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The Caucasus and Central Asia
The Caucasus and Central Asia
The Caucasus Nations
The Caucasus Nations
The Caucasus Nations
The Caucasus Nations
The Caucasus Nations
The Caucasus Nations
Georgia
Georgia
The Central Asian Nations
The Central Asian Nations
The Central Asian Nations
The Central Asian Nations
The Central Asian Nations
The Central Asian Nations
Physical Characteristics
Physical Characteristics
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The Caucasus and Central Asia

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1The Caucasus and Central Asia. Chapter 10region’s environment? 2.
22. World Geography. Copyright © 2003 by 11Physical Characteristics. 2.
Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as 12Physical Characteristics. The terrain
Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All varies considerably, from the mountains in
rights reserved. the southeast to much flatter land in the
2World Geography. Section 1: The west. The climate of the region is mostly
Caucasus Nations. Section 2: The Central arid or semiarid, with precipitation
Asian Nations. Chapter 22: The Caucasus ranging from 3 to 10 inches annually. Two
and Central Asia. Copyright © 2003 by of Asia’s largest deserts, the Kara Kum
Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as and Kyzyl Kum, lie to the east of the
Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. All Caspian Sea. In northern Kazakhstan, the
rights reserved. steppes create a rich topsoil called
3The Caucasus Nations. What climatic chernozem. Parts of the region have large
and political conditions have influenced reserves of oil and natural gas. 2.
economic activities in Georgia? How have 13People and Culture. The Central Asian
political and religious differences with countries are home to a mixture of
neighboring nations affected the people of peoples, and Russians form a large
Armenia? How do demands for economic minority in several countries of the
recovery conflict with environmental region. Kazaks, Turkmen, Uzbeks, and
issues in Azerbaijan? 1. Kyrgyz speak related Turkic languages,
4Georgia. 1. while the Tajiks speak a language related
5Georgia. The subtropical climate of to Farsi, the language of Iran. Many
the Black Sea coast supports the people also speak Russian, once the
production of fruits, wine, tea, silk, and official language. Most people in the
tobacco. The continental climate of the region are Muslims. The connection between
east supports production of grains and these people and the Arabian core of Islam
vegetables. The economy suffered after the has traditionally been weak, intensified
fall of communism, and the GDP dropped by when the region was incorporated into the
nearly three quarters. Since the Soviet Union. Religious connections
mid-1990s, the economy has improved between Muslims in Central Asia and those
through the development of its coal, in Southwest Asia are not strong, and
petroleum, and natural gas industries. Soviet control made this difference more
Minority ethnic groups in the north have pronounced. Since independence from the
pressed for more autonomy, or Soviet Union, some national leaders have
independence. 1. called for a more open adoption of Islamic
6Armenia. Armenia is a small, rules as the basis for their governments,
mountainous, land-locked country. The but popular support for Islamic
Armenians are an ancient Indo-European fundamentalism remains low. 2.
people, and the majority of Armenians are 14Economic Activities. Many people in
Orthodox Christians. At the beginning of Central Asia traditionally were nomadic
World War I, the Turks attempted to deport herders who lived in yurts, or portable
the entire Armenian population, and about round tents. Under the Soviet Union
one third of Armenia’s total population People’s lives changed dramatically under
died en route or were massacred in an act Soviet control. Nomadic peoples were
of genocide. Inspired by nationalism and forced to settle in villages and work on
religion, Armenians have fought with the government farms. Massive irrigation
predominantly Islamic Azeris in systems diverted waters from the Syr Darya
neighboring Azerbaijan. In the early and the Amu Darya rivers to grow cotton in
1990s, conflict between Armenia and the southern region. The Soviet government
Azerbaijan has forced many refugees to encouraged industrial development in the
flee the area.. 1. cities. Since Independence Industrial
7Azerbaijan. Almost half of the development spurred the growth of many
nation’s inhabitants live in rural areas, cities. Kazakh industries process farm
and the irrigated lowlands produce many products and mineral resources, while
agricultural goods. Economic Problems Uzbekistan is home to the region’s only
Conflict with Armenia has led to severe significant aviation factory. A larger
economic problems. Azerbaijan has vast oil share of the region’s people continues to
reserves near the Caspian Sea, but foreign live in rural areas, where farming and
investors are hesitant because the area is herding predominate. Tourism is becoming
prone to earthquakes. Azerbaijan is a economically important in the cities along
country without direct access to the Black the ancient Silk Road. 2.
or Mediterranean seas. Attempts to build 15Environmental Change. Rapid economic
an oil pipeline have met with political development resulted in environmental
resistance from Russia, which is wary of problems for the Central Asian countries,
competition. Environmental Change as elsewhere in the former Soviet Union.
Petroleum and related chemical industries Soviet planners developed a set of canals
have caused environmental problems. The to divert fresh water from the Amu Darya
Caspian Sea has been badly polluted by and Syr Darya rivers, so that cotton
sewage and petroleum wastes for decades.. fields could be irrigated. Although the
Pollution has reduced the number of fish region became a leading cotton producer,
surviving in the Caspian Sea. Other forms the project cause the Aral Sea to lose two
of pollution include air pollution and thirds of its volume and become saltier.
overuse of pesticides on farms. 1. The sand blown from the exposed seabed
8Section 1 Review. How did the fall of contributed to the desertification, or
communism affect the economy of Georgia? extension of the desert landscape, of the
a) The economy grew quickly. b) The area. Some experts predict that the entire
economy grew slowly. c) The economy Aral Sea will disappear by 2030.
suffered. d) The economy was unaffected. Pesticides and fertilizers have left soil
How has Russia affected the economy of and water highly contaminated, and
Azerbaijan? a) Russia gave large amounts exposure to heavy doses of these chemicals
of aid for development. b) Russia tried to has created serious health risks for
block the construction of a new oil workers. 2.
pipeline. c) Russia provided Azerbaijan 16Section 2 Review. Uzbekistan is the
with a large market for its goods. d) only country in the region to have which
Russia blockaded Azerbaijan. Want to industry? a) petroleum extraction b)
connect to the World Geography link for textile c) aviation d) electronics How
this section? Click Here! 1. have irrigation projects affected the
9Section 1 Review. How did the fall of region? a) The Aral Sea has lost two
communism affect the economy of Georgia? thirds of its volume. b) The region has
a) The economy grew quickly. b) The become a “breadbasket” for the world. c)
economy grew slowly. c) The economy The region’s population has exploded with
suffered. d) The economy was unaffected. new food sources available. d)
How has Russia affected the economy of Agricultural chemicals have left the Aral
Azerbaijan? a) Russia gave large amounts Sea heavily polluted. Want to connect to
of aid for development. b) Russia tried to the World Geography link for this section?
block the construction of a new oil Click Here! 2.
pipeline. c) Russia provided Azerbaijan 17Section 2 Review. Uzbekistan is the
with a large market for its goods. d) only country in the region to have which
Russia blockaded Azerbaijan. Want to industry? a) petroleum extraction b)
connect to the World Geography link for textile c) aviation d) electronics How
this section? Click Here! 1. have irrigation projects affected the
10The Central Asian Nations. What are region? a) The Aral Sea has lost two
some major physical characteristics of the thirds of its volume. b) The region has
Central Asian nations? How does Islam become a “breadbasket” for the world. c)
influence the peoples of Central Asia? How The region’s population has exploded with
did the economic activities of Kazakhstan new food sources available. d)
and Uzbekistan change under the control of Agricultural chemicals have left the Aral
the former Soviet Union? How has the Sea heavily polluted. Want to connect to
excessive irrigation and the overuse of the World Geography link for this section?
pesticides and fertilizers changed the Click Here! 2.
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The Caucasus and Central Asia

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