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The Cultura set-up: a blend of in-class and online interactions
The Cultura set-up: a blend of in-class and online interactions
The Cultura set-up: a blend of in-class and online interactions
The Cultura set-up: a blend of in-class and online interactions
The Cultura model: key methodological and pedagogical features
The Cultura model: key methodological and pedagogical features
An animated view of the process
An animated view of the process
The Cultura model: key methodological and pedagogical features
The Cultura model: key methodological and pedagogical features
The Cultura model: key methodological and pedagogical features
The Cultura model: key methodological and pedagogical features
The Cultura model: key methodological and pedagogical features
The Cultura model: key methodological and pedagogical features
The Cultura model: key methodological and pedagogical features
The Cultura model: key methodological and pedagogical features
The Cultura model: key methodological and pedagogical features
The Cultura model: key methodological and pedagogical features
The Cultura model: key methodological and pedagogical features
The Cultura model: key methodological and pedagogical features
Putting together the cultural puzzle
Putting together the cultural puzzle
From Le Monde de lEducation (May 5, 2010)
From Le Monde de lEducation (May 5, 2010)
The Cultura model: key methodological and pedagogical features

: FLL FLL. , . , The Cultura model: key methodological and pedagogical features.ppt zip- 1899 .

The Cultura model: key methodological and pedagogical features

The Cultura model: key methodological and pedagogical features.ppt
1The Cultura model: key methodological 40individualism is not seen so positively.
and pedagogical features. Gilberte There are many stories of people who have
Furstenberg Senior Lecturer Emerita different opinions, different fashions,
Foreign Languages and Literatures M.I.T. etc, being considered wrong or dangerous
---- Telecollaboration in University by their communities (schools, towns, and
Foreign Language Education Conference so on). So I don't think that every
University of Leon, Spain February 12, American would agree that individualism is
2014 -. a good characteristic, even though it is
2My focus. Not on technology per se (in very important to me.
spite of MITs reputation) But on pedagogy 41Tasks related to the online discussion
(through the use of technology). forums (3): Encouraging students to:
3A perfect synergy.. .between the identify themselves (ex: I am from the
field of inter-cultural communication Midwest, I am from Mexico, Poland, China,
(which implies encounters between people) etc..) make constant references to
and the Inter-net and its communication different contexts (ex: MIT vs other
tools (which facilitates such encounters). schools; New England vs the South or
4Cultura is A telecollaborative California; big city vs small town,
project - taking place in an banlieues vs suburbs, etc..) So that the
intermediate-level language class (B1) French students do not a monolithic view
over a period of a semester (eight weeks) of the culture, but a broad kaleidoscopic
- where the focus is on the development of one.
intercultural competence. The main subject 42The role of foreign students. There
of the course and represents a deliberate are quite a few foreign students in our
attempt to reverse the traditional classes who play a very important part
equation between language and culture. (they are always encouraged to identify
5Background and context. Created in themselves and to state their
1997 at MIT, by a team of three French perspectives). Their voices are just as
instructors, with a grant from NEH. important. As both outsiders and insiders,
Started within an intermediate level they naturally play a unique role: that of
French language class. Can be (and has mediators (addressing themselves both to
been adapted) to other levels, cultures, the Americans and the French; explaining
languages and even contexts (ie: a French what their classmates may mean), etc..
business class). 43Tasks related to the online discussion
6The Cultura set-up: a blend of forums (4). Adding other forums as
in-class and online interactions. French warranted: : List of forums Forum about
class at MIT. English class in France. paradoxes (role of prompts) A particularly
7The specific goals of Cultura. Bring important forum, meant to: - prevent
students to understand: the attitudes, students from essentializing the cultures
values, ways of thinking and interacting ( by raising issues about contradictions,
of those who live in another culture etc..) - to encourage them to look across
(=bring an insiders view). Quite a a variety of materials.
challenge, as this is the hidden 44Raising paradoxes: example 1. An
dimension, the silent language (Edward American/Roumanian student at MIT (in
Hall) of culture. The BIG question: how to response to the situation where they see a
make that dimension visible? ---> An student cheating at an exam): I think
approach was needed. there is a great difference between
8Cultura: the approach. A comparative denouncing a Jew in WWII and denouncing a
one, with students comparing what Julie student who is cheating on an exam. Jews
Belz calls parallel texts similar were innocent people and the treatment
types of documents/texts/ visuals drawn they received was immoral (to say the
from two different cultures. See: least). However, the punishment of a
Telecollaborative language study: a student who is copying is not immoral. I
personal overview of praxis and research, think it is unacceptable to tolerate
NFLRC, Hawaii, 2005 The juxtaposition cheating. If an exam is important, then
process seems very apt in allowing people should take action when they see
resemblances and differences to clearly somebody attempting to cheat [] In most
emerge. discussions in the forums so far, you (the
9A few relevant quotes. Mikhail French students) have advocated for social
Bakhtin: It is only in the eyes of justice, yet you inexplicably tolerate
ANOTHER culture that foreign culture being cheated .
reveals itself fully and profoundly [.] A 45Raising paradoxes: example 2. Ashley:
meaning only reveals its depths once it One question that I had relates to
has encountered and come into contact with risk-taking behavior. In general, it seems
another, foreign meaning. Bakhtin, that the French are fairly averse to
Michael. 1986. Response to a Question from taking risks (e.g. "risque" has
the Novy Mir Editorial Staff. In Speech a very negative connotation) and prefer to
Genres and Other Late Essays, edited by execute more "safe" or
Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist, well-thought-out plans. Americans, on the
67.Austin,TX: University of Texas Press. contrary, seem to like to take a lot of
Bourdieu: la culture, cest la capacit? ? risks, both at the personal and national
faire des diff?rences. Bourdieu, Pierre. level. At the same time, I remember that
1982. Ce que parler veut dire. Editions in the "Un bon pr?sident..."
Fayard. questionnaire, one of you wrote "un
10KEY DESIGN AND METHODOLOGICAL homme qui prend des risques." And,
FEATURES. interestingly, many on the American side
11Cultura: a collective journey of were skewering Bush for some of his
students from different cultures who high-risk policies. How do you think
gradually construct together, around a set French people view risk taking
of materials and through a series of behavior--both for themselves personally
stages, an understanding of each others and for their leaders? Any thoughts on how
culture - with the goal of developing a to explain this apparent paradox?"
deeper understanding of each others 46Raising paradoxes: example 3.
cultural attitudes, values, "Bonjour ! Je vous propose une petite
representations and frames of references. r?flexion. Il s'agit d'un paradoxe
12 concernant la soci?te am?ricaine. En
13Stage 1: students compare and analyze France, nous pensons en g?n?ral que la
a large variety of materials. starting soci?t? am?ricaine est tr?s ax?e sur la
with questionnaires Word associations One religion. Par exemple, voir sur vos
example: individualism Sentence billets de banque "In god we
completions Hypothetical situations These trust" nous fait "sauter au
questionnaires (selected by both sets of plafond" ! (?a veut dire que ca nous
instructors) have been designed to access fait beaucoup r?agir / ?a nous surprend).
many areas of life, different kinds of En effet, nous avons s?par? ici l'Eglise
relationships, within different contexts et l'Etat en 1905, soit il y a plus d'un
and locations. si?cle. Nous sommes donc habitu?s ?
14Stage 2: students exchange viewpoints dissocier compl?tement la vie publique de
via online discussion forums. The main la religion. L?cole est laique, les
mode of communication Key aspects of these politiciens (comme le pr?sident de la
forums: Asynchronous (allow for a more r?publique) ne font jamais de r?f?rence ?
reflective and deliberate stance.) un quelconque Dieu. En France, on ne jure
Multiple: there is a forum attached to pas sur la bible dans les tribunaux ! Au
every word, phrase, document, etc.. nom de quoi devrait on reconnaitre la
Collective: a discussion that unfolds like bible ? D'autre part, autoriser la peine
an open dialogue between students. de mort d'une part, et pr?ner la religion
15Key aspects of the online forums (et donc le pardon) d'autre part me parait
(continued). Led entirely by students compl?tement paradoxal. Que pensez vous de
(they are in charge of the conversations; la place de la religion dans votre pays ?
they take them wherever they want; the Vu d'ici, cela nous ram?ne plusieurs
teacher never interferes.) They become si?cles en arri?re. Cl?ment..
another source of materials analyzed and 47Raising paradoxes: example 4. Regina:
discussed by students in class. They have To add to Irene's comment # 17. I'm
also been archived since 1997, providing a surprised politeness is claimed to be the
very large intercultural corpora Written most important word in the French
in the students native language. language. Is it really important to the
16Rationale for writing in L1 in the French to be polite to strangers? The
forums. All students can express their commonest complaint I've heard about
thoughts fully and comprehensively (not French people is that they are sarcastic
limited by their linguistic abilities). and rude. I've witnessed a lot of the
Congruence is key! No linguistic dominance sarcasm in the course of this forum and a
by any person or any group. little bit of the rudeness. I'm having a
17Added benefits. Our students read little trouble relating French politeness
completely authentic French, which they and their sharp sarcasm. Could someone
will need to decode and understand, thus help me out?.
greatly enriching their language skills in 48Raising paradoxes: one response from a
general. Our students - in all classroom French student. Fabrice: Bonjour!. La
discussions as well as in all their contradiction entre le sondage qui montre
writings - make full use of the words and que 70% des Fran?ais ont confiance en leur
expressions used by the French students in police nationale, et le fait que dans le
the forums (imagine the opposite!) The film fran?ais la police se fait doubler,
differences in discourse by the Americans est caract?ristique du fait que les
and the French immediately become visible, Fran?ais font toujours le contraire de ce
thus creating yet another cultural object qu'ils disent en public. On craint
of analysis. OUR STUDENTS ALWAYS SPEAK IN l'autorit?, donc on dit qu'on est confiant
FRENCH IN CLASS AND WRITE THEIR NOTES, en elle. Mais derri?re son dos on n'y
ESSAYS, ETC.. IN FRENCH. pense plus, ou pire on essaye de la
18Stage 3: students constantly revisit contourner.
issues as they explore and investigate 49A students view. Paradoxes are hard
a variety of other materials. as they to come up with, but once you stumble upon
collaborate with their peers (both one, they are pretty easy to write about.
classmates and partners). All along, These discussions are among the more
expanding, deepening and refining their interesting because in this topic, the
knowledge and understanding of the other students are synthesizing more new
culture. ideas..
19A summary of the process - in and 50Assessment of forums by a student.
outside of class. Students work in a The forums were an invaluable part of my
series of stages: analyze the materials at French course experience. It was good to
hand, individually, outside of class. interact with peers in another country and
share their observations with their own gain insight into a different cultural
classmates in the classroom. write perspective on common themes and motifs.
individual comments in the online Through the word associations forum I was
discussion forums, outside of class, able to get a glimpse of the thought
participating in the collective processes of my French peers. Its
discussions. bring back to class comments interesting to see how ideas are connected
from the French students and discuss them within the minds of individuals in another
in class. They then analyze a new set of culture, in comparison to my own, so to
materials, continuing their interactive better understand the other culture.
and dynamic journey of exploration. 51Tasks related to the online discussion
20An animated view of the process. forums (5). Connecting the forums to the
21 classroom It is very important to esign
22 activities that will ensure that the
23KEY PEDAGOGICAL FEATURES. online discussion forums are integrated
24How to develop intercultural and brought back into the classroom, so as
competence? Connecting students will to bring the voices of the French students
obviously not automatically develop the alive. Example of task: Allez dans les
skills necessary to develop intercultural forums et apportez en classe deux ou trois
competence skills that include commentaires d?tudiants fran?ais que vous
(according to Byrams famous categories): trouvez particuli?rement instructifs, ou
An attitude of openness. Knowledge of qui apportent une perspective diff?rente,
ones self and others. Skills of ou soul?vent une question int?ressante
interpreting and relating. Skills of Soyez pr?t ? les partager avec vos
discovery and interaction. Critical camarades de classe et dire pourquoi vous
cultural awareness.. This is a process. les avez choisis.
The question is. 52A new type of classroom/ a new role
25How to help that process? It needs to for the teacher. A new teaching
be scaffolded through a series of tasks environment is clearly emerging With the
(and guidelines) - whose overarching goal integration of the virtual online
is to enable students to go beyond the community, the teacher is no longer the
surface, expand their views and gradually only voice of authority in the classroom
develop together an ever more and more -? his/her role is bound to change. Our
complex picture of the other culture(s) responsibility is no longer to just impart
a process that will prevent students from cultural knowledge but to put our students
essentializing them. on center stage and provide them with
26The locus of activities in Cultura. opportunities to: share what they have
the classrooms: two distinct/separate learnt and discovered and, in the process,
spaces. the invisible part, but extremely expand their individual knowledge and
important. the online forums: the understanding. arrive at new
common/shared space. the visible part interpretations and constantly refine
(since all online discussions are their understanding of the other culture,
archived). The online forums and the their knowledge enriched by the
classroom are two different entities, but contributing voices of the native students
are intertwined (constant back and forth across the ocean. Our main role: to
movement). provide tasks that will achieve that goal.
27Tasks related to the online discussion 53Tasks related to the classroom (1).
forums (1). Providing students with very Designing collaborative activities An
specific guidelines (in French). We tell example and a view of the classroom -?
them: share your discoveries and 54
observations on the documents you have 55
compared ask questions make hypotheses 56
raise issues answer your partners 57
questions. The goal is to promote a 58The importance of the classroom. This
constant and reciprocal process of is where students start making
inquiry, where students will try to connections, see patterns emerge and
understand the others perspective and to develop new insights. In this particular
explain their own cultures. instance, they see some striking
28One quick example of a successful differences: the general emphasis on the
intercultural forum . Initial impetus: affect (in American culture) vs an
the students comparative analysis of the emphasis on savoir (in French culture).
answers to the word family/famille The boards play an important role in
Subsequent forum excerpts -? making differences and resemblances
29Alicia, an MIT student starts the visible, in serving as mirrors of the
conversation. One big difference that I students discoveries and bringing
noticed in reactions to this word was that patterns to light.
on the American side, "love" 59A new kind of learning which
showed up a lot of times. However, on the clearly brings the process (of
French side, only 2 people used constructing and co-constructing
"amour." I think that in knowledge) into the limelight, not the
America, there is a strong emphasis placed finished product. Students are like
on cultivating a "loving, caring, cultural archeologists, who with the
supportive family environment" which help of their classmates, their foreign
is why "love is one of the first partners and the guidance of their teacher
words that come to mind. I was wondering, (through the varied tasks), try to make
why do the French not use that word initial connections which they will then
much..? try to confirm or revise in the light of
30Gabrielle, a French student, responds. new materials they will analyze, trying to
Il semble effectivement que les Fran?ais bring patterns to light and gradually put
utilisent moins le mot "amour" together the cultural puzzle.
dans le test. Peut-?tre est-ce parce que, 60Putting together the cultural puzzle.
justement il n'y a aucune crainte de 61A validation from ...Mike Levy who
manquer d'amour, donc ce n'est pas une wrote in the LLT Journal (in 2007)
pr?occupation. Cela dit, ce n'est qu'une Cultura is exceptional for the ways in
th?orie : je ne sais pas r?ellement ? quoi which its structure, content, tasks,
cela tient. Il faudrait avoir plus de strategies and techniques are designed to
d?tails sur les contextes familiaux pour account for many of the facets of the
avoir une meilleure analyse. Mais cela culture concept, as described in the first
deviendrait peut-?tre trop personnel... part of this paper. The learning
Translation: It does seem indeed that the partnership is at once reciprocal,
French [students] use the word amour interactive and constructed suggesting at
less often. The reason, perhaps, is that the outset that partners will learn about
one is not afraid of lacking love, so it each other in ways that are respected,
is not a worry. That being said, it is equitable and balanced. The stages and
only a theory: I dont really know why. sequencing are central to the approach.
One would need to have more details on 62Other roles for the teacher in the
specific family contexts to make a better classroom. It is of course important for
analysis. But that might perhaps become the teacher to take center stage in order
too personal to: clarify a particular misunderstanding
31Ga?lle, another French student, chimes (cf ?duquer). bring students attention
in. J'ai ?galement remarqu? la forte to a document or a posting on the forum
concentration du mot amour dans vos that he/she thinks is particularly
r?ponses. Peut-?tre qu'en France, il reste culturally informative or which may be
plus implicite, cach?, ceci ne signifiant opaque to the student or may reflect an
pas alors que l'amour n'est pas pr?sent. underlying attitude or bring particularly
Translation: I too noticed the high interesting cultural and/or linguistic
concentration of the word love in your information.
responses. Perhaps in France it is more 63The role of the teacher in the
implicit, hidden, but this does not mean classroom (continued) To focus the class
it is not present. discussions: Ex: make students aware of
32Alicia, responding to Ga?lles earlier the context they were thinking when
comment. I think Gaelle touched on responding to the questionnaires (cf
something very interesting about love policeman/woman). Ex: on some paradoxes
being a more implicit emotion in France they may have discovered. cf direct vs
than it is in America. Definitely in indirect cultures?
America, the word "love" is 64The role of the teacher in the
thrown around a lot. It is used a lot as a classroom (continued) To bring/show new
way of parting, like people will say documents that might illustrate,
"I love you" before ending a illuminate or contradict a point Ex:
phone conversation with their regarding the use of the word aimer (the
boyfriend/girlfriend, parents or siblings, video of Sarkozys speech to his voters,
even sometimes with very good friends. where he says je vous aime) Ex:
This is something that happens very often regarding the slap: video of Bayrou during
and we don't think very much of it. I was presidential elections where he is seen
wondering, what is the case in France? Are slapping a child Ex: a comic strip showing
the words "amour" or a father being upset at his sons grades
"s'aimer" spoken very often? -?
33Gaelle tries to respond (about why the 65From Le Monde de lEducation (May 5,
French dont use that word much). Cette 2010).
question est vraiment int?ressante. Les 66Key task: giving appropriate
Fran?ais sont, je le crois, peut-?tre un assignments. Written essay: Une premi?re
peu plus pudiques, plus discrets sur leurs synth?se En vous appuyant sur les r?ponses
sentiments amoureux. Je viens de faire un fran?aises aux trois questionnaires (les
petit sondage dans la classe pour savoir associations de mots, les phrases ?
combien d'entre nous disaient parfois terminer et les situations) et les
"je vous aime" ? leurs parents. commentaires des Fran?ais sur les forums,
Or, personne ne semble le faire, moi y choisissez un concept qui vous para?t
compris. Malgr? cela, il est certain que central ? la culture fran?aise. Dites dans
cet amour existe. De votre c?t?, cette quels diff?rents contextes et sous quelles
habitude (tr?s bonne d'ailleurs) de dire diff?rentes formes ce concept appara?t. Y
"je t'aime" assez souvent a t-il des cas des situations, des
n'entraine t-elle pas une d?valorisation exemples qui semblent le contredire, ou au
partielle de ce mot? Existe t-il des mots contraire semble-t-il ?tre une constante?
plus forts encore que "love? Elaborez et donnez des exemples pr?cis.
Translation: This question is really Accompagnez votre essai dun diagramme
interesting. The French, I believe, are a montrant les diff?rentes connections.
little more modest, more discreet about Eblouissez-moi!
their feelings of love. I just did a 67La notion de respect : un tableau/une
little survey in class to find out how illustration. Lespace priv? (un bon
many of us say I love you to their voisin). RESPECT. Les autres (cin?ma). La
parents. Well, nobody seems to do it, loi. Savoir/ (bon patron) comp?tence. Les
myself included. In spite of that, it is r?gles bonjour. Suivre? enfreindre? Savoir
clear that that love does exist. Now, vivre (bon voisin). Politesse (banque/
doesnt this (actually very good) habit of relations professionnelles). pouvoir.
yours to say I love you quite often 68Type of essay titles by students. La
partially devalue the word? Are there notion de respect dans la soci?t?
words that are stronger still than love? francaise Limportance de l?galit? dans
34Kezia, an MIT student, gets really la culture fran?aise Le concept de
confused.. Interesting comment, Gaelle. I Savoir dans la culture francaise Le
always thought that the French were more rapport ? largent Limportance de la vie
open about their emotions. The French priv?e Le r?le de lindividu Limportance
always seem to be kissing and hugging each des r?gles Le conformisme et
other. Whereas in America, people tend to lanti-conformisme La France si douce,
touch less when they're in public. Some mais si aigre La notion dordre.
people even frown upon couples kissing in 69Other example of assignment: analyzing
front of others and mothers breast-feeding the photos exchanged. The photo exchange:
their babies. Why do you say the French Students, working in groups across the
are more discreet? Atlantic, first select a topic to
35To which Ga?lle responds Les Francais illustrate (either a topic relevant to
sont plus pudiques quant ? leurs their daily lives (ex: What we eat/
sentiments, le fait de les clamer haut et when/where? Where we live, how we dress,
fort, mais il est effectivement fr?quent etc..in which case they take their own
d'apercevoir des couples s'embrasser dans pictures) or a commercial product, as
la rue [..] Translation: The French are advertised in the French and American
more modest in terms of expressing their media (from the Internet usually), such as
feelings loud and clear, but it is indeed : beer/cars/ perfume/etc.. Students upload
commonplace to see couples kissing in the the photos on the site They then to do an
streets. oral group presentation:
36Key components. Students here: share 70PPT class presentations. Students
observations and reactions piggyback on compare and analyze not just the photos
s.o.elses observations make hypotheses themselves (what they say or illustrate)
ask questions acknowledge the others but also the type of photos taken. Once, a
postings, going further provide pertinent, group noticed (regarding photos taken by
real life illlustrations take initiatives the students themselves) that the American
respond to questions challenge the other students tended to show themselves in the
allude to the context confront clich?s and picture, whereas the French students
raise paradoxes. tended to take photos that just focused
37Why can it be considered a just on the object (the food, the dorm
successful intercultural dialogue? It room, etc..). And they related it to the
brings to the surface the notions of differences in French and American
explicit vs implicit. It highlights the discourse!
fact that there are different ways of 71Is there an end to this journey? The
expressing emotions (verbalizing them vs very process in which students are
showing them). These being fundamental involved requires them to keep suspending
culturally driven values (values students judgments and be ready to revise them,
will revisit when looking at other question them, expand them, refine them in
documents). the light of new materials and new
38More broadly.. The key to a successful perspectives.
intercultural forum: The participants 72Quoting Simone de Beauvoir.. Je tiens
communicate not to talk directly about ? signaler quaucun morceau isol? ne
each other but to talk about a third constitue un jugement d?finitif; souvent
object (= the materials they are dailleurs, je naboutis ? aucun point de
discussing), through which they will vue arr?t? et cest lensemble de mes
reveal their culture and reveal ind?cisions, additions et rectifications
themselves. qui constitue mon opinion LAm?rique au
39Tasks related to the online discussion jour le jour, Folio 2943. Pr?face. p. 10.
forums (2). Encouraging students to 73Discovering the other is discovering
express diverse opinions The end goal of oneself. Celui qui essaye de comprendre
these on-line discussions is not to create mieux lautre parviendra, dans le m?me
a consensus among all students but to mouvement, ? une meilleure ma?trise et une
provide a place where they will raise and connaissance plus approfondie de ses
debate issues, so as to better understand. propres valeurs et de ses comportements
While this tends not to be an issue with culturels en les voyant ? travers le
French students who tend quite naturally miroir d'une autre culture." Martine
and quite frequently vigorously disagree Addallah-Pretceille, en pr?face ? son
and argue with each other, we do tell the ouvrage Relations et apprentissages
MIT students not to hesitate to disagree interculturels, Colin, 1995.
on issues. After all not all Americans 74Some useful references. The Cultura
think that the American dream is still Site (currently in transition):
alive or that individualism is necessarily http://cultura.mit.edu where you can find:
a good thing --? Articles A teachers Guide Cultura
40An example. Liana (about the word archives My e-mail address:
individualism) As has been said, we gfursten@mit.edu (dont hesitate to
obviously have very different ideas of write!) Sabine Levets address:
what the word means [..] I think that slevet@mit.edu.
among some other groups in America, 75Muchas gracias! Thank you! Merci!
The Cultura model: key methodological and pedagogical features.ppt
http://900igr.net/kartinka/anglijskij-jazyk/the-cultura-model-key-methodological-and-pedagogical-features-123133.html
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The Cultura model: key methodological and pedagogical features

The Cultura model: key methodological and pedagogical features

The animals - PENGUIN. WOMBAT. REINDEER. BISON. PANDA. SEAL. SCORPIO. GORILLA. WHALE. GRIFFIN. The animals which live in the desert. BOBCAT. PARROT. EMU. GIRAFFE. The animals which live in Australia. KOALA. ELEPHANT. DOLPHIN. SEA-HORSE. SNAKE. HIPPO. The animals which live in the OCEAN. STARFISH. The animals which live in a SAVANNA.

the woman - . = . . , . As great a pity to see a woman cry as a goose go barefoot. A good wife makes a good husband. , , . A womans tongue wags like a lambs tail.

The green movement - The main objective to achieve the decision of global environmental problems, including by attraction to them of attention of the public and the authorities. The countries in which there are offices Greenpeace. Green color which is used by participants of movement as the general emblem, serves as a symbol of the nature, hope and updating.

The english-speaking countries - USA. Australia. Great Britain. The English-speaking countries. Scotland. Disneyland.

Painting - View of Reval. The snow is not white. Landing at Subashi. It is one of the most popular paintings in Tretyakov Gallery. It has many shades: yellow, green, red and so on. Sunny Day, 1876. A Rye Field. It is the main idea of this picture. Another beautiful canvas of Levitan is "The golden Plyos".

Cinema - thank you for your attention. The total number of K in the world - about 100 thousand. Cinema - public institution to public demonstration of films. Salkov and Cats presents. The most widely K. medium capacity (from 300 to 1,000 seats). Cinema. Theater, public building (or part of it), equipped for movies.

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