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Video Games in Education – Boon or Bane
Video Games in Education – Boon or Bane
Drills & Practice
Drills & Practice
Drills & Practice
Drills & Practice
Tools for Learning
Tools for Learning
Research findings
Research findings
Q & A
Q & A
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Video Games in Education – Boon or Bane

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1Video Games in Education – Boon or 14Observe systems behavior over time -
Bane? Nor Hidayah M. Amin College of Civilization 4. Pose hypothetical
Education Lehigh University. questions to a system - Antietam 5.
2Contents. Introduction: Development of Visualize a system in 3 dimensions -
educational media Video Games in American Digital Weather Station 6. Compare
Culture. Educational settings: Using video simulations with their understanding of a
games to understand engagement Pac-Man vs. system - SimCity.
traditional schooling Games: Drill & 15Bane. Provenzo (1991): 1. Violent,
practice Simulations & strategy games aggressive behavior 2. Destructive gender
Aggression & social mal-adjustment stereotyping 3. Unhealthy “rugged
Future of video games in education. individualistic” attitudes 4. Stifle
3Introduction. Educational potentials creative play.
of gaming: Most research done focused on 16Research findings. Violent, aggressive
the social consequences of gaming. behavior Research thus far has been
Educators have ignored cognitive potential inconclusive. Calvert & Tan (1994) –
of games especially in: ? Interactive video games cause some increase of violent
stories ? Digital authoring tools ? thoughts. Lin & Lipper (1987) – no
Collaborative worlds. correlations between regular video play
4VG in US culture. Video games are a and violence. In summary, research on
powerful force in the entertainment & video games has failed to show that video
economic sector. Price Waterhouse Cooper: games cause violent, anti-social or
US sales of entertainment software reached aggressive behavior or poor school
$8.2 billion in 2004. Sales in 2009 are performance.
expected to reach $15 billion. Video games 17Research findings. Destructive gender
have pervasively influence the American stereotyping Few women protagonists have
culture. Most of the studies conducted been featured in video games; most women
about video games in education are done in characters in fighting games resemble
the Nintendo age - limited & outdated. adolescent male fantasies. Female gamers =
5Engagement. Malone (1981) generated 3 20% of video games players. Barbie:
main elements that make video games fun: Fashion Designer sold 500,000 copies.
Challenge, Fantasy, Curiosity Educational Thus, video games creator must focus on
programs should have: 1. Clear goals that character development & collaboration
students find meaning 2. Multiple goals in order to attract girls.
structures & scoring to give feedback 18Research findings. Unhealthy “rugged
3. Multiple difficulty levels 4. Random individualistic” attitudes Image of “lone
element of surprise 5. Emotionally ranger” is prevalent in video games. Games
appealing fantasy & metaphor. like Asteroids & Doom capitalize on
6Engagement. Bowman (1982) uses making the player isolated, taking the
Csikzentmihalyi’s discussion of “flow”: world alone. MUDs (Multiple User Dungeons)
Pac-Man is an action system where skills & MOOs (a MUD object oriented) are
& challenges are progressively text-based online virtual reality system
balanced, goals are clear, feedback is where players can collaborate in groups to
unambiguous, and relevant stimuli can be slay villains etc. Other examples: Avatar,
differentiated from irrelevant stimuli. Everquest.
7Csikzentmihalyi. Csikzentmihalyi 19Research findings. Stifle creative
(1990) describes “flow” as: - a State of play Children are not passive consumers of
Optimal experience, -- whereby a person is video games. They ‘reappropriate’ it into
so Engaged in activity - that their own play: 1. They talk about a game
Self-consciousness disappears, - Time on the bus. 2. They act out scenes from a
becomes distorted - and people engage in game in the playground. 3. They discuss
complex, goal-directed Activity - not for games on bulletin board. Ellis (1983) –
external rewards - but simply for the video games like popular media become the
Exhilaration of doing. S.O.E.S.T.A.E. building blocks of children’s world.
8 20Future. Since 1980s, gaming technology
9PM vs. T Schooling. Pac-Man. has improved tremendously. But there is
Traditional Schooling. Player controls how much room for the study of how designs can
much he plays. Students learn at 1 pace, be incorporated into student centered
little freedom to control content of learning environment. Many educators have
learning. Players engaged in quick and been using edutainment products. We need
varied activity. Students passively absorb more empirical research into how these
info in routine activity. Players can take environments work. Interactive fiction and
all the time they need to master the game. online games are 2 areas that have not
TS holds time constant, allowing been studied at all – instructional
achievement to vary. Players have feeling technologists can research on how online
of mastering environment – become more environments support community
skilful. Students learn knowledge development.
abstracted by teacher and regurgitate. 21References. Bowman, R. F. (1982). A
10PM vs. T Schooling. Pac-Man. Pac-Man theory of motivation. Tactical
Traditional Schooling. Players work implications for classroom instructions.
together, sharing tips and secrets. Educational Technology, 22(9), 14-17.
Students perform in isolation, and cannot Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The
use one another as resources. Performance Psychology of Optical Experience. New
is criterion based, each player competes York: Harper Perennial. Calvert, S. L.,
against his ability to master the game. & Tan, S. (1994). Impact of virtual
Students are graded normatively, graded reality on young adults’ physiological
against each other. Games are played for arousal and aggressive thoughts:
intrinsic reward for playing them. Schools Interaction versus observation. Special
are structured around extrinsic rewards Issue: Effects of interactive
such as good grades or fear of failure. entertainment technologies on development.
11Boon. Commercial games – military, Journal of Applied Developmental
pilots Edutainment products. Psychology, 15(1), 125-139. Ellis, G. J.
12Drills & Practice. Popular because (1983). Youth in the Electronic
they can easily be integrated into a Environment: An Introduction. Youth and
didactic curriculum as “enrichment” Society, 15(1): 3-12.
exercises during independent study time. 22References. Lin, S. & Lepper, M.
Video games – support student’s R. (1987). Correlates of children's usage
exploration of microworlds or as a of video games and computers. Journal of
construction tool (Papert, 1981). Applied Social Psychology, 17. 72-93.
13Simulations. Hi-fidelity: to model Malone, T. W. (1981). Toward a theory of
every interaction in a system in as intrinsically motivating instruction.
life-like manner as possible. E.g.? Cognitive Science, (4), 333-369. Papert,
Low-fidelity: simplify a system to S. (1981). Mindstorm: Children, computers
highlight key components of the system. and powerful ideas. Brighton: Harvester
E.g.? Press. Provenzo, E. F. (1991). Video kids:
14Tools for Learning. Manipulate Making sense of Nintendo. Cambridge, MA:
otherwise unalterable variables – SimEarth Harvard.
2. Enable students to view phenomena from 23Q & A.
new perspectives - Hidden Agenda 3. 24hidayah.amin@lehigh.edu.
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