough, cool down making a Planetary Nebula.
nuclear reactions can start in the Planetary nebulae have nothing to do with
centre….. … and A Star is Born! On-line planets, of course, they just look a bit
Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars. like them in small telescopes! Here you
4Watching stars being born. On-line can see a planetary nebula called M57 with
Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars. The its White Dwarf in the middle. Image from
Bubble Nebula Here you can see the old the Liverpool Telescope.
dust and gas being blown away by the heat 11On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death
of the new star. Image from the Liverpool of Stars. The end of a massive star For
Telescope. more massive (bigger) stars than the Sun,
5What happens next? Once nuclear fusion many more types of nuclear fusion can take
is producing heat in the centre of the new place. This means several more Red Giant
star, this heats stops the rest of the stages. Finally, there are. However,
star collapsing. The star then stays eventually even the biggest stars run out
almost exactly the same for a long time of fuel and finally collapse. For the
(about 10 billion years for a star like biggest stars, this collapse causes a huge
the Sun). The balance between gravity explosion called a Supernova! A Supernova
trying to make the star shrink and heat can be brighter than an entire galaxy of
holding it up is called Thermodynamic 100,000,000,000 stars! Simulation of the
Equilibrium. On-line Lessons: The Birth Death of the massive Star.
and Death of Stars. 12What is left after a Supernova?
6The life of a star During its “life” a Because the star was so big, the collapse
star will not change very much. However, does not stop even with a White Dwarf, but
different stars are different colour, size an even more dense object called a Neutron
and brightness. The bigger a star, the Star is made. The density of a Neutron
hotter and brighter it is. Hot stars are star is about 1x1018 kg/m3 (that is
Blue. Smaller stars are less bright, 1,000,000,000,000,000,000!) Sometimes the
cooler and Red. Because they are so hot, collapse cannot stop at all and a Black
the bigger stars actually have shorter Hole is made, from which not even light
lives than the small, cool ones. On-line can escape! The debris of the explosion is
Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars. blown away and forms a glowing cloud
7How does a star “die”? Eventually, the called a Supernova Remnant. On-line
hydrogen (the “fuel” for the nuclear Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars.
fusion) in the centre of the star will run 13On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death
out. On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars. The Crab Supernova Remnant Image
of Stars. No new heat is made and gravity from the European Southern Observatory
will take over and the centre of the star Very Large Telescope.
will shrink. This makes the very outside 14Birth and Death of Stars - Summary.
of the star “float up” and cool down, On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death of
making the star look much bigger and Stars. Stars form in clouds of gas. Heat
redder - a Red Giant star. Antares – a Red from nuclear fusion, and gravity balance.
Giant. When the hydrogen fuel runs out, a Red
8The second Red Giant stage As the Giant is formed. For Sun-like stars, a
centre collapses, it becomes very hot White Dwarf and Planetary Nebula are left.
again, eventually getting hot enough to For massive stars, a Supernova explosion
start a new kind of nuclear fusion with leaves behind a Supernova Remnant and a
Helium as the fuel. Then the Red Giant Neutron Star or perhaps even a Black Hole.
shrinks and the star looks “normal” again. 15On-line Lessons: The Birth and Death
This does not last very long, though, as of Stars. Birth and Death of Stars -
the Helium runs out very quickly and again Summary. White Dwarf and Planetary Nebula.
the star forms a Red Giant. On-line Collapsing cloud. Sun-like stars. A new
Lessons: The Birth and Death of Stars. star. Supernova Remnant and Neutron Star.
9The end of a Sun-like star For a star Red Giant. Massive stars.
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The Birth and Death of Stars

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