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Introduction and Status quo Uganda in Brief Where on earth is Uganda
Introduction and Status quo Uganda in Brief Where on earth is Uganda
Introduction and Status quo Uganda in Brief Where on earth is Uganda
Introduction and Status quo Uganda in Brief Where on earth is Uganda
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Уганда по географии

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1Having Pleasure on the Plate but 12legal, regulatory and institutional
Safety in the Mind. by Kimera Henry frameworks, protocols, agreements,
Richard, Chief Executive - CONSENT negotiations and implementation processes
Presented at An International Conference and agendas like food safety and control
for Consumer organizations on Food Safety system among others. COs are also
on June 9 2005 at WHO Headquarters in recognized and appreciated as entities
Geneva, Switzerland Under the theme that act on behalf of the voiceless,
Crafting a Public Health Agenda for a vulnerable and resource poor communities.
Modern Food Safety Systems Organized by As the eyes, ears and voices of the
WHO, FAO and SFI – CSPI. communities they also compliment the
2content... Introduction and Status quo mainstream actors - government. Their
Challenges Interventions, Action & Way involvement is paramount in attaining
forward Conclusions. effective food control systems for a
3Introduction and Status quo Uganda in healthy nation. CONSENT’s campaign in food
Brief Where on earth is Uganda? safety underlines the responsibility and
4Introduction and Status quo contd… importance of having safe and hygienic
Uganda in Brief. Vital National food right from the farm, through the
Information and Statistics on Uganda market to our plates. It is the
POLITICS & GEOGRAPHY Geographical organisation’s position that it’s
location: East Africa, astride the everyone’s responsibility as we are all
Equator, land locked. Geographical consumers. We sum up the campaign in the
neighbors: Kenya, Tanzania, Sudan, DR slogan: Consumers should have pleasure on
Congo, Rwanda Administrative system, the plate and safety in mind at all times.
structure: Decentralized system with In essence, consumers / stakeholders
central government retaining role of should always think beyond the food on the
policymaking, supervision and admin. Units plate and question its safety and quality.
- 56 districts Area: 241.038 sq km (93.072 They should also participate in
sq miles) Life expectancy: 45 years (men), food-related issues at household and all
47 years (women) – UN Population societal levels (village, sub-county,
distribution: 82% rural, 18% urban System district, national and international) to
of government: ‘No party’ system but in enhance food safety control systems.
transiting to multiparty system. 13Challenges. Challenges to Food Safety
5Introduction and Status quo contd… … With recognition of high prevalence of
Uganda in Brief. SOCIAL & HISTORICAL food-related disease and other risks,
POINTERS Historical background: Former there is urgent need for information,
British protectorate, stable before education, training and empowerment of all
independence but chaotic afterwards stakeholders on the importance of
(turmoil, unrest, economic decline) Major food-safety and hygiene. Urgency and
languages: English (official), Kiswahili, reality are far apart due to a number of
Ganda Major religions: Christians, Muslims challenges right from farm/food
Number of phone lines: 1.040.127 mobile, production, processing, retailing and
71.056 fixed (4.2% penetration) – UCC, handling in the home. High poverty levels
Nov. 2004 Access to electricity: 5% of lead to what locally is referred to as the
population (250,000 connections - ERA) ‘survival syndrome’ at all levels. Why?
Access to clean water: 60% (national), 55% Several members of the executive,
rural – 2004 (DWD) Literacy rate: 69.9% judiciary, legislator, regulators, local
Adult HIV prevalence: 7% (MoH, 2005) No of government and business, etc are in
radio sets (per 1000pple): 130 (unicef, business. The question then stands: Who is
2002) No of television sets (per regulating, monitoring and evaluating
1000pple): 16 (unicef, 2002) Prevalence of whom? Consumers are left to the mercy of
poverty: 38% (MoFPED, 2004) Available God or to their own mercy for those who
capacity: 315mw (April 2005- ERA) don’t believe in the supreme deity. Under
Population / population density: 26.7 the status quo, the resource-poor
million / 126 persons per Km2 (UN, 2004) institutions can only play their role to a
Population growth / fertility rate: 3.4% limited extent.
PA / 6.8 children per woman. 14Challenges. Other challenges include:
6Introduction and Status quo contd… Limited human and financial resources to
Uganda in Brief. ECONOMICS & TRADE effectively implement food safety
Main exports: Coffee, Fish and fish activities. Limited public awareness and
products, tea, tobacco, cotton, maize high consumer ignorance Weak policy, legal
(corn), beans (MoFPED) Monetary unit: and institutional framework to address
Uganda shilling Exchange rate: $1=sh1,770; issues Incoherence of existing policies
є1=2,200; ?1=3,200 GDP per Capita: US $240 and legal frameworks Lack of documented
(World Bank, 2003) Integration, trade data on the prevalence of food borne
arrangement: Member of EAC, COMESA, WTO, diseases Inadequate infrastructure to
OIC Major taxes: Income tax (including test, inspect, store and generally handle
corporate tax), withholding tax and rental food products Lack of explicit framework
income tax; value added tax (VAT); excise for consumer and consumer organization
duty on certain products and sales tax. involvement.
Imported goods attract import duty and 15Inventions, Action & Way forward.
import commission. (Source: MoFPED) Total · The recognized high prevalence of
external debt stock: US$ 4.3billion [10% food-related diseases needs interventions
GDP] (2003/04 – MoFPED) Inflation: 7.0% right from changing retrogressive
(March 2004 – MoFPED) Tax revenue: 12% of mindsets/attitudes through to changes of
GDP (MoFPED). policy and regulatory frameworks. This
7Introduction and Status quo contd… requires huge investments in information,
Uganda & CONSENT in Brief. CONSENT in education, communication and training. ·
brief Consumer Education Trust (CONSENT) Guideline 7 as well as its components is
is a civil society organization that good only if commitments are turned into
strives for a socially informed, equitable action because information, education,
and just society through empowerment of communication and training, if effectively
consumers, promotion of ethical practices implemented can bear sustainable and
among business and engagement of long-lasting results. · Consumer awareness
policymakers to enact pro-people policies and information are a prerequisite to any
for present and future generations. sustainable development process in any
CONSENT designs and implements programs given setting. In broad terms, this
and activities through stakeholder/public involves initiatives that provide
awareness; capacity enhancement; information and foster awareness of the
constructive dialogue; policy research and beneficiaries as end-users to enable them
advocacy; and advisory services on make informed decisions and choices and
socio-economic issues. Objectives To also provide feedback that can fact in, to
promote consumer education at all levels operationalize the alert systems and
of society; To promote sustainable emergences on a broad spectrum. ·
dialogue among stakeholders for the Stimulating consumer curiosity, followed
benefit of consumers; To carry out by questioning and reporting is vital as
research and develop resources for it feeds into safety monitoring mechanisms
advocacy, awareness and training programs and facilitates in designing effective
accessible to stakeholders; To develop a interventions with regard to food-related
resource center to facilitate different illness. Why? Consumers are a vital factor
stakeholders. To establish links and in the prevalence and stoppage of food
networks with likeminded organizations, risks.
institutions and individuals in promotion 16Inventions, Action & Way forward
of a fairer marketplace. contd… · Consumer awareness and access to
8Introduction and Status quo contd… information about consumables is a right,
Uganda & CONSENT in Brief. Programs in fact a human right, synonymous with the
Consumer Education: awareness, capacity need to promote socio-economic harmony and
enhancement and access to justice; Food prosperity at all societal levels through
and Agriculture: awareness, capacity facilitating consumers’ understanding and
enhancement, food safety and security, response so as to enable people from all
quality surveillance, biotechnology and walks of life to live safely and
bio-safety; Trade and Economics: responsibly. · One of foundations or
socio-economic literacy, capacity strong pillars for addressing the risk of
enhancement, advocacy for fair trade, food-related diseases is
access to justice, sustainable development public/stakeholder/consumer awareness and
and poverty reduction; Health and involvement. This is an effective tool
Environment: access, quality of service, that should be applied for the
safety, hygiene, sustainable and operationalization of laws and regulations
responsible consumption, biotechnology and to sustain food-safety activities and
bio-safety,; Utilities and Social programs. · Complimentary efforts require
Services: access and quality of service. a multi-sectoral approach to address the
CONSENT Team The implementing team at documented and undocumented incidences of
CONSENT is of dynamic, qualified, food borne diseases through public private
dedicated, experienced and technical partnerships to hold the bull of
calibre. The team has working experience challenges by the horns. · Consumer
in public and private sector environment organizations promote rights and
in research, policy formulation and responsibilities of consumers through
implementation as well as harmonization of advocating for the establishment of
policies, legal and regulatory frameworks legislation, institutions and information
at national, regional and international that improve quality of life and empower
levels. people to make changes in the quality of
9Status quo of the Food Safety System their lives.
in Uganda. Food is essential for the very 17Inventions, Action & Way forward
existence and sustenance of life of human contd… · Consumer organizations campaign
kind. Therefore, it follows that its to ensure availability of good quality and
existence, in terms of quantity and safe food that is accessible and
quality, as well as safety and security affordable for consumers through an
are accorded the importance they deserve enabling environment through advocating
under any process - socio–economic; for the right policies, regulatory and
political, etc. Food-related issues and institutional framework. · In order for
risks including disease infections and government, local authorities and the
infestations as well as chemical and toxin private sector to realize food safety,
contamination should be accorded due they should apply result-oriented
priority and addressed at all societal approaches at all stages to benefit
levels at national, regional and consumers using the following principles:
international levels. With increasing Involving stakeholders in decision-making
globalization and cooperation among Increase investment in infrastructure and
nations, problems and dangers could easily institutions Applying simple participatory
and quickly spread within nations and methods as much as possible and Using
across nations faster than ever before. existing expertise and infrastructure
The situation is worse in developing effectively. We should not always
countries like Uganda where borders are re-invent the wheel – let’s as much as
highly porous and the marketplace is possible evaluate and build on the
ill-policed due to institutional and existing resources. · Promote consumer
policy weaknesses and gaps. The high awareness at all societal levels through
prevalence of food-related and food borne involving all stakeholders while stressing
diseases requires detailed regulation to rights, responsibilities, DOs and DONTs in
guide consumers especially the most food safety. · Immediate review and
vulnerable and disadvantaged in society enactment of a modern food safety law and
including infants, children, the poor, and regulations · Immediate operationalization
the physically/mentally handicapped. of stakeholder awareness initiatives of
Food-related diseases and hazards are the CODEX Guidelines on Street vended
recognized to be a significant public foods in Africa to promote food hygiene.
health problem in Uganda, although there 18Inventions, Action & Way forward
is insufficient data to enable accurate contd… · Carryout training on food safety
quantification of morbidity and mortality systems at all levels in the informal and
associated with the same. formal sectors. It’s a fact that the
10Status quo contd.. Much of the burden informal sector is the biggest provider of
of illness results from basic sanitation food in both urban and rural setups. ·
failures that occur during food Carryout evidence-based research on
production, processing, retailing and prevalence of food-related diseases and
handling in the home. Basic food hygiene share results to input interventions,
is made difficult by the lack of necessary frameworks reviews, awareness and
sanitation infrastructure in many parts of justification for governments to
the country and segments of the food investment more in food safety. · Generate
system. It’s appreciated that with perfect and disseminate Information, Education and
markets; there would be no need to Communication (IEC) materials that are
regulate for safety. Consumers with accurate and relevant on food safety to
perfect knowledge about the safety of the foster consumer awareness. They should be:
products on offer would decide for simple, clear, user-friendly and meet the
themselves what suited their needs best aims of awareness, flexibility, compatible
and their decisions, by themselves, would with other documents and easy to
be sufficient to ensure that unsafe translate. · Empower stakeholders to
products would get no sales and would find effectively engage in policy, legal and
no place in the market. However the regulation formulation and implementation.
reality and practical outcome on the Advocate for pro-poor policy frameworks to
Ugandan market is different thus requires promote consumer welfare and ensure high
effective interventions through standards of safety.
appropriate policies legal and 19Inventions, Action & Way forward
institutional frameworks. It is contd… · Promote transparent and
appreciated that there is nothing like accountability practices as basic precepts
zero risk and that perfect safety is in the food industry to ensure consumer
impossible. It is noted that many products safety, especially the disadvantaged and
on sale every day carry considerable resource poor. · Networking with different
risks. Justifying the need to protect stakeholders in the food industry to
consumers from dangers that they cannot enhance consumer safety, operational
reasonably foresee or guard themselves capacity, tapping expertise and cost
against. It is appreciated that, it is effectiveness in implementing food related
difficult for consumers to protect issues through designing
themselves against risks without guidance interactive/participatory food safety
thus the SFI project and other initiatives events that bring together like-minded or
are welcome but should be practical and interested parties. · As matter of
result- oriented to answer challenges in principle, Public-Private Partnerships
the arena. should be enhanced to effectively address
11Status quo contd… The risks arising the challenges in food control systems.
from improper hygiene practices in the This should be in the areas of: Consumer
manufacturing, distribution and handling awareness on food handling chain Policy
of food products at home are clearly Advocacy Research for feedback and data
considerable. This calls for modern policy collection Capacity enhancement in
frameworks and enforcement regimes to institutional, human and financial
impose a duty on all involved in the resources for effective implementation,
production, processing and sale of food participation and responses. Information
products to sell to consumers only dissemination and networking. Monitoring
products that are safe and wholesome. In and Surveillance: Work with other
reality, implementation has proved stakeholders in conducting monitoring and
impossible due to a number of facts that market surveillance exercise on the food
are political, economic, social, spiritual industry for rapid/effective response on
and cultural. Existing legal and concerns.
regulatory frameworks in Uganda can 20Conclusion… In icing the cake, to
protect and improve food safety but the ensure an effective food control system
ability to implement is lacking and some and sustainable development, the following
of the regimes are obsolete. In the are recommended: Place food safety on the
existing laws, surveillance and recall political agenda – prioritize food matters
regimes exist but are not applied. For Immediate enactment of food safety laws
example, the Public Health Act empowers and regulations and implement control
local governments to inspect eating houses regimes. It is imperative to adopt the
before licensing. However, this is not CODEX Street Food Vending Guidelines given
happening. Why? It’s due to incoherence in the importance of street food segment in
policy, coupled with financial constraints developing countries (Uganda). Build
at local government level. Change of capacity of (street) food vendors to
policy that came with wide-ranging reforms promote food hygiene Observation of food
since the late 1980s to the present day control and safety at all levels: farmers,
has resulted in down-sizing of the civil consumers, businesses etc. Intensify
service and deregulation. Institutions public awareness on food-borne diseases
performing the role of quality assurance Develop clear institutional framework on
and creating safety nets were greatly food safety.
affected by the developments. For 21Conclusion. Quality standards of food
instance, the Uganda National Bureau of products should be strictly observed and
Standards as well as other institutions at cross-referenced at both local and
national and local authorities (district) international levels. Lastly, as
levels are understaffed and internationally, economies become
under-resourced. Consumer organizations increasingly more interdependent, it is
and other stakeholders are involved but imperative that consumers in one country
the effective participation is limited to are given accurate and clear information
a few activities because do not have about the compliance of imported goods
statutory powers to apprehend and litigate with standards set in their country of
all through the legal system. origin. … it’s the right and
12Status quo contd… As key stakeholders, responsibility of every consumer to
Consumer organizations (COs) play a role participate ... Thanks You for Listening
with regard to any societal concerns and to Me.
interests by providing input to policy,
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