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1UNIVERSAL SERVICE – GLOBAL BACKGROUND, 20vision center at Rawalpindi hospital and
SCOPE AND BEST PRACTICES. Nirmita help make it into a ‘Center of Excellence’
Narasimhan Centre for Internet and through expansion in infrastructure,
Society. recruitment of trained professionals and
2Agenda. History Scope of USF USF making available to the centre, modern low
around the world Funding Models Country vision equipment. To up-grade the low
examples General Observations. vision center at Sukkur, Sindh by
3HISTORY. Term originally coined in providing it with modern equipment To
1913 when AT&T was allowed to be sole establish low vision centers on the lines
service provider subject to certain of Rawalpindi and Sukkur at Kohat, Khyber
restrictions Interconnection to all Pakhtunkhwa. The USF has also signed a USD
networks and not service to all customers 6.1 million contract with the Pakistan
US Communications Act of 1934 for the Foundation Fighting Blindness.[1] The
first time established the policy that all project is aimed at utilizing USF funds to
wired and radio communications services digitise Audio World Library and establish
should be made available to all citizens an internet caf? at Darakhshan
at reasonable cost. Rehabilitation Centre, as well to expand
4HISTORY. Present Universal Service - the foundation’s accessible internet caf?
the minimum set of telecommunication at Islamabad. [1]
services that should be accessible to http://www.usf.org.pk/Publicphase.aspx?pha
everyone. The International eid=51&pgid=12&phasename=Project
Telecommunication Union (ITU) in its with Pakistan Foundation Fighting
second colloquium in 1993 recognized the Blindness.
elements of universal service to include - 21POLAND. Regulator: The Office of
access to telephones, availability and Electronic Communications
affordability, residual service, Telecommunications Law of 2004- Universal
information infrastructure and the Service. Art 81 clause 3 provides for:
provision of specific services. Fixed telephone services that can support
5SCOPE. Initially was used to refer internet access and fax transmission
mostly to fixed telephone service. With Directory and directory enquiry services
developments in ICT and convergence, its Payphone services Services for persons
scope has widened to include broadband and with disabilities Art.89 of the
mobiles in many countries. In many Telecommunications Law mandates the USP to
countries, persons with disabilities are provide the following services for persons
expressly recognized as an intended with disabilities – Terminal equipment
beneficiary of the activities of the fund. adapted to meet the needs of persons with
In India, USOF covers cellular and disabilities Facilities which persons with
broadband services. While the Indian disabilities may require to access
charter does not yet expressly include universal services such as accessible
persons with disabilities, the USOF payphones etc.
nevertheless recognizing this as an 22PORTUGAL. Regulator: Autoridade
underserved community has decided to fund Nacional de Comunica??es (ANACOM) The USO
some pilot projects for this group. in Portugal covers the following services
6USF AROUND THE WORLD. Concept of USF connection to the fixed telephone network
exists in 127 countries. Different models and access to the fixed telephone service,
of funding include: - Centralised fund supply of public pay phones and provision
with programmes/ schemes- eg. USA and of telephone directories and a directory
India - USO policy- EU USP - Australia, enquiries service Article 5.0 of Chapter
New Zealand and Ireland - Pairing of II of the decree[1] deals with public pay
service areas. phones. Section 6 makes it obligatory for
7FUNDING MODELS. Levies on operators the service provider to comply with
Budget allocations from national budget. technical norms to guarantee access to
Combination of funding mechanisms: For payphones in public buildings for persons
e.g. Kenya- levies and allocation. with disabilities. Chapter IV Article 10.0
8AUSTRALIA. Regulator: Australian on pricing makes provisions for special
Communication and Media Authority (ACMA) price systems for specificor for
USP: Telstra Division 2 of The categories of users or services. These
Telecommunications (Consumer Protection include persons with disabilities.
and Service Standards) Act, 1999 23PORTUGAL. Portugal covers the
prescribes equitable access to standard following services under USO for persons
telephone services, payphones and with disabilities - Billing in accessible
prescribed carriage services Section 6 of formats - Text Relay Services -
Australia’s Telecommunications (Consumer Information about accessible services -
Protection and Service Standards) Act 1999 Functions and special measures for access
- standard telephone service includes any to emergency services - Mandating handsets
equivalent form of service required by a for fixed telephony to be accessible - In
person with a disability who cannot use addition, service end-users with hearing
the normal means of communication. Telstra impairments need only pay EUR 30.90
mandated to provide alternative means of towards their telecommunication service,
communication like text tele typewriters, with the remainder subsidized by the USP
volume control phones and hands free on a voluntary basis.
phones. Priority service- faster 24SLOVAKIA. Regulator: Telekomunika?n?
connections, quick repairs and more ?rad SR (TU SR) Chapter 2 (2) Act of the
reliable connections.(24 hrs in urban Act 610 on Electronic Communications 2003
areas and 48 hrs in rural areas). provides for: Fixed telephony services at
9FRANCE. Regulator: Autorit? de public places that can support internet
R?gulation des Communications access Directory and directory inquiry
?lectroniques et des Postes – ARCEP[] USP: services Access to pay phones Free and
France Telecom Art. L. 35-1 of the Telecom uninterrupted access to emergency call
Act 1996 mandates provision of quality numbers Access to public telephone
telephone service at affordable price. Low services for persons with disabilities
income and disabled users are recognised including barrier-free access to pay phone
as “social categories with special needs” facilities that are fitted with assistive
Pay phones in France have to have: A technologies. Chapter 2 (3) states that
special button on payphones for blind information regarding public pay phones
users and persons with visual impairments and other services available through the
with voice based server with pricing USO for persons with disabilities must be
information; Listening text public established in a binding legal regulation.
telephones for deaf users or users with 25SLOVAKIA. Article 2 of the Measure
hearing and speech impairments. states that the designated universal
‘Locomotor’ disabled - devices without service provider shall ensure that every
door, with lowered position French Govt. payphone Shall include simple operating
has also announced its intention to set up instructions Be enabled with buttons that
specific relay service centres for persons can be identified by visually impaired
with hearing loss. [1] users Be equipped with multilevel sound
http://www.arcep.fr/index.php?id=1&L=1 amplification Shall facilitate access to
10IRELAND. Regulator: Commission for an operator for hearing impaired users
Communications Regulation USP: Telecom Article 3 states that the USP must ensure
company Eircom, (designated USP until June that a minimum of 25 per cent of payphones
2012) Eircom’s obligations towards persons are accessible to hearing impaired users
with disabilities: Provide a dedicated with hearing aids and ensure that they are
section of its website, accessible from marked as being so. According to Article
the homepage, with information on the 4, the USP must provide for users with
services which affect persons with hearing and speech impairments
disabilities. Maintain a code of practice Round-the-clock operator service for
regarding the facilitation of services for assistance A terminal device for access to
persons with disabilities which will be public telephone services including
subject to periodic review and amendment. emergency services Article 5 mandates the
Provide inductive couplers for users who USP to provide free access to information
are hearing impaired, along with services about telephone numbers to
amplifiers and teleflash visuals. Provide persons with visual disabilities.
text relay service through the National 26SLOVENIA. USP - Telecom Slovenia USP
Relay service under the National is obligated to provide the following
Association for the deaf programme. services as per law: Prioritize service
11IRELAND. Eircom’s obligations towards and repair requests from disabled
persons with disabilities (continued): end-users Provide eligible persons with
Offer rebates for text telephone calls disabilities a 50 per cent discount for
Provide push button telephone sets with setting up a fixed line connection. Make
speed and automatic redial buttons which available general information about
will enable allowing pre-programmed available services including details of
telephone numbers and hands free phones to tariff in Braille and audio formats Offer
people with dexterity impairments. Provide eligible persons with disabilities a 5 per
restricted vision telephones and free cent discount on monthly charges for
Braille billing for people with visual publicly available fixed telephone
impairments Provide free alternative services. Make available information about
directory enquiry services. call costs, remaining balance on prepaid
12ITALY. Regulator: Agcom USP : Telecom etc through voice messages for visually
Italia acts as the USP without formal impaired users. Provide users with visual
designation. Framework for universal impairments a special number to call at
service is found in the EU universal for assistance in placing calls at no
service directive Telecom Italia has made extra charge.
the following services available: Easy 27SWEDEN. Regulator: Swedish Post and
activation and repair of services Telegraphs Agence (PTS) The activities of
Accessible public telephones for consumers PTS with regard to meeting USOs are
using hearing aids Dome-type public phone financed via levies applied on service
booths, equipped with a metal bar at the operators and broadcast license holders.
base allowing for detection with the stick Programmes and initiatives operational
used by persons with visual impairments. under the PTS for persons with disability
50 per cent discount on monthly phone are funded from allocations from within
bills for eligible households having the national budget of Sweden. Several
persons with disabilities. Total exemption provisions mandating accessibility for
from telephone charges for households with persons with disabilities. PTS: Specialist
one deaf person 90 hours of free internet terminal equipment, relay services,
usage, or a 50 per cent reduction on accessible billing systems and information
monthly charges for households that and emergency services SMS112 project:
include one “completely blind” person. distress calls to emergency number 112
13JAMAICA. The ICT policy gives the fund using text a message which is in trial
the power to support programmes for state. Audio 4 all :tools for the
vulnerable groups like low income distribution and navigation of audio
households, the elderly, youth and persons information which looks at testing
with disabilities. In 2009 the USAF flexible mediums for dissemination and use
Company provided computers and audio of audio information by people with
visual media material for 6 schools to the reading disabilities through computers,
amount of 6 million dollars. cell phones and broadband television and
14KENYA. Regulator: Communications digital streaming. the e-Adept project, is
Commission of Kenya (CCK) Chapter VIB of looking at ways in which persons with
the Kenya Communications (Amendment) Act disabilities can independently navigate
2009 lays down for the establishment of their way in urban environments through
fund to be administered by CCK. Section 3 digital maps and GPS.
(2) (b) of the Kenya Information and 28THAILAND. Regulator: National
Communications (universal Access and Broadcasting and Telecommunications
Service) Regulations, published in 2010 Commission NTBC is in charge of
imposes specific obligations on the USP. administering the USF and according to sec
Presently Kenya’s USF has initiated 6 17 of the Telecommunications Business Act,
pilot projects across the country. ICT for 2001, can demand service providers to
people with disabilities project - makes provide services for children, elderly
the USF responsible for facilitating persons and persons with disabilities.
“reasonable” availability and Designated USPs are required to provide
affordability of “basic and advanced the following services for persons with
communications systems and services” to disabilities – Provide a free 30-minute
disabled end users at both the household phone card per person every month for
and individual levels. persons with disabilities, low income
15KENYA. Some of its projects include: people and seniors who are registered with
Establishing school-based ICT centres in Ministry of Social Development and Human
secondary education institutions for Security for 30 months counting from the
disabled students. Setting up an date of license issuance. Provide at least
accessibility web portal offering 1 public telephone within 100 meters in
information for and about persons with radius for low income communities that
disabilities. Conducting an awareness make a petition. Provide public telephone
campaign to develop suitable guidelines on and other necessary services for persons
ICT for Persons with Disabilities. CCK has with disabilities as per act of disability
identified eight institutions for people B.C. 2544.
with physical, hearing and visual 29UNITED KINGDOM. Regulator: Ofcom In
impairments to participate in this charge of implementing specific measures
programme. The regulator supported the for persons with disabilities. Specific
supply, delivery, and installation of conditions imposed on BT and Kingston and
computers, requisite hardware, software, general conditions on all service
and furniture through the fund and will providers. Special tariff schemes for low
support internet connectivity in the income customers A fixed network
schools for a two year duration. connection which includes internet access
16LITHUANIA. Regulator: RRT Access to public pay phones Services for
(Communications Regulatory Authority of persons with disabilities including text
the Republic of Lithuania ) Chapter 5 of relay service: USO is currently funded by
the Law on Electronic Communications 2004+ BT and Kingston[1] who have been
EU US Directive outlines scope of USF designated as universal service
Article 31 (1)covers the following providers[2]. The EU directive makes
services: Public fixed telephony and provision for funding through the NRA in
related services Pay phone services case the obligation poses an “unfair
Directory enquiry services Accessibility burden” on the USPs. Text Relay Service is
for persons with disabilities USP is operated in UK by BT under the USF. All
mandated to ensure that the total number communications providers must give their
of public pay phones that cater to the customers access to an approved text relay
needs of disabled end users is no less service at no extra cost. [1]
than 10 per cent of all pay phones in the http://www.k-c.co.uk/ [2]
country These payphones must be equipped http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/consultat
with instructions for users in large, ons/uso/main/.
easy- to read font and be illuminated when 30UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. USP: USAC,
dark The USP also is mandated to install the company set up by the FCC for
at least one textual public payphone in administering the USF. USF is run under
every disabled rehabilitation centre First four broad categories. Funds utilized for
85 euros of the cost of a new handset subsidizing telecom services in high cost
every five years is covered by the State areas, for low income persons, for rural
budget. health care services and for schools and
17MALAYSIA. Regulator: Malaysian libraries. USF administered differently by
Communication and Multimedia Commission different states Discounts on basic
(MCMC) Section 202 of the Communication telecommunication services are there in
and Multimedia Act, 1998 - set out the many states like Vermont, Missouri,
universal service provision obligation. Colorado and Virginia, Wisconsin
USP - identifies persons with disabilities Telecommunications Equipment Purchase
as an underserved community/ group, which Programme - vouchers to purchase assistive
does not have collective/ individual technology necessary to use basic telecom
access to communication. 192 of the Act services. Access Programme Access to
also states that the Required Application telecom and information services for users
Service[1] i.e. specific services that in areas having high service costs, low
service providers are mandated to offer income users or persons with disabilities.
includes services for disabled consumers. Technology for education achievement
[1] programme - schools, libraries and
http://www.skmm.gov.my/link_file/the_law/N colleges. Newsline.
wAct/Act%20588/Act%20588/a0588s0193.htm. 31UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. California -
18NEW ZEALAND. Regulator: Commerce California Telephone Access Programme-
Commission Telecommunications Service provides telecommunications assistive
Obligations (TSO) in New Zealand is technologies and devices for persons with
outlined in Part 3 of the disabilities. California Relay Service
Telecommunications Act 2001 and Oregon - Oregon Telephone Relay service-
facilitates specific telecommunication free relay service operated by Sprint.
services that may not be available Telecommunication Devices Access
commercially or are unaffordable Govt. of Programme: loans adaptive
New Zealand has set up a national relay telecommunications equipment to eligible
service which is being operated by Sprint residents free of charge.
through 2 call centres. 32GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. Persons with
19PAKISTAN. Regulator: Pakistan disabilities can clearly be tremendously
Telecommunications Authority (PTA) USF benefited by access to telecommunications.
established as a company. Sec 2 of the USF Their needs are left unmet by mainstream
Policy document lays down the mandate of programmes and need specific programmes
the fund to meet the needs of and financial outlay. Technologies exist
telecommunications services in unserved to make telecommunications accessible.
and underserved areas throughout the There are huge percentages of population
country. Like India, does not expressly which can benefit from accessible
mention persons with disabilities. But in telecommunications: persons with
section 5, subsection 5.7 under services disabilities, elderly persons and
to be covered it lays down that the illiterate persons. Many countries have
contractors are required to provide implemented projects for connecting the
special services, infrastructure and disabled, with or without specific policy
special equipment for persons with provisions.
disabilities. 33GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. Common
20PAKISTAN. 2008- project titled “ programmes include- Provision of financial
Enabling Persons with Disabilities to use assistance through subsidies and loans to
telecom services”. Under this project the purchase ATs Accessible pay phones ICT
fund signed a $25 million contract with projects in media, health and education
the Al-Shifa Eye Trust to do the following Customer Care requirements. Relay service.
activities:. To extend support to the Low 34THANK YOU.
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