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Maps of Africa
Maps of Africa
Africa
Africa
Africa
Africa
Major Kingdoms in West Africa
Major Kingdoms in West Africa
Major Kingdoms in West Africa
Major Kingdoms in West Africa
Songhay Empire
Songhay Empire
The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
Empire of Benin
Empire of Benin
Portuguese Relations with Benin
Portuguese Relations with Benin
Slavery in West Africa
Slavery in West Africa
Central African Kingdoms
Central African Kingdoms
Central African Kingdoms
Central African Kingdoms
King Afonso and Kingdom of Kongo
King Afonso and Kingdom of Kongo
King Afonso and Kingdom of Kongo
King Afonso and Kingdom of Kongo
King Afonso I
King Afonso I
The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
Queen Nzinga
Queen Nzinga
The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
Mutapa Empire – East Africa
Mutapa Empire – East Africa
Mutapa Empire – East Africa
Mutapa Empire – East Africa
The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery
Most slaves in the Americas were men
Most slaves in the Americas were men
Triangle Trade and Rise of Capitalism
Triangle Trade and Rise of Capitalism
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The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery

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1The Rise of Capitalism and Slavery. 11nature of slavery – becomes almost
Reading: Smith, et al., 491-492, 551-555, permanent condition.
581-609. 610-620, 818-819. 12Central African Kingdoms. Kongo,
2Maps of Africa. Ndongo, Luba and Lunda.
3Africa. Much of Africa was very 13King Afonso and Kingdom of Kongo.
wealthy and prosperous before Europeans Manikongo ruled kingdom as semi-divine
Africans early learned Metalworking and spokesman of the gods Nkuwu/Nzinga was
the crafting of gold. Architecture of baptised King Jo?o I Constructed Church
Africa was very impressive in some spots. with Portuguese workers and architects
4Time Line of Africa. 6020 BCE Africans Urged Conversions to Christianity Invited
living in what is now the Congo used marks Portuguese assistance to build up army
on bones to develop numeration system. 300 Much exchange with Portugal Had reverted
BCE Africans in Kenya develop a complex to African beliefs at death in 1509.
calendar system based on astronomical 14King Afonso I. C. 1509, In struggle
reckoning. 1290 CE. The Dogon of the Mali for power, Nzinga Mbemba converted and
Kingdom plot the orbits of various became King Afonso I – supposedly defeated
universes and star systems including rival when massive number of soldiers had
Sirius B. a vision of Santiago (Saint James) Began
5Major Kingdoms in West Africa. Old using Portuguese language in court Used
Kingdom of Ghana Mali According to Portuguese mercenaries in expansion of
tradition founded by Sundiata Reached empire Wealthy Kongolese went to Portugal
height under Mansa Musa (ca. 1312-1327) for education One Kongolese became an
“Lord of the blacks of Guinea” Maybe Archbishop Controlled slave trade and
wealthiest man in world Established owned thousands of slaves himself But
centers of learning Traveller Ibn Battuta trade in slaves overwhelmed him, as much
impressed by stability and court of kingdom devoted all energies to
Possibility of Atlantic voyages. capturing slaves to supply Portuguese –
6Songhay Empire. Gradually Succeeded eventually led to civil wars and decline
Mali Never controlled as much trade as but not until end of 17th century.
Mali Muhammad Touray Askia – used Islam to 15
gain power in late 15th century– Songhay 16Queen Nzinga. Ndongo was ruled by
becomes Muslim state Prior to Askia’s Queen Nzinga from 1623-1663 Sometime in
rise, most of West Africa 1640s, announced she would become a man
polytheistic—believed there were divine Wanted her subjects to call her king Had
spirits in everything – could be mediated multiple husbands she required to dress as
with rituals and sacrifices Expanded women and live as concubines At first
cultivation and canals Contributed to converted to Christianity to get
terraced rice cultivation. Portuguese help, then renounced both the
7 faith and the Portuguese, then returned to
8Empire of Benin. 1486 – Portuguese both An effective military leader who
visit obas (rulers of Empire of Benin) consolidated power Ruthless and
Obas believed to be channel through which calculating, probably used Portuguese more
spirits worked in world Controlled trade than they used her Succeeded by sister
and production Portuguese Negotiated with Barbara Women continued to rule Ndongo for
Ozolua the Conqueror, who ruled from 75 of 100 years after Nzinga’s death.
1480-1504. 17
9Portuguese Relations with Benin. Benin 18Mutapa Empire – East Africa. Mutapa
believed obas descended from Olokun, god Empire controlled gold fields of Great
of the sea Gave Portuguese a special Zimbabwe Mwene Mutapa facing external and
status because they came from the Atlantic internal threats, calls on the Portuguese
Ozolua wanted to trade for guns and Offered them rights to trade, mines, the
manillas (brass bracelets) Portuguese right to build churches By 1607, the
reluctant to trade guns unless population Portuguese controlled all the gold,
converted to Christianity Imported copper, and iron of the empire as well as
bracelets from Germany and Flanders to all trade With Portuguese encouragement,
trade with Ozolua When missionaries Muslims persecuted.
converted Ozolua’s heir, the guns arrived 19
and the Portuguese helped Benin fight 20Most slaves in the Americas were men.
against neighboring Oyo Temporarily Why? Theory 1: Europeans only think men
powerful enough to restrict slave trade, good for labor. Theory 2: Africans want to
but eventually forced to reopen it to keep women for labor Coastal Chiefs in
compete with rivals, who also began to West Africa begin to trade slaves for
trade for guns. guns.
10Slavery in West Africa. West Africans 21Triangle Trade and Rise of Capitalism.
used slaves before the Portuguese Number Portuguese central to slave trade before
of slaves = wealth and status Slaves taken Spanish With Portuguese weakness, Spain
as prisoners of war People gave others monopolizes slave trade—the Asiento 1714 –
slaves to pay off debts Those caught End of War of Spanish Succession, England
committing crimes given to crime victims wins Asiento Question: How important is
Worked in hardest labor as field hands slave trade to rise of European countries,
Slaves added to lineage Most lost slave especially England?
status after a number of years or because 22Impact of Slavery. Impact in West
bought freedom – not a permanent status. Africa: More men than women—polygamy
11Portuguese as Slave Traders. 1400s Interior chiefs decline in power Coastal
African Kings allowed Portuguese to set up Chiefs thrive, often with Portuguese help
trading posts—”factories”—along the coast Portuguese provide guns Portuguese train
Before 1450 – slaves so available, soldiers Active trade with Portugal
Portuguese began sending small numbers of Influence of Christianity extensive
slaves to Portugal 1460 – sending 500 Economies begin long decline. Impact in
slaves a year to Portugal 1472 – East Africa: Chinese wanted slaves for
Portuguese discovered then converted Sao prostitution Most slaves were women
Tom? into sugar plantations 1500 – sending Portuguese wreck, destroy, kill
1000 slaves a year to Portugal, others to enemies/rivals Invited into Mutapa Empire
work on sugar plantations in Azores and and get control of gold and slaves Much
Spanish territories 1501 – Began sending political instability, economic disorder.
slaves to Americas – totally changed
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