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History and levels of Euro standards for cars
History and levels of Euro standards for cars
Existing CO2 Regulations for cars and Vans
Existing CO2 Regulations for cars and Vans
Existing CO2 Regulations for cars and Vans
Existing CO2 Regulations for cars and Vans
High Level Technology Roadmap - CARS OEMs share a common view
High Level Technology Roadmap - CARS OEMs share a common view
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The UK Automotive Scene Supplementary data for Auto Expo 2012

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1The UK Automotive Scene Supplementary 18production and registrations.
data for Auto Expo 2012. 19UK New Car Registrations. In 2010 the
2UK Market Overview - 1. 31 key vehicle car motor parc was 31.14m (2009 31.04m)
manufacturing sites: seven volume Diesel market remains strong for lower
passenger car, 11 commercial vehicle, bus, medium and above Super mini remains UK
coach and taxi manufacturers. Global base largest sector purchase (36.4%) MPV and
for engine manufacture, 2.3m. in 2010. 19 4x4 SUV market share continues to rise
of the world’s top 20 industry suppliers Hybrid and EV demand only slowly
and 7 global volume vehicle manufacturers increasing and replaces LPG demand – AFV
located in UK. Motor sport cluster for registrations in 2010 were 22,865 – 1.12%
development and manufacture: eight F1 market share, of which 167 were Electric
teams supported by >300 specialist vehicles. Ford Fiesta, Vauxhall Astra and
motorsport companies. Many foreign vehicle Ford Focus top 3 cars Market in 2010 has
manufacturers now have UK-based R&D risen 1.8% to 2.03m vehicles matching 2009
centres: Nissan at Cranfield; Ford at SMMT prediction.
Dunton; SAIC at Longbridge; Changan at 20November 2011 Registrations - new cars
Nottingham; TATA at Warwick. – and market down - but fuel efficiency better
Jaguar-Land Rover Creation of UK than ever. New car demand fell by 4.2% in
Automotive Council – framework for November to 134,000 units, but was some
collaboration with Government to improve 5,000 units above forecast. Diesel and
the UK investment offer and positioning of alternatively fuelled cars both took
UK as centre for ultra low carbon record market shares in the November
development. market. Average new car fuel efficiency
3UK Market Overview - 2. Majority of UK improved 29.3% in last 10 years, giving
automotive manufacturing foreign-owned. the highest ever mpg. New car
Mature market, 4th largest car producer in registrations over the first 11 months of
EU*. Exports average >?25 billion 2011 were down 4.5%, at 1,822,000 units.
annually, over 10% of UK exports. 2010 car Market looks set to better full year
production nearly 1.3mn, up from <1m in forecast of 1.923 million units, but
2009 recession; exports have increased caution remains over 2012.
from c65% 2000 to >75% in 2010. 21November 2011 Registrations van and
Commercial vehicle production consistently trucks market continues upward trend,
> 200,000 between 2004-8, but just growing 19.1%. Van and truck registrations
90,000 in 2009 (not supported by scrappage up 19.1% to 27,187 units in November,
scheme). 2010 production back to c123,000, rolling year up 18.6% to 300,331. Truck
with exports c70%. UK had fourth highest registrations up 21.5% to 4,503 in
R&D spend in Europe at over ?1.5 November month, rolling year up 24.4% to
billion p.a. * Source OICA. 41,507. Van registrations up 18.6% to
4UK Market Overview - 3. SMMT 12th 22,684 units in November, rolling year up
Annual Sustainability Report 18 signatory 17.7% to 258,824.
companies - across the broader industry, 22New car registrations. Market
shows year on year: Manufacturing turnover stabilised, at lower level. The scrappage
up 20% to ?49bn. Output up 27.8%, scheme helped support volumes. Market down
returning to pre-recession volumes. Number 7.3% to May and set to end 2011 at 1.93
of vehicles exported up 31%, totalling million units. New car registrations, 12
?29bn in value. Energy use per vehicle month moving annual total 2008 to 2012.
produced down 8%. Manufacturing CO2 23New car registrations. Impact of
emissions down 10.5% per vehicle produced. scrappage scheme. Scrappage in place May
Manufacturing waste to landfill produced 2009 to March 2010 (with some overhang).
per vehicle down 8%. New automotive Represented almost 15% total sales over
apprenticeships up 9% adding to the that period. New car registrations, 2009
737,000 jobs dependent on the sector. to 2011, with scrappage identified (Source
5Key elements of the sector. Strong SMMT).
independent design engineering and testing 24Automotive Council –
base. Significant foreign manufacturing www.automotivecouncil.co.uk. A very
investment and R&D investment / spend. powerful industry and government
Efficient manufacture and high export partnership. Has helped to transform
ratios of both volume and premium / niche automotive business environment to provide
vehicles. Strong powertrain sector with a more compelling investment proposition
technological innovation and scale. Low for related industries; Expanding
carbon technology and electric vehicle technology roadmaps for low carbon
development and manufacture, with strong vehicles and fuels, to help promote the UK
government support. Comprehensive OEM as a strong candidate to develop these and
aftermarket component manufacture, other technologies; Developing commodities
distribution, service and repair capacity. roadmap helping to develop a stronger and
In depth HE academic study & research more competitive automotive supply chain;
and FE sector training. Highly Providing a very strong public voice for
sophisticated retail and distribution the industry to support the value of the
logistics import / export services. industry to the UK and to global partners;
6UK Production Restructuring, Rebirth, Ensuring high level, strategic, continuous
Recession, Recovery. Years. Vehicle conversation between government and the
Production in Millions. automotive industry in the UK.
7Long-term commitment to UK – major 25Moving to a lower carbon transport
announcements in 2010-11. BMW: ?500m network. Meeting EU legislation: Average
investment across all 3 UK facilities for of 144.2g/km in 2010 – 3.5% down on 2009
the 3rd generation MINI; expansion of and 20.3% on 2000. Q1-3 2011 at 138.5g/km,
range to include Coupe and Roadster Minis down 4.0% on 2010 and 23.5% on 2000.
Ford: 5 year ?1.5bn investment in 130g/km by 2015, the equivalent of 58mpg
engineering and manufacturing facilities. with a diesel engine and 52mpg in a petrol
GM: next generation Vivaro confirmed for car. 65% of new cars averaging the 130g/km
Vauxhall’s Luton plant from 2013/4. Honda: target by 2012 rising to 100% in 2015.
commitment to new Civic and CRV, following Manufacturers exceeding the targets will
total ?1.4bn investment at Swindon. be heavily fined per additional gram of
Nissan: ?420m investment to make LEAF and CO2 emitted, for every car registered
batteries; ?192m investment for new across Europe. Specialist targets for
Qashqai Tata JLR: retaining three vehicle small volume and niche manufacturers.
assembly sites, build new engine factory, 26History and levels of Euro standards
widen product range, creating >2,000 for cars. Euro Standards. Entry into force
new jobs; >?2bn of supply contracts for (new type approvals). . Emission limits.
the Range Rover Evoque; ?490mn investment . . . New car types. All new cars.
for C-X75 hybrid supercar Tata: Petrol NOx. Diesel NOx. Diesel PM. Euro 0.
establishment and expansion of European 1 Oct '91. 1 Oct '93. 1000 mg/km. 1600
Technical Centre. Aston Martin: Cygnet mg/km. (no limit). Euro 1. 1 Jul '92. 31
production to create 150 new jobs; Rapide Dec '92. 490 mg/km. 780 mg/km. 140 mg/km.
production moving to Gaydon from Austria. Euro 2. 1 Jan '96. 1 Jan '97. 250 mg/km.
McLaren: MP4-12C to be produced in Woking. 730 mg/km. 100 mg/km. Euro 3. 1 Jan '00. 1
SAIC MG: MG6 GT to be designed engineered Jan '01. 150 mg/km. 500 mg/km. 50 mg/km.
and assembled in Longbridge. Optare: new Euro 4. 1 Jan '05. 1 Jan '06. 80 mg/km.
1,200 capacity bus manufacturing facility 250 mg/km. 25 mg/km. Euro 5. 1 Sep '09. 1
in Yorkshire.. Jan '11. 60 mg/km. 180 mg/km. 5 mg/km.
8Key issues for the UK automotive Euro 6. 1 Sep '14. 1 Sep '15. 60 mg/km. 80
industry. Economic crisis in Europe, USA, mg/km. 5 mg/km.
Japan, alongside market decline / 27UK air quality is improving. Since
overcapacity in some markets. Sustainable 2000 – levels of pollution are falling.
Government support? Problems with New Car - average CO2 emissions have
suppliers’ access to finance. Low cost fallen by over 20% - dropping 3.5% in
economy countries / High growth markets – 2010. Diesel engines have contributed to
both opportunity and competitive threats. this improvement. A car built today (Euro
Local supply chain fragmented - erosion 5), compared to one built in 2000 (Euro 3)
“hollowing out”/ overseas head office has reduced its CO2 by 13% and emissions
decision making. Some SMEs lack global of other pollutants by at least: nitrogen
trade awareness / global competitiveness / oxides (NOx) 64% particulates (PM10) 90%
skills and training. Maintaining carbon monoxide (CO) 22% Road transport
manufacturing efficiency, investment in UK emissions have also been reduced: nitrogen
based design engineering, research and oxides (NOx) 40%, particulates (PM10) 30%
development. Environmental / Low carbon carbon monoxide (CO) 60%. Source:
legislation, Alternative fuels, ICE Government figures (DfT – Transport
hybrids, Electric vehicles. Statistics GB).
9Key UK technology opportunities. Build 28UK average new car CO2 emissions. UK
and retain capacity in “sticky” average new car CO2 emissions (Source
technologies , ie: Energy storage and SMMT).
management Electric motors and power 29Car CO2 emissions, parc and distance
electronics Lightweight technologies CO2 travelled. Reduction despite increase in
and emissions reduction technology Other distance travelled and parc size since
key technologies in which UK has 2000. Further declines expected, as
potential: In-vehicle communications and distance travelled curbed and efficiency
management systems, driver communications; improves. Source DECC/SMMT/DfT.
congestion warning systems; navigation; 30Distribution of market by VED bands.
telematics. Materials; composites and Band E (131-140g/km) most common, in 2000
alternative materials / jointing it was Band G (151-165g/km). Band A
technology Environmental protection / (<100g/km) share doubled in 2010 and
emissions Rapid prototyping and again in 2011. Distribution of the new car
manufacturing process improvement. market by VED bands (Source SMMT). Band.
10Changing Dynamics of UK Car Sector A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. CO2
Demise of the old UK ‘Big 3’ - Growth of g/km. Upto 100. 101-110. 111-120. 121-130.
Japanese & BMW. UK Vehicle Production 131-140. 141-150. 151-165. 166-175.
in Thousands. 176-185. 186-200. 201-225. 226-255. Over
11UK vehicle manufacturers’ product 255. Standard rate ? 0. 20. 30. 95. 115.
ranges. VOLUME CARS BMW - Mini range, 130. 165. 190. 210. 245. 260. 445. 460.
incl. Clubman, Coupe and Roadster Honda - 1st year rate ? 0. 0. 0. 0. 115. 130. 165.
Civic, CR-V & Jazz Jaguar – XJ, XK XF 265. 315. 445. 580. 790. 1000.
Land Rover - Defender, Discovery, 31UK performance vs European average. UK
Freelander, Range Rover, Range Rover Sport making better progress than EU average.
& Evoque Nissan – Note, Qashqai & 2010. 2009. 2000. % ch ‘10 vs ’09. % ch
Juke (and Leaf electric from 2013) Toyota ‘10 vs ’00. UK. 144.2g/km. 149.7g/km.
- Auris, Auris Hybrid & Avensis 185.4g/km. -3.7%. -22.2%. EU. 140.3g/km.
Vauxhall – Astra COMMERCIAL Alexander 145.7g/km. 172.2g/km. -3.7%. -18.5%.
Dennis - buses & coaches Dennis Eagle France. 130.5g/km. 133.5g/km. 163.6g/km.
- refuse trucks Ford - Transit van, -2.2%. -20.2%. Germany. 151.2g/km.
Transit Minibus Vauxhall – Vivaro van and 154.0g/km. 182.0g/km. -1.8%. -16.9%.
minibus, plus Renault Trafic versions Average new car CO2 emissions across the
Leyland Trucks - trucks London Taxis Int - EU (Source EC).
TX4 taxi and hydrogen fuel cell 32Existing CO2 Regulations for cars and
demonstrator Optare - single & double Vans. EU has adopted CO2 Regulations for
deck buses Wrightbus - buses PRESTIGE / cars and vans. Individual manufacturer
NICHE LOW VOLUME CARS Aston Martin - DB9, targets add up to deliver EU fleet average
Vantage, Virage, Cygnet Bentley – target. New car fleet 130g/km in 2015
Continental, Mulsanne Caterham - Classic, (19%) 95g/km in 2020 (39%). New van fleet
Super 7 Ginetta - F400, G50EV & G50R 175g/km in 2017 (14%) 147g/km in 2020
road cars & G20, G40, G40 Junior, G50 (28%).
& Zytek race cars Lotus - Elise, 33Existing CO2 Regulations for cars and
Evora, Exige ; new Elan, Elise & Vans. Important flexibilities Targets
Esprit McLaren Automotive MP4-12C sports phased in 2012-15 (cars), 2014-17 (vans).
car (from 2011) Morgan – Supersports, 4/4 Derogations for small volume and niche
Sport, 4 seater, Plus4, Roadster & manufacturers: targets consistent with
Roadster Sport sports cars Rolls Royce - their economic and technological
Phantom & Ghost SAIC - MG6 saloon potential. Eco-innovations, super credits,
FORMULA 1 McLaren racing Mercedes F1 - pooling. Integrated approach includes CO2
formerly Brawn Red Bull Williams F1 based tax, consumer information.
Renault F1 Force India Lotus F1 Virgin (labelling new and used cars, databases),
Racing. MAC, LRRT, GSI etc.
12Engine manufacture. 2.39 million 34Outlook for car emissions. (Source
engines manufactured in 2010 (up 16% from SMMT/EC). EU-wide target for 130g/km by
2009). Key manufacturing plants include: 2015 and 95g/km 2020 (subject to IA). Note
Ford, Dagenham & Bridgend 1,640,197 EU, not UK specific targets. 38.2% of 2010
BMW, Hams Hall 385,051 Honda, Swindon UK market <130g/km. EU-wide van target
136,658 Toyota, Deeside 114,254 Nissan, - 175g/km by 2014-17 and 147g/km by 2020
Sunderland 105,766 Cummins, Darlington (subject to review). UK average new car
43,525 VW, (Bentley) Crewe 4,791. CO2 emissions and EC wide regulation
13UK Design and Engineering Skills. targets.
Product planning and development. Vehicle 35Next Challenge: Heavy Duty Vehicles
conceptualisation and styling. Rapid (HDVs). HDVs are not yet regulated for CO2
prototyping services. Manufacturing in Europe. Measurement method is the
engineering/feasibility. Structural bottleneck in policy making. Research
analysis & vehicle simulation. Vehicle ongoing, likely to use computer simulation
body, chassis, powertrain & trim. and validate with physical testing. EU
Vehicle component development. Electrical Commission policy development timetable:
and electronics, chip designing. Engine February/March 2012 - measurement
engineering. Testing and validation, methodology stakeholder meeting. May/ June
homologation. Special training packages 2012 - draft EU strategy stakeholder
(for CAE, CAM). meeting. End 2012 - impact assessment.
14UK Car Production. Car output in 2010 First half 2013 - Commission to propose
increased 27.1% to 1,270,444 (2009 - strategy.
999,460) Nissan highest production at 36Longer Term Strategy for 2030 and
423,262 – increase of 25% on 2009 Export 2050. EU ambitions and UK binding targets.
market is 75.7% of production. EU committed to 20% CO2 cut by 2020 (or
15UK Commercial Vehicle Production. 2010 30% if global targets) and 80-95% by 2050.
production increased by 35.7% at 123,019 UK is legally committed to: Carbon Budgets
vehicles Vauxhall and Ford = 85.7% of all for each five year period to 2027. 50% CO2
CV production Export market is 69.5% of cut by 2025. 80% cut by 2050 (both
production (2009 77.5%). relative to 1990, all sectors) (Cannot
16Vehicle production – moving annual stop there, need more cuts by 2100). UK
total. Car production rolling year total government will set out it’s strategy to
CV production rolling year total. meet the Carbon Budgets (“Autumn Strategy”
17UK supply chain. About 80% of all due 1 December). UK Automotive Council
component types required for vehicle technology roadmaps for cars, commercial
assembly operations can be procured from vehicles, off-highway.
UK suppliers. The supply chain represents 37High Level Technology Roadmap - CARS
about 40% of the retail price of a OEMs share a common view (Individual
passenger car. The UK automotive supply manufacturers will prioritise certain
chain typically generates ?4.5 - ?5bn of technologies to fit with brand values).
added value annually. Around 2,350 UK 38Low carbon Commercial Vehicle &
companies regard themselves as Off-highway roadmap has parallel
‘automotive’ suppliers, employing around technology streams depending on duty
82,000 people. It is estimated that every cycle. Technology Roadmap. 2020. 2030.
job in a vehicle’s assembly supports 7.5 2010. 2040. 2050. Air Quality
elsewhere in the economy. Improvements. Drivers. CO2 and GHG
18Production Exports / Registration reduction. CO2 reductions limited by air
Imports. The UK increasingly manufactures quality regulations. “Zero” Air Quality
cars to export and imports cars to drive Impact. UK CO2 Target. Possible HD/MD CO2
76% production exported - 85% Regulation. LD Van CO2 Regulation. 38.
registrations imported. % of vehicle 39
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