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University Admission in Russia: Do the Wealthier Benefit from
University Admission in Russia: Do the Wealthier Benefit from
Motivation
Motivation
Returns from extra preparation (regression analysis)
Returns from extra preparation (regression analysis)
20, Myasnitskaya str
20, Myasnitskaya str
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University Admission in Russia: Do the Wealthier Benefit from Standardized Exams

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1University Admission in Russia: Do the 9achievement (Mathematics). photo. photo.
Wealthier Benefit from Standardized Exams? Higher School of Economics , Moscow, 2012.
Ilya Prakhov, Maria Yudkevich Center for 10Money expenditures on pre-entry
Institutional Studies at the National coaching as a mechanism of improving the
Research University Higher School of USE results. photo. photo. Higher School
Economics. Higher School of Economics , of Economics , Moscow, 2012.
Moscow, 2012 www.hse.ru. 11Returns from extra preparation
2Motivation. Admission reforms in (regression analysis). photo. photo.
Russia and the Unified State Exam (the Higher School of Economics , Moscow, 2012.
USE, a standardized national exam) as a 12Returns from extra preparation
new mechanism of admission to (regression analysis). Dependent variable
universities. Consequences: reduction of Coefficients. 20.648*** (7.755).
transaction costs concerning admissions -29.466*** (9.657). -4.409 (8.026).
(moving costs, costs of application etc.); -32.576*** (8.566). 4.514*** (0.811).
Less restricted college choice; No need 9.371*** (1.010). 6.943*** (0.839).
for specific investment in pre-entry 9.892*** (0.893). 0.653*** (0.070).
coaching. THEORY suggests an increase in 0.406*** (0.087). 0.530*** (0.073).
accessibility and equality of higher 0.423*** (0.075). Income positively and
education. But the wealthier can still significantly affects USE results in all
benefit from the new system of admission: cases. The investment in pre-entry
more resources to invest in the general coaching is significant and has a positive
preparation process; the level of income effect on the scores as well. However, the
is related to revealed risk aversion; role investment effect is lower than the effect
of social and cultural capital in of income. photo. photo. USE score in
university choice. photo. photo. Higher Russian. USE score in Mathematics. Average
School of Economics , Moscow, 2012. USE score in obligatory subjects. Overall
3Objectives. Analysis of the average USE result. ?j (Crossing). ?j
differences in USE results for students (Income). ?j (Investment). R2. 0.100.
from different income groups. Analysis of 0.092. 0.104. 0.154. Higher School of
impact of income status (family income Economics , Moscow, 2012.
level) on the preparatory strategies of 13Returns from extra preparation under
students; their actual USE scores; choice fixed income. Dependent variable Income
of university. photo. photo. Higher School group. The marginal effect of investing in
of Economics , Moscow, 2012. pre-entry coaching increases with the rise
4Results of empirical studies: effects of the level of income for almost all USE
of income on students’ achievement. results, aside from the average overall
students’ achievement is to a large extent result. This means that the same amount of
defined by the socio-economic status of investments in pre-entry coaching have a
their families (Coleman et al, 1966) higher return and are more effective for
positive and significant correlation high income students. USE score in
between the level of parental income and Russian. USE score in Mathematics. Average
the level of the student’s achievement USE score in obligatory subjects. Overall
(White, 1982) positive non-linear average USE result. photo. Low. 0.609***.
relationship between income and a -0.136. 0.236**. -0.284***. Medium.
student’s academic performance (Hill, 0.607***. 0.498***. 0.552***. 0.828***.
O’Neil, 1994) positive effects of income High. 0.999***. 0.878***. 0.938***.
have been proven not only by educational 0.404**. photo. Higher School of Economics
statistics, but by information gathered , Moscow, 2012.
during the series of experiments (Morris 14Relationship between university choice
et al, 2004) consumption and education and income status. Families from the
(Lebowitz, 1977) income, beliefs, and higher income group choose more expensive
parental behavior (Davis-Kean, 2005). institutions. On average, richer students
photo. photo. Higher School of Economics , are admitted to universities with a higher
Moscow, 2012. level of competition for state subsidized
5Results of empirical studies: impact positions. At least for low and medium
of income on college choice. poorer achievers, we can argue that the
students more often than others choose relationship between level of income and
colleges with lower tuition fees, closer university choice (where the indicator of
to their home, prefer living with their choice is the average USE score among
parents during their college years and students who study for free) is
less frequently decide to continue their significant and positive. Average USE
studies after receiving their bachelor’s score. Average USE score. Level of income.
degree (Baird, 1977) the level of income Level of income. Level of income. Sample.
slightly affects the type of college Sample. photo. Low. Medium. High. 41 - 60
chosen: SAT results constitute the main points. 27.5%. 12.4%. 7.6%. 16.9%. 61 - 80
predictors of this kind of choice (Baird, points. 68.7%. 80.8%. 80.3%. 76.5%. 81 -
1984) family and its characteristics 100 points. 3.9%. 6.8%. 12.1%. 6.7%.
significantly affect the process of choice Total. 100.0%. 100.0%. 100.0%. 100.0%.
and the final of educational institution photo. Higher School of Economics ,
(Chapman, 1981; Litten, 1982) the Moscow, 2012.
difference in income between black and 15Conclusion. Wealthier households still
white students determines the divergence can invest more financial resources in
in their educational trajectories preparatory process which can result in
(Datcher, 1982) students from less their children’s increased final USE
advantaged and more advantaged families results. There is a positive relationship
consider different criteria when making between the level of income and USE
their college choice (Delaney, 1988) results in Russian and Mathematics, as
students from low income families tend to well as in the average score on obligatory
apply to less selective universities than subjects and the average overall USE
richer students, irrespective of their result. This tendency is maintained even
achievement (Hearn, 1991). photo. photo. under fixed prior achievements before the
Higher School of Economics , Moscow, 2012. start of the process of pre-entry
6Features of Russian system of higher coaching. Students from wealthier families
education. Dual-track tuition system: both tend to choose additional ways of
state-subsidized (tuition-free) and preparation more frequently, specifically
tuition-paid places. Students are admitted pre-entry courses and classes with tutors.
for tuition-free places on the assessment Nevertheless, the higher amount of
of applicants’ quality, regardless of investments in pre-entry coaching is made
their financial needs. Rejection of by medium income families, but if we
university-specific exams. The Unified consider the effectiveness of such
State Examination: introduced nationwide preparation, the richest students have
in 2009 two obligatory subjects: Russian greater benefits and the poorest gain
(National language) and Mathematics extra significantly less. photo. photo. Higher
preparation is possible two ‘waves’ in School of Economics , Moscow, 2012.
admission process. photo. photo. Higher 16Conclusion. A positive relationship
School of Economics , Moscow, 2012. between the level of income and the
7Methodology and data. Research: average USE score (indicator of college
pre-entry strategies and college choice in quality) for low achievers and medium
2009-2010 Geography: 16 biggest Russian achievers is revealed. Income status is a
cities Timing: Fall 2010 (after admission) significant factor which determines
Sample: 1600 households (1165/901) achievement (expressed in USE results),
Respondents: high school graduates characteristics of pre-entry coaching and
(enrollees) and their parents Main university choice. Thus, we cannot
variables: the USE scores in Russian, conclude that the introduction of the USE
Mathematics, average score in obligatory has provided equal access to higher
subjects, overall average results level of education for all income groups of
income: photo. photo. Higher School of students. photo. photo. Higher School of
Economics , Moscow, 2012. Economics , Moscow, 2012.
8Income level and USE scores. photo. 1720, Myasnitskaya str., Moscow, Russia,
photo. Higher School of Economics , 101000 Tel.: +7 (495) 628-8829, Fax: +7
Moscow, 2012. (495) 628-7931 www.hse.ru.
9Differences in USE results under fixed
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