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The Seller’s Point of View
The Seller’s Point of View
Traveling-salesman Example
Traveling-salesman Example
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The Popcorn Project

содержание презентации «The Popcorn Project.ppt»
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1The Popcorn Project. Globally 12Findmax Example (cont.). class
Distributed Computation Over the Internet. FindMaxComputelet implements Computelet {
http://www.cs.huji.ac.il/~popcorn. Noam private int from,till; public
Nisan Hebrew University, Jerusalem and FindMaxComputelet(int from, int till){
Interdisciplinary Center, Herzliya Shmulik this.from=from; this.till=till; } public
London, Ori Regev, Noam Camiel Hebrew Object compute() { int maxarg=from; for
University, Jerusalem. (int x=from; x<=till; x++) maxarg =
2Idea. Millions of computers connected (g(x)>g(maxarg)) ? x : maxarg; return
to the internet “Safe” programming new Integer(maxarg); } // the function we
languages (java) allow these computers to want to maximize public static int g(int
securely execute remote code. Use all of x) { return . . . } }.
these computers as a single huge parallel 13Verification. Multiple copies of each
machine. computelet Spot-checks NP-type proofs
3Global vs. Distributed. Technical Program checking/correcting Hidden partial
difficulties code mobility, security “More knowledge of answer Best: auto-robust
distributed” communication, reliability, programs.
number / type of processors Different 14Candidate Applications. Combinatorial
owners payment / negotiation, search Optimization problems Code breaking
verification, getting in touch. Internet search Games Planning.
4Related Work. Network of workstations 15Example: Simulated Annealing. (
(Berkeley NoW, …) Special purpose efforts Metropolis, Genetic Algs, Hill-Climbing,
(factoring by web [Lenstra]) Java Branch-n-Bound…). Sequential version: x
applet-based examples (javaworld article) <- initial solution ( maybe random,
Other global systems: The legion project maybe many x’s ) repeat x <- some
(university of Virginia) Charlotte “neighbor” of x ( usually “better”, maybe
(Baratloo, Karaul, Kedem, Wyckoff) Paraweb random) until solution seems good.
(Brecht, Sandhu, Shan, Talbot) Superweb 16Popcorn Parallel Version. Chose S =
(Alexandrov, Ibel, Schauser, Sceiman). set of initial solutions Repeat Get some x
5Rest of Talk. System overview in S Remotely improve(x) When improve(x)
Programming paradigm Applications Market returns, update(S). To improve(x) repeat k
mechanisms Ongoing and future research. times x <- some nbr of x return [x] (or
6Popcorn Architecture. Seller. Buyer. l best solutions).
Market. Seller. Buyer. Seller. 17Traveling-salesman Example. (Shmulik
Computelets. London & Rivki Spira).
7The Seller’s Point of View. 18Trade in CPU Time. Popcoin accounts
8Programming Paradigm -- Requirements. Pricing: Per JOP (auto benchmark) or per
Coarse grained Distinction: central vs. computelet Buyer: API for setting contract
remote Unknown number and type of or use GUI tool Seller: Payment in
processors Communication is expensive popcoins or get information.
Well-encapsulated sub-computations 19The Popcorn Logo. Buyer. Seller.
(payment, verification, re-computation…). Publisher. CPU time. Popcoins.
9Programming Paradigm -- Overview. Main Information.
program repeatedly generates 20Market Mechanisms. Vickrey auction
computation-packets for remote execution Buyer: offers price Seller: no input
and handles the results. Computelet. Double auction Buyer: low, high, rate
Computation Packet. Verification Payment Seller: high, low, rate (Granularity:
Handle result. Code Data. computelet/contract).
10Computelet vs. RMI. Asynchronous Local 21Implementation
source of code Server anonymity Data is http://www.cs.huji.ac.il/~popcorn. System
part of object (Very restricted software operational, 30Kloc (pure Java 1.1)
agent). Test-bed for further research Online
11Findmax Example. import popcorn.*; market, developer download Small scale
public class FindMaxPacket extends testing A few applications Throughput: ~5
ComputationPacket { static int maxarg = 0; packets/sec (interpreted, monitored,
public static void main(String[] args) { 200mhz PC).
for (int a=0; a < 10000; a+=100) new 22Current Work. Scalability: A network
FindMaxPacket(a,a+99).go(); collectAll(); of markets Scalability: tree of
System.out.println(maxarg); } public computelets Tightly coupled variant:
FindMaxPacket(int from, int till) { shared objects Market analysis
super(FindMaxComputelet(from,till)); } Verification support Tools / languages
public void completed() { Applications.
update((Integer)getResult().intValue()); } 23Higher Level Issues. Other resources:
static synchronized void update(int Space (disk, memory) Communication
candidate){ maxarg = (routing, bandwidth) Information (DBs,
(FindMaxComputelet.g(candidate) > multimedia) Algorithms Electronic markets:
FindMaxComputelet.g(maxarg)) ? candidate : Mechanisms Payments Implementation.
maxarg; } }.
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The Popcorn Project

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