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Then Indhiya Samayal Iravu -An Evening of South Indian Cooking
Then Indhiya Samayal Iravu -An Evening of South Indian Cooking
Then Indhiya Samayal Iravu -An Evening of South Indian Cooking
Then Indhiya Samayal Iravu -An Evening of South Indian Cooking
Then Indhiya Samayal Iravu -An Evening of South Indian Cooking
Then Indhiya Samayal Iravu -An Evening of South Indian Cooking
Then Indhiya Samayal Iravu -An Evening of South Indian Cooking
Then Indhiya Samayal Iravu -An Evening of South Indian Cooking
Anita Subramaniam
Anita Subramaniam
Anita Subramaniam
Anita Subramaniam
Differences in South Indian Cooking
Differences in South Indian Cooking
Differences in South Indian Cooking
Differences in South Indian Cooking
Tamil Society – Clothing & Food
Tamil Society – Clothing & Food
Tamil Society – Clothing & Food
Tamil Society – Clothing & Food
Tamil Society – Clothing & Food
Tamil Society – Clothing & Food
Tamil Society – Clothing & Food
Tamil Society – Clothing & Food
Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
History of Agriculture
History of Agriculture
Rice - the main food crop
Rice - the main food crop
Pulses – Main Protein Source
Pulses – Main Protein Source
Spices and Condiments
Spices and Condiments
Cooking Methods
Cooking Methods
Cooking Methods
Cooking Methods
Cooking Methods
Cooking Methods
Traditional Tools
Traditional Tools
Pressure Cooking
Pressure Cooking
Wet Grinding
Wet Grinding
Wet Grinding
Wet Grinding
Wet Grinding
Wet Grinding
Steaming
Steaming
Steaming
Steaming
Food Eating Patterns
Food Eating Patterns
Food Eating Patterns
Food Eating Patterns
Food Eating Patterns
Food Eating Patterns
Food Eating Patterns
Food Eating Patterns
Traditions in Serving Food
Traditions in Serving Food
Festive Occasions
Festive Occasions
pakodas
pakodas
pakodas
pakodas
idlis
idlis
rice
rice
kootu
kootu
Chutney
Chutney
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1Then Indhiya Samayal Iravu -An Evening 25washes hands Hostess always takes away the
of South Indian Cooking. Anita leaf after ALL the guests get up Concept
Subramaniam, Ph.D. Anita Subramaniam. of Dharma- serving food to guests is
2Tradition, Tradition, Tradition! considered dharma (a generous act) Hostess
"India is, the cradle of the human cleans the place with her hands Burping is
race, the birthplace of human speech, the sign of contentment of food Guest must sit
mother of history, the grandmother of for sometime before leaving Betel leaf
legend, and the great grandmother of with lime and betel nuts served when the
tradition." -Mark Twain. Anita guest is seated with washed hands. Anita
Subramaniam. Subramaniam.
3Anita Subramaniam. 26Festive Occasions. Are many and
4Differences within ethnicity. North celebrated with a lot of sincerity and
Indians eat whole wheat (chapattis and regularity All members participate Certain
rotis), Maida (refined wheat) (naans, festivals all extended family members
parathas) Cardamoms, cloves, cinnamon, attend Several gods and each god is
nutmeg, pomegranate seeds (ajmer) Sugar revered Flowers, betel Leaves, betel nut,
more than jaggery Tomatoes and onions for fruits, and, coconut are sacred offerings
making the gravy Frying, roasting, baking, for all the festivals Special items of
marinating. Rice eaters Spices- red food are prepared specific to each
chilies, green chilies, cumin, coriander festival. Anita Subramaniam.
seeds, asafetida, turmeric, pepper, 274 Meals a Day!! Lunch/Dinner items
fenugreek seeds. Jaggery instead of sugar Rice Rasam Sambhar Kootu Curry Appalam
Coconut and tamarind used for gravy Yogurt Pickle Thokayal Podis In some
Steaming, pressure cooking, fermenting, households, tiffin items are served for
boiling, roasting. Anita Subramaniam. dinner. Common Breakfast items Coffee
5Differences in South Indian Cooking. Idlis Dosas Uppuma Poori Pongal
Kannadigas – jaggery, has sweet and sour Accompanied by sambhar, chutney, podis
taste Telugus – extra hot foods Keralites Common Tiffin items: Vadas Bondas Pakodas
– a lot of coconut, coconut milk, use Savai Adais. Anita Subramaniam.
coconut oil for frying Tamils – tamarind, 28A Typical Meal. Rice Rasam Sambhar
coconut Madurai/Kancheepuram (idlis) Kootu Poriyal/Curry Yogurt Ghee Plain
Chettinad (mainly non-vegetarian, extra cooked Dhal. One or two of the below:
spicy) Thanjavore/Trichi (Rice Bowl of Chutney Pickle Pachadi Appalam Salad.
India) Tirunelvelli (Halwa) Palghat Sweets on occasions only. Anita
(coconut milk, elliseri, jackfruit Subramaniam.
payasam) Indo French cooking (Pondicherry, 29Snacks & Sweets. Ribbon pakoda
Cheeses) Anglo Indian cooking (soups Muthsarai Mixture Chips – banana,
(mulagitawny soup), breads, chips). Anita nenthranga Omapodi Murukku Thattai. Mysore
Subramaniam. pakku Cashew nut/Almond cake Athirasam
6Tamil Society – Clothing & Food. Kesari Halwa Jamun Payasam. Usually
Tamils live all over the world. There are prepared on festive occasions. Anita
Tamils in Singapore, Thailand, Madagascar, Subramaniam.
Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Canada, Australia, 30Some Traditional Recipes. Anita
UK, and US. Anita Subramaniam. Subramaniam.
7Introduction to Tamil Cooking. Today’s 31Traditional Juice. Panagam (PAAnagam)
menu consists of home recipes A few of the Jaggery Lime Ginger Cardamom Served before
innumerous items using traditional Indian food Only beverage served with food is
vegetables and recipes Variety of items water. Anita Subramaniam.
prepared for one wholesome meal Vary from 32Traditional Beverage. Coffee Made from
laborious and very simple Vary from spicy fresh decoction Decoction made through
hot to very sweet Healthy and unhealthy filtration Freshly ground coffee powder
foods Combination of several ingredients (powdering usually done in coffee mills –
to prepare one dish Many of these items shops specifically that powder coffee) Add
are prepared in more than one way.. there coffee powder to the top compartment of
is no single way of preparation. Anita the filter Add boiling hot water over a
Subramaniam. spoon Consumed with milk and sugar. Anita
8Tamil Nadu. Food Crops Rice Ragi Bajra Subramaniam.
Masoor Dal Moong Dal. Cash Crops Cotton 33Yogurt. One of the most important
Sugar cane Jute Tea Coffee Rubber sources of Calcium Yogurt is consumed more
Plaintain Mango Tamarind Spices. Anita than milk in some households Yogurt used
Subramaniam. in cooking preparations Always the last
9History of Agriculture. Early Humans item to be consumed in a meal If one does
were good gatherers not producers In not wish to eat rice and yogurt, s/he
India, food production is evident from usually consumes buttermilk. Yogurt
Indus Valley period. Intensive excavations consumed at least two times a day 2 cups
at Kalibangan, one of the important Thick form Made from whole fat milk
pre-Harappan sites in Bikaner division of Sometimes from cow’s milk (yellowish in
Rajasthan have laid bare a furrowed field color) Buffalo milk – whitish in color The
showing in the third Millennium B.C., cream of the yogurt is collected to make
farming was well developed. Ploughing butter Butter prepared by churning with
using oxen and bulls Six, eight & hand Churner tied to a rope. Anita
repeated ploughing was done to acquire Subramaniam.
desired quality of the soil. Cow dung was 34Ghee. Prepared from butter Ghee is
used as manure. Earthworms grown to till prepared by boiling butter until it turns
the soil The Vedic farmers knew the method transparent and dark brown sediments begin
of improving the fertility of the soil by to form Ghee is served with rice except
crop rotation method. Agricultural when rice is served with yogurt Ghee
Traditions are Maintained! Anita reduces the spiciness of food. Anita
Subramaniam. Subramaniam.
10Rice - the main food crop. India one 35Ghee and Yogurt. Ghee Melt unsalted
of the largest exporters of rice, ranking butter and let it boil until a light brown
second in the world next to Thailand sediment is formed Store ghee in a cool
(Money Matters, 2004) India produces about place No refrigeration required. Yogurt
78 million tonnes of rice (rice Boil milk Let it cool Add some old yogurt
consumption of the world is around 408 (about 2 tsps.) Let it set in room
million tonnes) (Business Standard, 2003) temperature Once set, refrigerate. Anita
Profile of a Rice Producing Factory : Subramaniam.
http://www.nazricenfoods.com/prof_nen.html 36pakodas. Ingredients Channa flour
Rice production for this year is going to (besan) 2 cups Rice flour 1 cup Onions 2
be affected both in India and China due to chopped length wise Ginger a small piece
poor monsoon season Rice grown in India is grated Green chilies 4 chopped Red chili
of different varieties Kuttharisi powder Cashews 1/4 cup Curry leaves a few
(parboiled) Ponni Samba Idly Jasmine Ghee (melted butter) 2-3 tsp Cooking Oil 4
flavored rice Rose flavored rice Red rice. tsp Cilantro a small bunch washed and
Parboiled rice Rice steamed with the outer finely chopped Salt 1 tsp Cooking Oil for
husk before dehusking This enables the frying. Method Mix channa flour, rice
rice grain to retain B-Vitamins that are flour, chili powder, cilantro and salt
usually lost during the dehusking process. Heat 4 tsp of oil, and 3 tsp of ghee in a
converted rice = parboiled rice pan and add it to the above Now add
Fast-cooking white rice When cooked, the chopped onions, green chilies and mix
grains are more nutritious, firmer, and everything well Make small irregular balls
less clingy than white rice grains. Uncle and deep fry in oil. Anita Subramaniam.
Ben's is a well-known brand. Parboiled 37idlis. Ingredients Par boiled rice 3
rice is now available in other cities in cups Urad dhal (Black gram- deskinned) 1
India and in the US and UK. Anita cup Salt 2 tsp. Method Rinse and soak rice
Subramaniam. and urad dhal separately in water for 2
11Pulses – Main Protein Source. Peas, hours Grind the two separately, and mix
beans and lentils are known as pulses. them together with salt Let it ferment
They are the seeds of plants belonging to overnight Make idlis using idli trays
the family Leguminosae Rich in Protein, Steam (no pressure). Anita Subramaniam.
Carbohydrate, Fiber, Vitamins (C) Low in 38rice. Jasmine or Raw Rice 1 cup 3 cups
Fat; contains unsaturated fats Some are of water. Pressure cook using pressure
high in iron and calcium. Anita cooker Or use rice cooker Or cook in an
Subramaniam. utensil using excess water and drain the
12Indian Vegetables and Fruits. Fruits water. Anita Subramaniam.
that we use are: Papaya Jack fruit 39onion sambhar. Ingredients Tur dhal 1
Different varieties of mangoes Sapota cup Coriander seeds (Dhania) 3 tsp Channa
Guavas Different varieties of bananas dhal 2 tsp Red chilies 6 Fenugreek seeds
Perichampazham Pomegranate Nagapazham. The (Methi) 1/4 spoon Pearl Onion (1 frozen
common South Indian vegetables are: Snake pack) Tomato 1 (optional) Tamarind paste 2
gourd Bitter gourd Avaraikai (broad beans) tsp Grated coconut 3 tsp Green chilies 4
Thondakai Drumstick Raw plantains Banana Turmeric 1/4 tsp Cilantro a small bunch
flower (Vazha poo) Banana stem (Vazha washed and finely chopped Curry leaves a
thandu) Taro root (Shepangazhangu) few Mustard 1/2 tsp Cooking Oil 2 tsp Salt
Karamani (long beans) Small brinjals White 1 tsp (or to taste). Method Cook Tur dhal
pumpkin Different varieties of greens Yams and turmeric with extra water. Drain water
(Karnakazhangu) Kothavanrangai (cluster and save in a separate container Scrap
beans). Anita Subramaniam. coconut Fry channa dhal, red chilies,
13Spices and Condiments. Coriander seeds dhania, methi, and little onion. Grind
Curry leaves Mustard Cilantro Red chilies this mixture with tomato and coconut Peel
Green chilies Cumin seeds Fenugreek seeds onions (if fresh raw onions are used) Fry
(Vit. E) Asafotida Tamarind Til (Gingili onions and green chilies in a pan for a
seeds) Ginger Turmeric Cardamom Black few minutes, and cook this in the tur dhal
pepper Vanilla Rose essence Saffron. India water with salt After it is cooked, add
is known as the 'The home of spices'. tamarind paste and cook for a few minutes,
There is no other country in the world and finally add the ground paste After
that produces as many kinds of spices as this is cooked add the cooked tur dhal
India. The climate of the country is Heat little oil in a pan, splutter
suitable for almost all spices. According mustard, and add this to the sambhar
to the International Organization For Garnish with cilantro and curry leaves.
Standardization (ISO); The term 'spices Anita Subramaniam.
and condiments' applies to such natural 40cumin and pepper rasam. Ingredients
plant or vegetable products or mixtures Tur dhal 2 tsp Cumin seeds 1/2 + 1/4 tsp
thereof, in whole or ground form, as are Pepper 1/2 tsp Red chili 3 Tamarind paste
used for imparting flavor, aroma and 1/2 tsp Turmeric 1/4 tsp Curry leaves a
piquancy to and for seasoning of few Water 3 cups Ghee 1/2 tsp Salt 1 tsp
foods". There are over 80 spices (or to taste). Method Dry roast tur dhal
grown in different parts of the world and and pepper without oil for 1 minute Soak
around 50 spices are grown in India. ROLE this in water along with red chili &
OF SPICES They add tang and flavor to cumin seeds for 10 minutes Wet grind to a
otherwise insipid foods. Some of them also smooth paste Boil tamarind in water, add
possess antioxidant properties, while salt, turmeric, and add the above mixture
others are used as preservatives in some until the flavor comes out Fry 1/4 tsp
foods like pickles and chutneys, etc. For cumin seeds, curry leaves and 1 red chili
good breath ..Chewing certain spices like in ghee and add this to the rasam. Anita
cardamom, cumin, clove; improves digestion Subramaniam.
and acts as a mouth freshener. Some spices 41moor kozhambu. Ingredients Cumin seeds
also possess strong anti-microbial and 1 tsp Red chilies 4 Green chilies 2 Rice
antibiotic activities. Many of them flour 1/2 tsp Asafetida (hing) a small
possess medicinal properties and have a pinch Coconut 4 tsp Coconut oil 1 tsp
profound effect on human health, since (optional) Sour cream or butter milk 4
they effect many functional processes. cups Turmeric 1/4 tsp Mustard 1/4 tsp Salt
Spices act as a stimulates to the 1 tsp (or to taste) Curry leaves a few
digestive system and help digestion in Cilantro a small bunch washed and finely
many ways. Spices possibly activate the chopped Vegetables - White pumpkin or
adreno-cortical function and fortify okra, or zucchini or squash. Method Cut
resistance and physical capacity. Stroke vegetable into big pieces and cook in
frequency , and blood pressure can be water. If using okra, need not cook but
diminished or augmented by means of have to fry a little Grind cumin, rice
spices. (WebIndia123.com). Anita flour, red chilies, with coconut and
Subramaniam. little salt and butter milk Heat some
14Cooking Methods. Anita Subramaniam. coconut/vegetable oil, splutter mustard
15Traditional Tools. Ammi, Attukkal. seeds Add curry leaves, little hing, salt,
Aruvamanai. Anita Subramaniam. turmeric and the vegetables, and fry this
16Traditions in Meal Preparation. Always for a few minutes Now add the ground paste
cooked the same day Cooks get to work very and the remaining butter milk to the above
early in the morning – 5 a.m. Cooking only and bring this to a boil on a low flame
after shower Must wear proper clothing No Simmer for a few minutes Garnish with
footwear Usually cooking done by women cilantro. Anita Subramaniam.
Although some households have male cooks 42potato roast. Ingredients Potatoes 1
Male cooks (only) for wedding and festive pound Turmeric 1/4 tsp Asafetida (Hing) a
occasions Male and females do not usually small pinch Chili powder 1 tsp Urad dhal
cook together Feet always washed before 1/2 tsp Mustard 1/4 tsp Curry leaves a few
entering the house (guests) (WHY?). Cooking Oil 5 tsp Salt 1 tsp (or to
Vegetables are washed before cutting Hands taste). Method Boil or microwave peeled
washed after each activity Must not touch potatoes with turmeric and salt. Peel skin
old food (if any) while cooking; if done, and dice them and keep aside Heat 5 tsp of
wash hands Utensils washed before use oil in a kadai/wok, splutter mustard and
(even if washed before) Cooking area urad dal Add curry leaves Add hing, chili
cleansed after every meal preparation powder, turmeric, salt and diced potatoes
Cooking area is decorated with kolams in Simmer the stove and let it cook until the
the night. Anita Subramaniam. potatoes turn light brown. Anita
17Pressure Cooking. Healthy, no fat Subramaniam.
Several items cooked at the same time 43Taro root roast. Taro root Chili
Conserves time and fuel Cooks food well No powder Curry leaves Salt Turmeric powder
loss of nutrients as water is not drained. Asafetida Besan Rice flour. Boil taro root
Can be dangerous if not properly installed in a pressure cooker Peel skin Dice cross
Pressure can cause food burst and to be sectionally Mix chili powder,besan, rice
thrown out Makes noise May four, salt, turmeric powder, asafetida
undercook/overcook food. Anita powder and curry leaves (finely chopped).
Subramaniam. Dip or sprinkle on the diced taro root
18Wet Grinding. Indian wet grinders use Deep fry in oil. Anita Subramaniam.
the same concept as used in hand grinding 44kootu. Ingredients Coconut 1-2 tsp
Wet grinders are quicker than hand Cumin seeds 1 tsp Red chilies 5 Turmeric
grinding Wet grinders grind food for idlis 1/2 tsp Urad dhal 1 tsp Coconut oil 1 tsp
and dosas better than food processors Not Salt 1 tsp (or to taste) Curry leaves a
useful for small quantities. Anita few Vegetables: Carrot, cabbage, peas,
Subramaniam. potatoes, etc., OR Chow chow OR Spinach OR
19Steaming. Idlis and many items used Snake gourd, OR Squash OR Nool Kohl OR
are cooked by steaming Healthy No fat used Zucchini. Method Wash and dice vegetables
Quick. Anita Subramaniam. into uniform pieces Cook them with a
20Frying. Less frequent than pressure little salt and turmeric Wet grind
cooking, steaming or roasting Frying coconut, cumin seeds, and red chilies and
limited to side items such as chips like add this paste to the boiling vegetables
varuvals, appalams, and pappadams These Cook until the flavor comes out Heat some
are usually made once a week and saved coconut oil in a pan, splutter mustard and
Frying also for Tiffin – afternoon snacks urad dhal, 1 red chili, curry leaves, and
Shallow frying more common than deep fat add this to the kootu. Anita Subramaniam.
frying (dosa, adai, appams) Limited to 45Chutney. Coconut chutney Ingredients
festive occasions and social get together Coconut 1/2 cup grated Roasted channa dal
Only vegetable oil used- sunflower oil (Pottu Kadalai) 3 tsp Green chilies 2 Salt
most common in India; gingili oil and 1/2 tsp Method Grind all the above
coconut oil used a few decades ago Ghee ingredients. Cilantro chutney Ingredients
used for seasoning and desserts. Anita Urad dhal 4 tsp Channa dhal 2 tsp Red
Subramaniam. chilies 2 Green chilies 2 Cilantro 1 bunch
21Food Eating Patterns. Anita Hing 1/4 tsp Tamarind paste 1/4 tsp Salt
Subramaniam. 1/2 tsp Oil 2 tsp Method Fry urad dhal,
22Food Eating Patterns. One of the main channa dhal, red chilies, green chilies,
influences on Indian cuisine is the Hindu and hing in oil. Wet grind the above with
religion Many Hindus are vegetarians In chopped cilantro, salt, and tamarind
addition, most of the Hindu people, as far paste. Anita Subramaniam.
as I know, don’t eat beef. Cows are 46mango pickle. Ingredients Mango 1
considered sacred in India and are large or 2-4 small Red chili powder 1/2
worshiped by Hindus Pork is also not cup Turmeric powder 1/4 tsp Fenugreek
common seeds (Methi seeds) 1/2 tsp Mustard 1/4
(http://www.bhc.edu/International/esl2/new tsp Hing 1/4 tsp Salt 1/4 cup Cooking oil
/FALL%202003/Articles/indianeating.htm) 1/4 cup. Method Cut mango into small
Mutton and Chicken are the most common dices, removing the pitt, add salt,
types of meat consumed Region and religion turmeric, and keep it aside for 4-5 days.
affect Indian eating patterns Muslims are Add red chili powder to this mango and mix
forbidden to eat pork and pork products. it well. Roast methi seeds and dry grind
All Jains and some Hindus are strict it and keep it aside. Heat oil in a pan,
vegetarians, though they do consume dairy and add mustard, and hing and let it cool.
products In addition, Indians follow When the above oil becomes room
restricted diets for pregnancy and temperature, mix it with the mango, and
mourning. There is also a selected system add the roasted methi powder. Anita
of fasting related to religious practices Subramaniam.
At home, Indians often eat meals sitting 47tomato pachadi. Ingredients Tomato 1
cross-legged on a floor mat. Instead of big and a few small ones washed and
cutlery, the right hand is used for eating chopped Yogurt 2 cups Curry leaves a few
and a piece of fresh banana leaf or Mustard 1/4 tsp Asafetida (hing) a small
stainless steel plate (thali) serves as a pinch Green chilies chopped 2-3 Cooking
plate. While the rest of the household Oil 1.5 tsp Cilantro a small bunch washed
eats, women serve the meals and wait until and finely chopped Salt 1/2 tsp (or to
everyone has finished dining before taste). Method Splutter mustard, and add
sitting down themselves. hing, curry leaves, green chilies Add
(http://www.settlement.org/cp/english/indi tomato in oil and fry for 5-10 minutes Add
/eating.html). Anita Subramaniam. salt, and mix this with yogurt Garnish
23Traditions in Serving Food. Food with chopped cilantro. Anita Subramaniam.
generally served on banana leaves Leaf is 48mysore pakku. Method 2 Mix gram flour,
placed before the guest The corner of the sugar and water smoothly. Pour this into a
leaf faces right of the person Water is pan and cook in low heat. Keep ghee in
served first, no other beverage is served another vessel in low heat and add this
Leaf is cleaned by sprinkling water and ghee to the gram flour mixture in steps
brushing the water with fingers (left to and with constant stirring. Do this until
right) Food eaten with hands –using only the mixture turns into a non-sticky paste.
fingers not the palm Only right hand is Grease the inside of a large bowl with
used for eating Food eaten sitting on the ghee and pour the cooked mixture on this
floor on the full lotus position with large bowl. When it is still hot, cut into
erect back Seating is from left to right – cubical pieces by drawing parallel lines
no gaps The most important person served on its surface. Ingredients Besan flour -
first Sometimes the first leaf is for 1 cup Sugar - 2 1/2 cups Water - 1 cup
“puthras” (ancestors) Usually in most Ghee - 2 1/2 cups Cardamom (optional)
Hindu homes, the crow is served rice, dal Method 1 Dry roast the gram flour to a
and ghee first outside the house Food golden color. Keep aside. Make a syrup
served clockwise Food served from top with sugar and water to one string
right corner of the leaf to left. Anita consistency. While stirring, slowly add
Subramaniam. the gram flour. Continue stirring Add
24Order of Serving/Eating Food. Foods melted ghee simultaneously. Add all the
served first: Serving starts with a spoon ghee in this manner. Cook till the mixture
of “payasam” Dhal Followed by salads – leaves the sides of the pan. Add cardamom
vegetable and fruit Vegetable dishes powder. Smear a plate with the ghee. Pour
Chutneys and pickle Vadas, laddoos and in the mixture ,spread and level. Leave it
other items First Serving of Rice: Rice to cool. While still warm cut into diamond
Ghee Sambhar Appalam Second Serving of shapes. Mysore pak should be porous, light
Rice: Morekozhambu Second serving of all and crisp. Anita Subramaniam.
dishes that has been consumed. Third 49Web sites with interesting recipes.
Serving of Rice: Rasam Appalam Main Thamizhar Pakkam URL:
Dessert: Full cup of payasam Fourth http://www.sysindia.com/kitchen/kitchen.ht
Serving of Rice: Yogurt Wash Hands and l
chew betel leaves Digestive: Betel leaves http://www.geocities.com/NapaValley/8826/l
with betel nut and Calcium Carbonate st.htm India tastes.com URL:
(lime) Some men and women combine chewing http://www.indiatastes.com/ Saroj’s
tobacco with betel leaves. Anita cookbook URL:
Subramaniam. http://www.bawarchi.com/cookbook/south.htm
25Traditions After the Meal. All food . Anita Subramaniam.
served must be consumed Unconsumed food 50Websites… Dhinakarn Recipes URL:
generally set in one side of the leaf Leaf http://www.dinakaran.com/cook/cookery.htm.
must not be folded Guest gets up and Anita Subramaniam.
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«Пособие по английскому» - Югаро-чуванская семья (Якутия). Вы можете задать следующие вопросы: Do you like Kate’s picture? Museums are .educational establishments for advancing and diffusing knowledge. С каждым годом растёт число разнообразных издаваемых учебных материалов. Генеалогическая классификация языков: Индоевропейская семья.

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«Английские предлоги места» - Above - выше чего-либо. To - в направлении кого-либо или чего-либо. Английские предлоги места. From - исходная точка, откуда-либо. Into - движение внутрь чего-либо. On - на какой-либо поверхности, на чем-либо - для обозначения стороны. Over - движение поверх чего-либо - поверх и через что-либо. Through - проходить сквозь.

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