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The French Language in England
The French Language in England
The French Language in England
The French Language in England
The French Language in England
The French Language in England
Rollo (G
Rollo (G
Rollo (G
Rollo (G
The main linguistic effects of the Norman invasion
The main linguistic effects of the Norman invasion
The French Language in England
The French Language in England
Difference between Norman French and Central (Parisian) French
Difference between Norman French and Central (Parisian) French
Difference between Norman French and Central (Parisian) French
Difference between Norman French and Central (Parisian) French
Difference between Norman French and Central (Parisian) French
Difference between Norman French and Central (Parisian) French
NB first recorded occurence in a written text
NB first recorded occurence in a written text
The French Language in England
The French Language in England
The French Language in England
The French Language in England
The French Language in England
The French Language in England
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The French Language in England

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1The French Language in England. 19The French Language in England
2 1200-1300. 1204 Loss of Normandy. French
3 is the cultivated, prestige language.
4Rollo (G?ngu-Hr?lfur) The Normans. Norman French loses prestige and the
5William the Conqueror. 1066. nobility begin to look to Paris for their
6The main linguistic effects of the norm. There is a diglossic situation, with
Norman invasion. Secular and religious French the high-prestige, English the
authorities became French Old English low-prestige variety. Large numbers of
spelling traditions were lost English came French loans enter English.
to be written as it was spoken Dialectal 201200-1300. 1066-1200. 1300-1400.
differences appeared. 21The French Language in England
7The main linguistic effects of the 1300-1400. English becomes the dominant
Norman invasion. The changes that had language, but French remains dominant in
occurred since the Norse invasions, now literature and at the court. Increasing
appeared for the first time in the witten evidence of imperfect knowledge of French
language. amongst the nobility. Although the
8 knowledge of French is waning, its
91200-1300. 1066-1200. 1300-1400. linguistic prestige can be seen by still
101200-1300. 1066-1200. 1300-1400. increasing numbers of French loans in
11The French Language in England English.
1066-1200. Norman French is the native 22The French Language in England
language of the nobility. Probably not a 1300-1400 Factors contributing to the
great deal of bilingualism. Small numbers decline of French: 1334-1453 The Hundred
of French loans enter English. Years' War with France. 1348-9 The Black
121200-1300. 1066-1200. 1300-1400. Death. 30% mortality. Labour shortage,
13The French Language in England wage rises, increasing importance of the
1200-1300. 1204 Loss of Normandy. French English-speaking classes 1386 English
is the cultivated, prestige language. accepted in the courts ('Statute of
Norman French loses prestige and the Pleading') Two major English poets at the
nobility begin to look to Paris for their end of the 14th century: Gower writes
norm. mostly in French (but composes one long
14Difference between Norman French and work Confessio amantis, in English)
Central (Parisian) French. NORMAN FRENCH Chaucer writes almost entirely in English.
retained k cattle castle carpenter Evidence of private letters: 1350: French
cauldron carry catch ? retained g garden is the rule. After 1400: English becomes
gaol. PARISIAN FRENCH k has become common. After 1450: English is the rule.
chattels chair charity chief change chase 23Jeo prie a la Benoit Trinite que vous
? g has become joy jest jail. in some ottroie bone vie ove tresentier sauntee a
environments. in some environments. g treslonge durre, and sende yowe sone to
survives only in spelling. ows in hel? and prosperitee for, in god
15Difference between Norman French and fey, I hope to Al Mighty God that, yef ye
Central (Parisian) French. NORMAN FRENCH come youre owne persone, ye schulle have
is retained in catch w in Germanic the victorie of alle your enemyes. And for
loanwords while ward(en) William war wasp. salvation of oure Schire and Marches al
PARISIAN FRENCH has become s in chase w aboute, treste ye nought to no Leutenaunt.
becomes g(w) guile gardian Guy (guerre, Escript a Hereford, en tresgraunte haste,
gu?pe). a trois de la clocke apres noone, le
16The French Language in England tierce jour de Septembre. Richard Winston,
1200-1300. 1204 Loss of Normandy. French Dean of Windsor, to the King 1403 Baugh fn
is the cultivated, prestige language. 195 p. 151.
Norman French loses prestige and the 24Baugh: 1000 French words at random.
nobility begin to look to Paris for their (statistics in footnote to §133, p. 178
norm. There is a diglossic situation, with 5th edn). before-1050. 2. 1051-1000. 0.
French the high-prestige, English the 1151-1150. 2. 1151-1200. 7. 1201-1250. 35.
low-prestige variety. 1251-1300. 99. 1301-1350. 108. 1351-1400.
17Diglossia. hus mus haus maus. 198. 1401-1450. 74. 1451-1500. 90.
Prestige. Enry Henry. Arthur Harthur. 1501-1550. 62. 1551-1600. 95.
Examples from Modern English: 25NB first recorded occurence in a
18Diglossia. hew colour. stench scent. written text. status of French. Baugh:
Prestige. neat beef. athling prince. 1000 French words.
Examples from Middle English: 26
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