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The North Sea
The North Sea
Geography of the North Sea
Geography of the North Sea
Fish and shellfish
Fish and shellfish
Fish and shellfish
Fish and shellfish
Fish and shellfish
Fish and shellfish
Fish and shellfish
Fish and shellfish
Fish and shellfish
Fish and shellfish
Fish and shellfish
Fish and shellfish
Fish and shellfish
Fish and shellfish
Birds
Birds
Birds
Birds
Birds
Birds
Birds
Birds
Birds
Birds
Birds
Birds
Marine mammals
Marine mammals
Marine mammals
Marine mammals
Marine mammals
Marine mammals
Marine mammals
Marine mammals
Marine mammals
Marine mammals
Marine mammals
Marine mammals
Flora
Flora
Flora
Flora
Flora
Flora
Flora
Flora
Flora
Flora
Biodiversity and conservation
Biodiversity and conservation
Biodiversity and conservation
Biodiversity and conservation
Biodiversity and conservation
Biodiversity and conservation
Biodiversity and conservation
Biodiversity and conservation
Economy
Economy
Tourism
Tourism
Marine traffic
Marine traffic
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The North Sea

содержание презентации «The North Sea.ppt»
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1The North Sea. 8once found along the southern shores of
2Geography of the North Sea. On the the North Sea, but went extinct over the
Southwest. A line joining the Walde 2nd millennium. Gray whale also resided in
Lighthouse (France, 1°55'E) and the North Sea but were driven to
Leathercoat Point (England, 51°10'N). On extinction in the Atlantic in the 1600s
the Northwest. From Dunnet Head (3°22'W) Other species have seen dramatic declines
in Scotland to Tor Ness (58°47'N) in the in population, though they are still to be
Island of Hoy, thence through this island found; right whales, sturgeon, shad, rays,
to the Kame of Hoy (58°55'N) on to Breck skates and salmon among other species were
Ness on Mainland (58°58'N) through this common in the North Sea into the 20th
island to Costa Head (3°14'W) and to Inga century, when numbers declined due to
Ness (59'17'N) in Westray through Westray, overfishing. Other factors like the
to Bow Head, across to Mull Head (North introduction of non-indigenous species,
point of Papa Westray) and on to Seal industrial and agricultural pollution,
Skerry (North point of North Ronaldsay) trawling and dredging, human-induced
and thence to Horse Island (South point of eutrophication, construction on coastal
the Shetland Islands). On the North. From breeding and feeding grounds, sand and
the North point (Fethaland Point) of the gravel extraction, offshore construction,
Mainland of the Shetland Islands, across and heavy shipping traffic have also
to Graveland Ness (60°39'N) in the Island contributed to the decline. The OSPAR
of Yell, through Yell to Gloup Ness commission manages the OSPAR convention to
(1°04'W) and across to Spoo Ness (60°45'N) counteract the harmful effects of human
in Unst island, through Unst to Herma Ness activity on wildlife in the North Sea,
(60°51'N), on to the SW point of the preserve endangered species, and provide
Rumblings and to Muckle Flugga (60°51'N, environmental protection. All North Sea
0°53'W) all these being included in the border states are signatories of the
North Sea area; thence up the meridian of MARPOL 73/78 Accords which preserves the
0°53' West to the parallel of 61°00' North marine environment by preventing pollution
and eastward along this parallel to the from ships. Germany, Denmark, and the
coast of Norway, the whole of Viking Bank Netherlands also have a trilateral
being thus included in the North Sea. On agreement for the protection of the Wadden
the East. The Western limit of the Sea, or mudflats, which run along the
Skagerrak [A line joining Hanstholm coasts of the three countries on the
(57°07'N, 83°6'E) and the Naze (Lindesnes, southern edge of the North Sea.
58°N, 7°E)]. 9Economy. Oil and gas As early as 1859,
3Natural history. Fish and shellfish oil was discovered in onshore areas around
Birds Marine mammals Flora Biodiversity the North Sea and natural gas as early as
and conservation. 1910. Oil platform Statfjord A with the
4Fish and shellfish. sole. cod. brown flotel Polymarine Test drilling began in
shrimp. haddock. saithe. whiting. norway 1966 and then, in 1969, Phillips Petroleum
lobster. The North Sea is one of the Company discovered the Ekofisk oil field
world's most important fishing grounds, distinguished by valuable, low-sulphur
yielding benthic and pelagic fish, and oil. Commercial exploitation began in 1971
shellfish. Some species have been with tankers and, after 1975, by a
overfished, but the herring is one of the pipeline, first to Teesside, England and
species whose stocks have recovered and then, after 1977, also to Emden, Germany.
are currently favourable. Cod stocks, The exploitation of the North Sea oil
however, are so low that there is a danger reserves began just before the 1973 oil
that sufficient juveniles will not be crisis, and the climb of international oil
produced. Generally, large fish of all prices made the large investments needed
species are becoming rarer. Fishing is for extraction much more attractive.
affecting other species too. The Although the production costs are
harvesting of the shellfish spisula from relatively high, the quality of the oil,
the North Sea is impacting on the the political stability of the region, and
occurrence of the common scoter. And the nearness of important markets in
fishing is probably responsible for the western Europe has made the North Sea an
crash in numbers of rays and for the important oil producing region.The largest
decline in numbers of harbour porpoise. single humanitarian catastrophe in the
Beam trawling for benthic flatfishes is North Sea oil industry was the destruction
causing high mortality in benthic fauna of the offshore oil platform Piper Alpha
and a shift in their age composition. in 1988 in which 167 people lost their
However, birds profit from the large lives.
amounts of fish waste dumped at sea by 10Tourism. The beaches and coastal
trawlers. waters of the North Sea are popular
5Birds. northern fulmars. gannets. destinations for tourists. The Belgian,
giant petrel. gull. diver. cormorant. The Dutch, German and Danish coasts are
coasts of the North Sea are home to nature especially developed for tourism. The
reserves including the Ythan Estuary, North Sea Trail is a long-distance trail
Fowlsheugh Nature Preserve, and Farne linking seven countries around the North
Islands in the UK and The Wadden Sea Sea. Windsurfing and sailing are popular
National Parks in Germany. These locations sports because of the strong winds.
provide breeding habitat for dozens of Mudflat hiking, recreational fishing and
bird species. Tens of millions of birds birdwatching are among other popular
make use of the North Sea for breeding, activities. The climatic conditions on the
feeding, or migratory stopovers every North Sea coast are often claimed to be
year. Populations of Black legged especially healthful. As early as the 19th
Kittiwakes, Atlantic Puffins, Northern century, travellers used their stays on
fulmars, and species of petrels, gannets, the North Sea coast as curative and
seaducks, loons (divers), cormorants, restorative vacations. The sea air,
gulls, auks, and terns, and many other temperature, wind, water, and sunshine are
seabirds make these coasts popular for counted among the beneficial conditions
birdwatching. that are said to activate the body's
6Marine mammals. bearded seal. harbour defences, improve circulation, strengthen
porpoises. common seal. walrus. dolphin. the immune system, and have healing
cetacean. The North Sea is also home to effects on the skin and the respiratory
marine mammals. Common seals, and Harbour system.
porpoises can be found along the coasts, 11Marine traffic. The North Sea is
at marine installations, and on islands. important for marine traffic and its
The very northern North Sea islands like shipping lanes are among the busiest in
the Shetlands are occasionally home to a the world. Major ports are located along
larger variety of pinnipeds including its coasts: Rotterdam, the third busiest
bearded, harp, hooded and ringed seals, port in the world, Antwerp and Hamburg,
and even walrus. North Sea cetaceans both in the top 25, Bremen/Bremerhaven and
include various porpoise, dolphin and Felixstowe, both in the top 30 busiest
whale species. container seaports, as well as the Port of
7Flora. bladder wrack. kelp. algae. sea Bruges-Zeebrugge, Europe's leading RoRo
grass. knotted wrack. Plant species in the port. Traffic in the North Sea can be
North Sea include species of wrack, among difficult in high density traffic zones so
them bladder wrack, knotted wrack, and ports regulate traffic and monitor vessels
serrated wrack. Algae, macroalgal, and in the North Sea lanes. Fishing boats, oil
kelp, such as oarweed and laminaria and gas platforms as well as merchant
hyperboria, and species of maerl are found traffic from Baltic ports share routes on
as well. Eelgrass, formerly common in the the North Sea. The Dover Strait sees more
entirety of the Wadden Sea, was nearly than 400 vessels a day. The North Sea
wiped out in the 20th century by a coasts are home to numerous canals and
disease. Similarly, sea grass used to coat canal systems to facilitate traffic
huge tracts of ocean floor, but have been between and among rivers, artificial
damaged by trawling and dredging have harbours, and the sea. The Kiel Canal,
diminished its habitat and prevented its connecting the North Sea with the Baltic
return. Invasive Japanese seaweed has Sea, is the most heavily used artificial
spread along the shores of the sea seaway in the world. It saves an average
clogging harbours and inlets and has of 250 nautical miles (460 km; 290 mi),
become a nuisance. instead of the voyage around the Jutland
8Biodiversity and conservation. Peninsula.The North Sea Canal connects
flamingo. Great auk. sturgeon. grey whale. Amsterdam with the North Sea.
Flamingos, pelicans, and Great Auk were 12Thank you for your attention!
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The North Sea

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