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Theory W Software Management

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1Theory W Software Management. Barry 32Clarity. Time To Complete. No. of
Boehm, USC. Statements. Memory Required. Program
2Outline. The Problem For the software Clarity. Output Clarity. *Weinberg, 1972.
project manager For software management ** 1=Best.
theories Approaches to date Theory W 33Effect of Objectives on Productivity.
Principles and Practices Theory W Research (Weinberg-Schulman, 1974). Team Objective:
Issues Conclusions. Optimize. Number of Statements. Man-hours.
3The Software Project Manager’s Productivity (State M-H). Core Memory 52
Problem. Ambitious goals No Overruns No 74 0.7 Number of Statements 33 30 1.1
Surprises. Quick Schedule Low budget. Execution Time 100 50 2.0 Program Clarity
Software Project Manager. Lots of 90 40 2.2 Programming, Man-hours 126 28
Functions User-Friendly Fast, robust. 4.5 Output Clarity 166 30 5.5.
4The Software Management Theory 34Incorporating People’s Goals in
Problem. Easy to understand Easy to learn, Management Decisions: DP People.
apply. Covers all classes of projects Concentrate on Meaningful Work, Growth
Covers procedural, technical, economic, Opportunities Carefully Define Objectives,
people concerns. Provides useful, Priorities Downplay Status as a Primary
situation-specific advice. Motivator Watch Out for Peter Priniciple
5Approaches to Date. Objectives: Try to Develop Responsibility
Simple, General, Specific Alternatives Participation in Planning, Goal-Setting
Eclectic combinations of advice DoD-STDS, Increase Feedback Remember the Modified
Procedural Guidebooks Koontz-O’Donnell Golden Rule.
Elaborations One-minute manager, et al. 35Understanding People’s Win Conditions.
Theories X, Y, Z Theory W: Make everyone a Principles People in general Software
winner. people Practices Reaching out Studying the
6Sorting out software advice. Build It culture Projection Mutual Exploration.
twice. Thorough test planning. Do it 36Reaching Out. Interviews,
top-down. Prove everything correct. Use conversations Surveys, questionnaires
disciplined reviews. Do it outside-in. Tours of duty Hypothesis testing
Programming standards. Independent test Prototypes, scenarios OPS-concept document
teams. Use walk-throughs. Chief Programmer Draft users’ manuals.
teams. Measurable milestones. Early 37Studying the Culture. Background
requirements baseline. Program Library. reading User shared values, taboos
Involve the user. Structured Programming. Operations analysis Example: Accounting
Design verification. Configuration for funds, man-hours Previous experiences
management. Project work authorizations. with automation Scars and bruises Previous
End-item acceptance plan. Automated aids. winners.
Unit development folders. 38Projecting Yourself Into Others’ Win
7Koontz-O’Donnell Management Framework. Situations. Do unto others .. As you would
Purpose Unity of goals Cost- effectiveness have others do unto you Computer sciences
Span of Management. Purpose Contribution world (compilers, OS, etc.) Users are
to goals Commitment Verifiability programmers Applications world Users are
Cost-Effectiveness Precedence. Purpose pilots, doctors, tellers. Build computer
Contribution to goals. Purpose Harmony of systems to serve users and operators ..
goals. Purpose Assurance of goals Assuming users and operators like to write
Cost-effectiveness Control responsibility. programs, and know computer science.
Motivation Understanding of goals Counterexample: The Golden Rule.
Reflection of goals. Selection Top talent 39The Modified Golden Rule. Do unto
Job matching Career progression Skills others as you would have others do unto
balance Teamwork. Structure Reflection of you if you were like them.
plans Organizational suitability 40Mutual Exploration. Users: How can
individuality. Delegation of Authority software technology help them become more
Unity of command Parity of authority effective? Prototypes, demonstrations
Responsibility Authority level Owners: How can the software product
Absoluteness of responsibility. enhance their value to the ongoing
Communication Parity of information mission? Ease of change; diagnostics
Responsibility Receptiveness Integrity. Subordinates: How can the project help
Structure Premises WWWWWHHW them achieve career goals? Training,
Synchronization. Recruiting Reward breadth of experience General: Helping
Openness Commitment. Process Standards people find out and demonstrate they are
Critical-point Exception Flexibility winners.
Timeliness Action. Leadership 41Reconciling People’s Win Conditions.
Identification Empathy Sustained Principles Win-Win, Win-Lose, and
initiative Integrity Team building Lose-Lose situations Negotiation
Management of time. Process Limiting principles Practices Searching out Win-Win
Factor Flexibility Navigational change situations Expanding the option space
Performer Participation. Division of Work Teambuilding and shared values Setting
Form follows function People’s strengths expectations.
Functional definition Separation. 42Win-Win, Win-Lose, and Lose-Lose
Retention Reinforcement Team building Situations. Lose-Lose. Soft Wizards’ Win
Phase out Backup. Space Win-Lose. Universal Micros’ Win
8Theory X and Theory Y*. Theory X Space Win-Lose. Win-Win.
People inherently dislike work They have 43Win-Win, Win-Lose, & Lose-Lose
to be coerced into working The prefer Examples: Uniword. Win-Win License fee for
being told what to do Theory Y People soft wizards Structured programming
don’t inherently dislike work People can Win-Lose Best and final offer Independent
exercise self-direction Commitment to user-interface designs Gold-plated DBMS
objectives depends on resulting rewards Lose-Lose Establishing unrealistic
People can learn to seek responsibility schedule Staffing with incompatible people
Work creativity is widely distributed Poor planning Adding people to catch up No
People’s potential is only partially concurrence on product features.
utilized. * D. McGregor, The Human Side of 44Getting to Win-Win. Feasible initial
Enterprise, 1960. increment of uniword. Product universal
9Theory Z: Japanese-Style Management. micros wants in 9 months. Products
People work best toward goals which they softwizards can build in 9 months.
have helped establish Once people have 45Negotiation Principles. Fisher &
bought into goals, you can trust them to Ury, “Getting to Yes,” 1981 Don’t bargain
perform If people share a common set of over positions Use 4-step solution
values, they can develop workable project approach Separate the people from the
goals. problem Focus on interests, not positions
10Theory W Software Management Steps. Invent options for mutual gain insist on
Establish a set of win-win preconditions using objective criteria.
Understand how people want to win 46Separate the People From the Problem.
Establish a set of win-win objectives Put yourself in their shoes Recognize and
Establish reasonable expectations Match understand emotions Present proposals in
people’s objectives to their win terms of their values Make sure they
conditions Provide a supportive participate in the process Face the
environment Structure a win-win software problem, not the people.
process Establish a realistic process plan 47Focus on Interests, Not Positions. Ask
Highlight potential win-lose, lose-lose “Why?” Ask “Why not?” Look forward, not
risk items Keep people involved Provide back Be concrete but flexible Be hard on
feedback Confront, resolve new win-lose, the problem, soft on the people.
lose-lose situations Structure a win-win 48Inventing Options for Mutual Gain. The
software product Match product to users’, four basic steps: Fisher and Ury. What is
maintainers’ win conditions. wrong. What might be done. In Theory. In
11Theories X, Y, Z, and W: An Example. the Real World. Step III. Approaches What
Problem George and Harry want same system are possible strategies or prescriptions?
analysis job Both well-qualified What are some theoretical cures? Generate
deserving. broad ideas about what might be done. Step
12Theories X, Y, Z, and W: An Example II. Analysis Diagnose the problem: Sort
(cont.). Problem George and Harry want symptoms into categories. Suggest causes.
same system analysis job Both Observe what is lacking. Note barriers to
well-qualified deserving Solutions Theory resolving problem. Step IV. Action ideas
X: Boss makes arbitrary choice Theory Y: What might be done? What specific steps
Boss asks for proposals, picks most might be taken to deal with the problem?
ambitious one Theory Z: Boss pre-builds Step I. Problem What’s wrong? What are
consensus on team objectives, bhooses current symptoms? What are disliked facts
based on Qualifications rating. contrasted with a preferred situation?
13Theory W Solution to Problem. 49Getting to Win-Win: COCOMO F-16
Understand how people want to win George: Example. Products developer can build in
career path to marketing Harry: Extensive 12 months. Products user wants in 12
travel to Boston; Daughter in college months.
there Establish a set of win-win 50Getting to Win-Win: COCOMO F-16
objectives by realigning expectations or Example. Products developer can build in
expanding option space Find comparable 12 months. Products user wants in 12
marketing-oriented job for George Find months. Prioritize development increments.
comparable job with Boston travel for Add technology, key people.
Harry. 51Insist on Using Objective Criteria.
14Strategic Guidelines Derived from Fair standards Fair procedures Establish
Win-Win Preconditions. Win-Win joint search for criteria Don’t yield to
Precondition. Developer Team. Users. pressure Develop best alternative to
Maintainers. Customers. Operations concept negotiated agreement.
Operations procedures. Cost-benefit 52Searching out Win-Win Situations.
analysis. Career path development. Mission Breaking options into parts Functionality
Analysis Operations concept Prototyping A take lead on user I/F; B on comm. Proc.
Requirements spec Early users’ manual. Increments Phases Realigning options OS,
Understand win conditions. Requirements DBMS, applications Input, process, output
scrub. Team building, negotiating, Inventory, production, distribution.
communicating. Reasonable expectations. 53Expanding the Option Space. Linking to
Resource allocation. Change control future options, career paths Linking to
participation. Match tasks to win extra rewards Providing extra support
conditions. User-spec reviews Prototype Surfacing new technical options Creating
exercise. Quality assurance. Status ownership Can be easily overdone, though.
tracking. Staffing, organizing. Early 54Incorporating People’s Goals in
error detection. Maintenance training Management Decisions: Users. Give Users
Conversion Deliverable support environment Opportunities for Achievement,
Configuration management. Developer Responsibility Swedish Bank Minimize User
training Support environment Configuration Difficulties With Product Help Messages
management. Customer training. Supportive Avoid Lock-Step Controls Don’t Assume
environment preparation. User training Users Have Urge to be Computer Scientists
Cutover preparation. Modern programming Data Entry Language Remember the Modified
practices. Golden Rule.
15Strategic Guidelines Derived from 55Teambuilding. Build appreciation for
Product, Process Guidelines. Guideline. others’ win conditions Establish shared
Users. Maintainers. Customers. Development values Group planning, issue resolution
Team. Process Planning. Process Offsites.
Involvement. Process Feedback. Product 56Setting Up Reasonable Expectations.
Structuring. Operational plan Installation User: functionality Customer: budget,
and training plans. Life-cycle support schedule Performer: Lead design role
plan. Development plans. Risk management Research content. Better to establish low
plans. System engineering plan expectations and come up than to establish
participation Review participation high expectations and come down.
Prototype exercise. System engineering 57Theory W: A Large-Project Example.
plan participation Review participation Scope of Phase I contract Develop Ada
Quality assurance. Cost-benefit reviews, object-oriented design approach Use on
approvals. Delegation Planning representative system CSCI Demonstrate
participation. Team building, negotiating, requirements satisfaction Functions,
communicating. Reviews. Reviews. Status portability, performance, reliability
tracking, controlling. Performance Learn lessons; incorporate into Phase II
feedback. Service-oriented Efficient Easy development Customer expectations No
to learn Easy to use Tailorable. Easy to problems with Phase I Phase I CSCI fully
modify Programming standards. Efficient usable in Phase II External PDR, CDR
Correct Feasible. Easy to modify Balanced reviewer comments Design not
Correct. object-oriented Should consider PDR, CDR
16Outline. The Problem For the software not passed Would cause major slip in Phase
project manager For software management I completion Review team called in to
theories Approaches to date Theory W assess situation, make recommendations.
Principles and Practices Theory W Research 58Review Team Procedures. Review team
Issues Conclusions. composition Key PDR, CDR external
17Theory W Principles and Practices. reviewers Contractor non-project Ada
Principles Win-win, win-lose, and experts External Ada Experts Review
lose-lose situations Getting to win-win charter Determine if design is/isn’t
Getting to yes: Principles of negotiations object-oriented? Determine if PDR, CDR
Practices: Examples Understanding win are/aren’t passed? Determine how to get
conditions Establishing win-win objectives best system design & plan Output
Structuring win-win software process ground rules Full consensus; no minority
Structuring win-win software products. reports Initial activities Find out how
18Win-Win, Win-Lose, and Lose-Lose people want to win Customer, contractor,
Situations. Developer’s Win Space external reviewers Establish reasonable
Win-Lose. User’s Win Space Win-Lose. expectations Determine how well design
Win-Win. Lose-Lose. satisfies rqts. Identify risks Reconcile
19The Software Project Manager’s with expectations.
Problem. Ambitious goals No Overruns No 59Review Findings. Software rqts. not
Surprises. Quick Schedule Low budget. No traceable to OPS-concept Design faithfully
bugs Well-documented Easy to change. followed project OOD guidelines Design
Software Project Manager. Lots of would have major problems in meeting
Functions User-Friendly Fast, robust. Fast full-scale performance & reliability
career path Preference for design Defer rqts. Design would make significant
documentation. classes of changes difficult.
20Making Everyone a Winner: Potential 60Review Recommendations. Consider Phase
Conflicts. Proposed Solution. Loser. I CSCI a throwaway prototype A win for
“Winner”. Quick, Cheap, Sloppy Product. external reviewers Revised expectations
Developer & Customer. User. Lots of for customers Congratulate customer for
bells and whistles. Developer & User. foresight in establishing a 2-phase,
Customer. Driving too hard a bargain. lessons-learned approach A win for
Customer & User. Developer. Actually, customer Consider PDR, CDR passed A win
nobody wins in these situations. for customer and contractor Establish risk
21Negotiation Principles*. Don’t bargain management plan to address risk items
over positions Use 4-step solution identified A downstream win for customer,
approach Separate the people from the contractor, external reviewers, and users.
problem Focus on interests, not positions 61Structuring a Win-Win Software Process
Invent options for mutual gain Insist on - FAA/AAS Risk Management Plan. Users
using objective criteria. * Fisher & winners Reliability: Use Ada; risk-manage
Ury, Getting to Yes, 1981. exceptions, elaboration, RTS Performance:
22Theory W Principles and Practices. Risk-manage tasking, RTS, non-Ada use
Principles Win-win, win-lose, and Customers winners Cost, schedule:
lose-lose situations Getting to win-win Risk-manage compiler limits; host, target
Getting to yes: Principles of negotiations support; developer readiness (exercise);
Practices: Examples Understanding win key personnel Maintainers winners Train
conditions Establishing win-win objectives maintenance personnel in Ada Have
Structuring win-win software process maintenance personnel develop maintenance
Structuring win-win software products. plans Get maintenance personnel involved
23Understanding People’s Win Conditions. in development Developers winners
Principles People in general Software Re-evaluate fixed-price strategy Require
people Practices Reaching out Studying the developer risk management plan (RMP) Base
culture Projection Mutual Exploration. selection on RMP, exercise as well as
24Win Conditions: People in General. proposal.
Maslow Need Hierarchy Motivating Factors 62Applying Win Conditions: Tactical
Theories X, Y, Z, and W. Example. Situation : Susan, a new
25Maslow Human Need Hierarchy. A. 1st-level manager, proposes that project
Maslow, Motivation and Personality, 1954. use a new test tool she worked on
Self-Actualization. Esteem and Autonomy. Understanding win conditions: Susan : Help
Belongingness and love. Safety and project avoid errors Justify time spent on
Security. Physiological (Food and Drink). tool Others : New tool immature, adds risk
26Maslow Need Hierarchy. Satisfied needs Project considered, rejected similar tool
aren’t motivators Unsatisfied lower-level Establishing reasonable expectations:
needs dominate higher-level needs Meeting to explore tool use options,
Management implications Create environment concerns Others more sympathetic to tool’s
and subculture which satisfies lower-level value Susan more sympathetic to project
needs Stability Shared values, community risks.
Match to special needs Tailor project 63Tactical Example - II. Matching tasks
objectives, structure to participants’ to win conditions Use tool experimentally
self-actualization priorities. on Susan’s work package Others review
27People Self-Actualize in Different experience If successful, use on entire
Ways. Becoming a Better Manager Becoming a project Provide supportive environment
Better Technologist Helping Other Training on tool usage Budget for tool
Developers Helping Users Making People improvement Keeping people involved
Happy Making People Unhappy Doing New Periodic reviews positive: integration
Things Increasing Professional Stature. errors down 45% Agreement to use on entire
Project Managers Must be Very Sensitive to project Providing feedback Bonus award for
these Differences-Remember the Modified Susan, key subordinates Division
Golden Rule. recognition of project contribution
28Win Conditions: Software People. Preparation for division-wide use of tool.
Overall motivating factors Growth needs 64Structuring A Win-Win Software Product
vs. social needs Responsiveness to - Student COCOMO Programs. Requirement:
objectives Some management implications. Enter N input attributes Solution
29Ranking of Motivating Factors. General Precondition: 0 acceptable inputs
(Herzberg). 1. Achievement 2. Recognition Post-condition: N acceptable inputs
3. Work Itself 4. Responsibility 5. Invariant: i acceptable inputs, add an
Advancement 6. Salary 7. Possibility for acceptable input i+1 acceptable inputs
growth 8. Relations, subordinate 9. Status Program: Loop through input attributes
10. Relations, superior. User problem: Can’t backtrack to fix
30Ranking of Motivating Factors. General previous inputs.
(Herzberg). DP Professionals (Fitz-Enz). 65Conclusions. Theory W addresses
1. Achievement 2. Recognition 3. Work success criteria reasonably well Simple
Itself 4. Responsibility 5. Advancement 6. Expressible in 4 words, 8 steps Detailed
Salary 7. Possibility for growth 8. guidelines derivable from steps General
Relations, subordinate 9. Status 10. Applies to all classes of projects
Relations, superior. 1. Achievement 2. Strongest on people issues, but also
Possibility for growth 3. Work Itself 4. addresses procedural, technical, economic
Recognition 5. Advancement 6. Tech. issues Specific Provides specific
Supervision 7. Responsibility 8. solutions for both strategic and tactical
Relations, peers 9. Relations, subordinate management issues Provides criterion for
10. Salary. 12. 11. 14. testing management solutions.
31Comparative Growth Needs and Social 66Theory W Management and Trust.
Needs. Effective management is built on a bedrock
32Experiments Show that Programming Team of trust Practicing Theory W generates
Performance is Highly Sensitive to Given trust People see that you’re looking out
Objectives*. 1. 4. 4. 5. 3. 2-3. 1. 2. 3. for their win conditions Theory W is
5. 5. 2. 1. 4. 4. 4. 3. 3. 1-2. 2. 2-3. 5. self-reinforcing If people know that as a
5. 1-2. 1. Resulting Rank on manager you’re going to consider other
Performance**. Team Objective: Optimize. people’s win conditions - they’ll start
Time To Complete. No. of Statements. thinking about them too.
Memory Required. Program Clarity. Output
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