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The Building of European Supremacy to World War I

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1The Building of European Supremacy to 15century, Jews in Western Europe began to
World War I. Chapter 23. gain equal citizenship Still many Jews
2Population Trends and Migration. The could not own land and were subject to
population rises in Europe 226 Million in discriminatory taxes.
1850 401 Million in 1900 Population rates 16Russian Jews. Limited book
level off around 1900 Use of contraception publications Restricted areas where they
Desire to enjoy new prosperity Massive could live Banned them from state service
influx into cities 50 million Europeans Excluded them from higher education
immigrate throughout world Nearly 36 pogroms – organized riots against Jewish
million to the United States. neighborhoods, supported by the
3Second Industrial Revolution. New government.
industrial development lead to the “Second 17Opportunities for Jews. Western Europe
Industrial Revolution” Steel, chemicals, – very open to Jews at all levels;
electricity and oil Widespread use of (government, education, intermarriage with
electricity changes how people live and Christians) Many Jews from Eastern Europe
travel (transportation, etc) Automobiles migrate to Western Europe or the United
Gottlieb Daimler – invents modern internal States Anti-Semitism – discrimination
combustion engine leading to automobiles against Jews, increases in Western Europe
Henry Ford – American, who through the during later stages of 19th century,
assembly line made the auto accessible to especially in France and Germany.
the masses Autos lead to the growth of the 18Trade Unionism. unions allowed in
oil industry. Europe in late 19th century unions looked
4Economic Difficulties. Bad weather and for the improvement in wages and working
foreign competition make it tough for conditions unions often engaged in long
European agriculture in the last quarter strikes despite growth of unions, most of
of the century Stagnation, pockets of Europe’s labor force never unionized.
unemployment, bad working conditions, 19Political Parties. universal male
strikes and other forms of labor unrest suffrage brings organized political
emerge Expansion of industry and consumer parties political parties with its
demand bring Europe out of stagnation by workers, newspapers, offices, social life,
late in the century. and discipline mobilize new voters
5Ascendancy in the Middle Class. Social socialist parties were divided on whether
distinctions of the middle class Owners to accept social reform or start a
and mangers – lived like an aristocracy revolution.
Small entrepreneurs and professional 20The First International. British and
people (teachers, librarians, shopkeepers) French trade unionists form the First
– incomes permitted private homes and International, made up of socialists,
large quantities of furniture, education anarchists and Polish nationalists
and vacations “White collar workers” – although short-lived, its updates on labor
formed lower middle class – petite groups and conditions led to Marxism
bourgeoisie – such as secretaries, retail becoming the most important social strand
clerks, lower level bureaucrats – spent of socialism.
money on consumer goods that made sure to 21Social Reform in Great Britain.
make them look like middle class Tensions British socialism – non Marxist – most
mount up between the classes. influential group the Fabian Society-
6The Redesign of Cities. The New Paris favored gradual, peaceful approach to
Paris rebuilt for political purposes – to social reform under Liberal Chancellor
discourage riots and creation of thousands David Lloyd George, Britain regulates
of government jobs Department stores, trade, provides unemployment benefits and
office complexes, apartments for the health care Conservative – House of Lords
middle class Paris Metro (subway)is built upset with the spending of the Liberal-
Arts and architecture – Paris Opera, House of Commons in the Parliament.
Eiffel Tower Suburbs – to get away from 22French Opportunism Rejected.
the congestion of the city, many opportunism – participation by socialists
middle-class residents move to communities in the cabinets is rejected by Congress
just outside the urban centers. French socialists form their own party
7Urban Sanitation. Cholera – believed French workers often voted Socialist, but
to be caused by filth and smell, touched avoided political action non-socialist
all classes and reached epidemic labor unions looked to strikes as their
proportions in 1830’s and 1840’s Water and main labor tactic.
sewer systems – disposed of human waste 23Social Democrats and Revisionism in
and provided clean drinking water Germany. Bismarck represses German Social
Government involvement in public health Democratic Party (SPD) anti-socialist laws
Private property could be condemned if passed by Reichstag actually strengthen
deemed unhealthy New building regulations. the numbers of the (SPD) passes programs
8Housing Reform and the Middle Class. such as accident insurance, disability and
Middle class reformers believed cheap old age pensions as a conservative
adequate housing would alleviate social alternative to socialist policies The
and political discontent Decent housing = Erfurt Program – supported Marxist ideas
happy people! Sometimes whole families of the collapse of capitalism, but wanted
lived in one room and whole buildings to pursue goals through legislative
shared one toilet Private philanthropy action, not revolution Revisionism –
attacked the housing problem. German socialists ideas of achieving
9Barriers for Women in Late 19th humane social equality without having a
Century. Property – until last quarter of revolution founded by Eduard Bernstein
century – most women in Europe could not critics of Revisionism felt that evolution
own property – everything was in their towards socialism would not work in
husband’s name / only Britain changed this militaristic, authoritative Germany.
in 1882 with the Married Women’s Property 24Industrial Growth in Russia. Count
Act Family law – divorce was difficult to Sergei Witte – first Russian minister of
obtain, men had legal control of the communications and later finance minister
children, and contraception and abortion / wanted to modernize Russian economy
were illegal Education Could not attend through economic development protective
universities until late 19th century tariffs high taxes Russian currency on
Absence of secondary education for women gold standard steel, iron, and textile
Women with professional jobs were industries expand as Trans-Siberian
considered radicals and faced Railroad is completed (1903) social unrest
discrimination. – growth of industry does not improve
10New Employment for Women. New jobs – lives of the peasants, many who have to
included secretaries, clerks, and shop work on the land of prosperous farmers
assistants / still paid low wages known as kulaks liberal party formed by
Withdrawal from labor force – married the local councils (zemstvos), wanted a
women less and less in work force due to: constitutional monarchy to further civil
Industries preferring unmarried women Men liberties and social progress.
living longer Social expectations of the 25Vladimir Lenin – future leader of the
married women. communist revolution. led Social Democrats
11Working-Class Women. Putting-out who rejected the German ideas of gradual
system – manufacturer would purchase socialism and called for a revolution
material then put it out to the tailors Social Democratic Party split into two:
Subject to layoffs when demand for Lenin’s faction, the majority or
products slowed Had low wages and subject Bolsheviks the moderate faction, the
to exploitation. minority or the Mensheviks wanted to unite
12Prostitution. Women displaced in an workers and peasants to overthrow the tsar
overcrowded work force turned to (idea came about in 1905, but revolution
prostitution Most large 19th century didn’t occur till 1917).
cities had legal prostitution Usually 26The Revolution of 1905. Bloody Sunday
low-skill workers with little education / – tsar’s troops violently put down a
customers were working class men. protest leading to ordinary Russians no
13Middle Class Women. Domesticity – longer trusting the tsar worker groups
oversaw virtually all the domestic called the soviets, not the tsar,
management and child care Religion – basically control city of St. Petersburg
assured the religious instruction of their Nicholas II issues October Manifesto
children Charity – worked with the poor promising a constitutional government
Sexuality – less sexual repression and due representative body, the Duma, put into
to contraceptives and the cost of having place in 1907 – conservative in nature
children, smaller families. basically kept the power of the tsar in
14Rise of Feminism. Obstacles – many place Stolypin and Rasputin P.A. Stolypin
women did not support the feminist – replaced Witte as finance minister
movement because sensitivity to class and represses socialist rebellion, including
economic interests cared more about execution of rebellious peasants improves
national unity and patriotism religious agricultural production by encouraging
women uncomfortable with radical individual ownership assassinated by a
secularists Suffrage – the movement for Social Revolutionary Grigory Efimovich
women to vote Women given right to vote in Rasputin – replaced Stolypin because
Britain in 1918, Germany in 1919, France supposedly his wife could heal the tsar’s
after WWII. hemophiliac son / uncouth and strange,
15Jewish Citizenship. First half of 19th tsar’s power is undermined after 1911.
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