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The UK National Statistics Socio-economic Classification and an
The UK National Statistics Socio-economic Classification and an
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The UK National Statistics Socio-economic Classification and an Illustration of its Uses in Research on Health Inequalities

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1The UK National Statistics 24be collapsed into. a ‘nine’ class variable
Socio-economic Classification and an an eight class variable (the ‘official’
Illustration of its Uses in Research on NS-SEC) a seven class variable a five
Health Inequalities. David Rose Institute class variable a three class variable.
for Social and Economic Research 25Summary (1). NS-SEC is first a
University of Essex. conceptual construction (hence NS-SEC is a
2Overview. UK Government and health schema) To operationalise the schema we
inequalities The ESRC Review of Government need an algorithm to a detailed set of
SECs Conceptual basis of NS-SEC (4) occupation-by-employment status units.
Criterion validation of NS-SEC (5) 26Summary (2). How well the NS-SEC
Construct validation of NS-SEC in relation schema is operationalised depends upon two
to health data. things: (a) how closely the basic
3Health Inequalities and Government occupational and employment status
(1). Measuring and monitoring classifications available map onto the
socio-economic differentials in mortality categories of the NS-SEC (i.e. adequacy of
and other health inequalities in the UK the derivation matrix) (b) how much
has been a key part of the work of the information is available relevant to the
office responsible for the registration of construction of the algorithm linking
deaths since the establishment of the these classifications to the schema (i.e.
General Register Office (GRO) in 1837. The issues of criterion validity).
GRO has since been subsumed within the 27Creating the NS-SEC. Data required on.
Office for National Statistics (ONS) and occupation employment status establishment
it is now ONS that carries on the size. These then linked via the NSSEC
tradition of reporting on health derivation matrix of OUG by ES units to
variations today. This role continues to NSSEC classes.
be of major importance as health 28The NS-SEC Derivation Matrix.
inequalities are as much a public health 29Reduced & Simplified versions of
issue today as they were 170 years ago, NS-SEC. Reduced NS-SEC - if no information
when the GRO was set up. on establishment size Simplified NS-SEC -
4Health Inequalities and Government if data only on occupation.
(2). The earliest analyses of mortality 30Validation studies. (a) CRITERION
differences were undertaken by reference VALIDATION Do measures of employment
to occupation and industry. However, from relations discriminate between the
the beginning of the twentieth century, categories of the NS-SEC? (b) CONSTRUCT
the development of RGSC gave a clearer VALIDATION How well does the NS-SEC
framework for identifying and explain variance in theoretically relevant
understanding health differentials within dependent variables?
the population. 31Criterion validation. 1 form of
5Health Inequalities and Government remuneration 2 career opportunities 3
(3). It was demonstrated that there was a autonomy with regard to time. MEASURES OF
class gradient in health – in particular EMPLOYMENT RELATIONS. Three conceptually
in mortality rates – and despite the separable respects in which employment
creation of the National Health Service in relations are differentiated according to
1948, class inequalities in health and whether a service relationship or labour
life expectancy have persisted. Overall, contract prevails.
those in ‘partly skilled’ and ‘unskilled’ 32Construct validation. NS-SEC and
occupations in RGSC IV and V had far Health Data NS-SEC and Labour Market Data.
higher mortality rates and lower life 33Table 8.6: SMRs by NS-SEC for Our
expectancy than those in professional and Healthier Nation causes of death, men aged
managerial occupations in Classes I and 20-64, England and Wales 1991-93.
II. 34Hazard ratios for mortality 1986-1995
6Social Class based on Occupation. I by NS-SEC.
Professional occupations II Managerial and 35Figure 8.2: SMRs by NS-SEC, men aged
technical occupations IIIN Skilled 20-64, England and Wales 1991-93.
occupations, non-manual IIIM Skilled 36Figure 8.4: Age-specific mortality
occupations, manual IV Partly skilled rates by NS-SEC, men aged 20-64, England
occupations V Unskilled occupations. and Wales 1991-93.
7 37Table 8.8: Stillbirth and infant
8Health Inequalities and Government mortality rates by NS-SEC, England and
(4). The Acheson Inquiry 1998 “The weight Wales, 1996.
of scientific evidence supports a 38Table 9.5: Odds ratios and 95%
socio-economic explanation of health confidence intervals of low birth weight
inequalities.” “The research task is to and very low birth weight for classes of
trace the paths from social structure, the National Statistics Socio-economic
represented by SES, through to Classification for live, singleton births
inequalities in health.” “Health within marriage 1996-98 England and Wales
inequalities are the outcome of causal (n=114,382).
chains which run back into and from the 39Table 10.3: Logistic regression odds
basic structure of society.”. ratios of NS-SEC inequalities in health
9Problems with RGSC (1). No coherent for men and women aged 18-59: separating
conceptual basis. Therefore: Difficult to the long-term unemployed and never worked.
interpret in use Difficult to maintain. 40Table 10.4: Logistic regression odds
10Problems with RGSC (2). Use outmoded ratios of NS-SEC inequalities in health
‘industrial’ distinctions. Skill for men and women aged 18-59: classifying
Manual/Non-manual divide. the long-term unemployed by last main
11Registrar General’s Social Classes. occupation.
Simon Szreter (1984). “The RGSC might best 41Causal narratives (1). NS-SEC offers
be classified as a ‘pseudo-analytical’ not improved statistical associations over
construction. (It never had any other ‘SES’ measures, but the possibility
relationship to) a recognised, coherent of explaining the associations we find;
and examinable body of social theory.”. NS-SEC is measuring employment relations
“(The propositions that underlie RGSC are and conditions, i.e. aspects of the work
those) of nineteenth century situation and the employment contract.
anthropometric and biometric ‘science’, 42Causal narratives (2). So we can
only with the explicit commitment to a construct causal narratives which specify
naturalistic and hereditarian theory of how the NS-SEC links to a range of
ultimate explanation removed.”. outcomes via a variety of intervening
12Registrar General’s Social Classes. variables; Not the case for the former
“RGSC is ‘the ‘Crude Inequality Index’.”. government SECs, since it is not clear
Simon Szreter (1984). what they measure. They may show
13Tasks for ESRC Review. To create a statistical associations with dependent
single occupationally-based SEC which variables of interest, but they do not
would be: Clear conceptually Analytically lend themselves to causal explanations.
transparent Thus easy to maintain and Same for e.g. housing tenure, car access
interpret ‘Nested’ Bridgeable to RGSC etc.
Applicable to a wide range of data. 43Causal narratives (3). One of the
14Conceptual basis for the NS-SEC major uses of SECs has been in studies of
(Goldthorpe). Employment relations and fertility, morbidity and mortality, i.e.
conditions are central to delineating the as a means of obtaining a macro or
structure of socio-economic positions in societal perspective on these issues;
modern societies. NS-SEC defines structural positions which
15The Derivation of the NS-SEC. can be seen conceptually to exist
16Typical elements of the Labour independently of the individuals who
Contract. Short-term exchange of money for occupy those positions at any particular
effort Payment by the time or piece No time. The positions condition and shape
occupational pension or health scheme the lives of their occupants; We are
Contract easily terminated Low level of therefore linking health with social
job security. organisation or social structure.
17Typical elements of the Service 44The Whitehall Studies. The Whitehall
Relationship. Long-term exchange of Studies: growing evidence that the amounts
service for compensation Greater job of control and autonomy a person has at
security and employability Salary work are important factors in explaining
Incremental or similar payment systems heart disease; The ‘prospective
Occupational pension and health schemes perspective’ associated with secure,
Greater control over the job and thus career employment among top managers and
trust between employer and employee. professionals is associated with greater
18Dimensions of work as sources of control and autonomy at work, more
contractual hazard. Specificity of human self-esteem, greater self-care with regard
assets. high. Difficulty of monitoring. to factors such as diet and exercise, more
low. high. low. choice over medical treatment and so on.
19Dimensions of work as sources of 45Advantages of the NS-SEC. Conceptually
contractual hazard, forms of contract and clear and rigorous Simple to create
class locations. Specificity of human Flexible in use Improved classification of
assets. high. Difficulty of monitoring. women Easier to maintain Better
low. high. low. 1. 5. Service explanatory tool.
relationship. mixed. mixed. Labour 46Possible ESeC ‘Classes’ (Level 1).
contract. 3. 7. Large employers, higher managerial and
20The Derivation of the NS-SEC. (1.1) professional occupations Lower managerial
(1,2,4) (4) (1.1,1.2,2) (3,5) (6,7) (8) and professional occupations Intermediate
(8). occupations Small employers and own
21The NS-SEC. 1 Higher managerial and account workers Self-employed in
professional occupations (1.1 Large agriculture etc Lower supervisory and
employers and higher managerial) (1.2 technician occupations Lower services etc
Higher professional) 2 Lower managerial occupations Lower technical occupations
and professional occupations. 3 Routine occupations Never worked and
Intermediate occupations 4 Small employers long-term unemployed.
and own account workers 5 Lower 47The conceptual derivation of ESeC.
supervisory and technical occupations 6 48Underlying ESeC ‘Socio-economic
Semi-routine occupations 7 Routine Groups’ (Level 2). 11. Employers (other
occupations 8 Never worked and long-term than in agriculture) with 10+ employees
unemployed. 12. Farmers with full-time employees (or
22NS-SEC 8-Class by Sex, Aged 16-74, ‘large business’ farmers) 13. Higher
Census 2001. managerial occupations 14. Higher
23Categories of the Operational Version professional occupations (employees) 15.
of the NS-SEC. Self-employed professional occupations.
24Collapsing the Operational Version. Class 1 Large employers, higher managerial
The 34 categories and sub-categories may and professional occupations.
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The UK National Statistics Socio-economic Classification and an Illustration of its Uses in Research on Health Inequalities

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