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Tongue-Tied in Singapore: A Language Policy for Tamil

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1Tongue-Tied in Singapore: A Language 12don't speak with their children; it's the
Policy for Tamil? Harold F. Schiffman children, they don't appreciate Tamil
Dept. of South Asia Studies University of culture.
Pennsylvania. 13What is the purpose of teaching Tamil?
2Introduction: Tamil situation in Why do Singapore Tamils want Tamil to be
Singapore: Lends itself ideally to the Taught?
study of minority language maintenance: 14Students: The purpose of maintaining
Tamil community is small: Indians Tamil language in Singapore is to pass the
constitute around 7% of the population, of O-level and A-level tests administered by
which Tamils constitute 60%. History and the MOE, in order to get 5 A-level passes
demographics well known. Tamil community and gain admission to university (and
acknowledged to be facing a number of never use Tamil again.).
crises: Tamil as a home language not being 15CIDS and MOE: The purpose of the
maintained by the better-educated. teaching of Tamil in Singapore is to
3Role of Education. Schooling seen as maintain 'pure grammatical' Tamil.
the mainstay of language maintenance Tamil 16Parents: Parents' goal for Tamil is to
Education sine qua non of language have their children have as much
maintenance efforts; Policy is failing, appreciation of Tamil language and culture
even with (now) compulsory "mother as they themselves have, but not more.
tongue" instruction for Chinese, 17Teachers: The purpose of teaching
Malays and Tamils. Should be cause of Tamil in Singapore is to provide jobs for
general alarm in Singapore, not just among teachers; their goal is to enable students
Tamils. to get 5 A-level passes and gain admission
4Language Maintenance and the Sociology to university.
of Language. Tendency among Indian 18NIE Tamil Teacher Training: The
community to confuse corpus planning and purpose of having Tamil taught in
status planning; Tamils' traditional Singapore is to make it necessary to train
strategy is to emphasize corpus planning, teachers to teach Tamil;
esp. purity The housing policy in 19Writers and Intellectuals: The purpose
Singapore: the real culprit? of Tamil language maintenance in Singapore
5What kind of Tamil do people want? is to provide job opportunities for people
Problem of diglossia: concern is always who are otherwise unemployable.
with the corpus management of the literary 20A More Optimistic View, and some
language; The revolutionary zeal, Recommendations. Introduce the notion that
evangelical, rhetorical and oratorical knowledge of a literary language is
skills of DMK mesmerized a generation of necessarily connected to the knowledge of
Singapore Tamils. Fervor now gone. The a spoken language, and that the literary
kind of Tamil taught has no communicative language will not survive without
value for younger people. knowledge of the real mother-tongue.
6Some differences between Tamilnadu and 21Spoken Tamil is a rule-governed form
Singapore. Ambient language in Tamilnadu of language: Is actually quite regular,
is Tamil Ambient language in Singapore is uniform, and standardized. Literacy in
English Literacy in Tamilnadu primarily in Tamil should be based on knowledge of
Tamil Literacy in Singapore primarily in mother tongue students bring with them to
English. school.
7Registers, varieties, levels: Tamil 22Spoken Tamil is rule-governed: ST
consists of at least five different kinds should be treated as a resource instead of
of language: peeccu tamiR:, spoken by all a liability. Decisions can be made about
educated speakers; Modern literary Tamil, the best time to make transition to the
the language of social novels and grammatical forms of LT, (P1 or P4).
short-stories: Older modern LT, the Teacher trainees need to be taught
language of Pavanandi (thirteenth explicit knowledge of structure and syntax
century); Medieval Tamil (the Alvars, of ST.
TirukkuraL), and Sangat-tamiR, the oldest 23Creative Writing in Singapore:
Tamil--cannot be understood actively by Creative Writing is rare and hard to find
anyone without the commentaries and Conscious effort to stimulate creative
dictionaries. writing for Tamils needed Tamils have
8Problems with Pedagogy: The problem nothing to read that reflects their
with irredentism: language can never be experience Tend to view their language as
fully controlled Not giving an inch may lacking in some way…
mean that that is all Tamil will have: an 24Convene a study group? Representatives
inch: (no domains for the language at all) of the NIE Tamil Teachers Ministry Of
But domains exist today that never existed Education Curriculum Development Institute
in the past—TV, movies, videogames, the of Singapore Recent former students, and
Internet… People do not value print parents. Agree to work toward concensus on
literacy as much as they once did. what the goals and purpose of Tamil
9Overt and Covert aspects of Policy. At maintenance might be.
the highest level, the policy appears to 25Conclusion: Egalitarianism and
be pro-Tamil. But the housing policy has a Equality. Egalitarianism does not
negative consequences: Tamils are so necessarily lead to equal outcomes:
dispersed that Tamil ceases to act as an 26Problems with ‘Egalitarianism’. Tamil
intra-ethnic language in the Tamil is seen as having no economic value
community. Excessive Purism defeats egalitarianism
10Examples of different levels of Very small minorities may see no future
vocabulary: the word for television: 1. Younger generation does not revere the
duurdarshan used, even in Tamilnadu, for language Housing Policy is
government television broadcasting counterproductive to language maintenance.
originating in New Delhi. Example: itu 27References. Gopinathan S. and A. Mani.
duurdarshan. "This is (the Indian (1983). "Changes in Tamil Language
government television broadcasting Acquisition and Usage in Singapore: A Case
system)". 2. tolaikaaTci is used for of Subtractive Bilingualism."
television broadcasts originating in Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science
Madras, and also term used for television Vol. 11(l): 104-116. S. Gopinathan, Anne
in Singapore. 3. 'television', pronounced Pakir, Ho Wah Kam, and Vanitha Saravanan
TelaviSan, is used by many educated (eds.) Language, society, and education in
people, often to refer to the concept of Singapore : issues and trends. Singapore :
television, even when speaking Tamil, e.g. Times Academic Press, 1998.
TeleviSion vandadukku munnaale, rediyoo 28More references… Saravanan,
taan irundadu. 'Before there was Vanithamani. “Language Maintenance and
television, there was only radio.’ 4. TV, Language Shift in the Tamil-English
pronounced Tiivii is also used widely in Community.” Chapter 8, Gopinathan et al.,
spoken Tamil. naan ungaLe Tiiviile 1998. Schiffman, Harold F. (1994)
paatteen 'I saw you on TV'. 5. paTapoTTi "Standardization and the Case of
used by uneducated people, from paTam Spoken Tamil: Where does SingaporeTamil
'picture' and poTTi 'box', modeled on fit in?" Talk delivered at RELC,
earlier folk work for radio. March 16, 1994 Schiffman, Harold F. (1999)
11No need for Gratuitous Criticism. A Reference Grammar of Spoken Tamil.
Everyone in the system doing the best job Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
they know how to do, with the best will 29Acknowledgements: Research for this
and the best of intentions. However, when paper was carried out under a Fulbright
asked what people think the problem with Research grant from the Council for
Tamil is, there is a certain amount of International Exchange of Scholars/USIA in
blaming that starts up: early 1994. 1 would like to express my
12(But people criticize anyway…). Those appreciation also to the National
people are responsible: It's the Ministry Institute of Education, Nanyang
of Education; it's the Curriculum Technological University, Republic of
Development people; it's the teachers, Singapore, for their welcoming assistance.
they're too lax; it's the parents, they
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