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Instructions
Instructions
Task 5
Task 5
Market pull/ technology push
Market pull/ technology push
Aesthetics
Aesthetics
Aesthetics
Aesthetics
Aesthetics
Aesthetics
Aesthetics
Aesthetics
Task 8
Task 8
Task 8
Task 8
Environment and pollution
Environment and pollution
Task 11
Task 11
Task 12
Task 12
Registered design
Registered design
19 4

: Anthony. , . , 19 4 .ppt zip- 592 .

19 4

19 4 .ppt
1Higher Product Design Design Issues, 64unit A is quite disproportioned, but by
the Design Team and Intellectual Property making only a few minor changes it can be
Rights. Learning and Teaching Scotland transformed into a unit that is more
2006. pleasing on the eye. The main door on
2Teachers Guide. Dear colleague, I put drawer unit B has been made half the
this presentation together to aid with the width of the front unit giving it a more
teaching of some of the theory elements of balanced look. The door handle has also
the new Higher Product Design course. It been moved to the halfway point as well to
can be used directly in the class by help it look more symmetrical. The drawers
projecting it and it can also be saved have been altered so that there are 2
onto the school server to be accessed by large drawers at the bottom which not only
students at their leisure (if you wish to help it to look more stable, but would
do this I recommend you produce a second encourage people to place larger and
copy without the Suggested answers heavier items in them. The drawers become
slides). As it is a PowerPoint smaller the higher they are positioned.
presentation you can make any changes and Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006.
personalise it as you wish. I hope that 65Ergonomics. Ergonomics is the study of
this is of use to you and perhaps saves how humans interact with their environment
you some time. If you have any feedback and the products they use. It can be
(positive or negative) or suggestions on sub-divided into three main areas:
how it could be improved please feel free Anthropometrics Physiology Psychology.
to contact me using the following e-mail Click on the appropriate star. Learning
address: enquiries@LTScotland.org.uk P.S. and Teaching Scotland 2006.
please delete this slide if you decide to 66Ergonomics. Anthropometrics concerns
place it on your server. Thank you. the measurements of the human body. A
Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006. survey is made of around 1 million people
3Instructions. By clicking on a star between the ages of about 19 65 with
you can be taken directly to a specific every relevant part of the body being
slide Click on the house to return to the recorded. This information is then
main menu Click on the red arrow to go compiled to make charts called
back one page or to a sub-menu. Learning Anthropometric data tables which show us
and Teaching Scotland 2006. what the smallest, largest and average
4Product design. Product design is all sizes are. This information is very
around us. We live with it every day and important when designing for people. From
it has become such a necessary part of our the tables, designers only use information
existence that we would struggle to from the 5th to the 95th percentile. This
survive without it. However, the way in is because they want to be able to cater
which we design products has changed over for as many people as possible and the
the years. The impact of new technologies people from the 0 5 percentile and those
and manufacturing systems has altered the from the 96th 100th percentile are seen
way we approach designing. No longer is as being too extreme, i.e. too small and
the appearance of a product dictated by too big. Learning and Teaching Scotland
the way it works. The aesthetics of many 2006.
products are no longer determined by their 67Ergonomics. Physiology is concerned
mechanics thanks to new computer chip with the study of the systems within the
technology and miniaturisation. In this human body, their responses, limitations
new century, the possibilities offered by and capabilities. Designers may have to
product design promise a lot of pleasant consider strength, fatigue, muscle
surprises. However, product designers must control, colour perception, hearing
take more responsibility for the products capabilities and other features when
they design and the impact these will have designing for people. For example, when
on our lives. Unfortunately designers designing the braking system for a car it
dont always get it right: aerosols, must be able to be operated effectively by
fridges and the motor car engine can all all drivers. Anthropometric information
be cited as having a detrimental effect on must therefore be gathered about the
the environment in some way or another. It strength of peoples legs, as well as on
may well be argued however that the lever and hydraulic systems designed to
benefits of these products outweigh any suit the forces required. The legs are
damage caused. We need designers who have used for the repetitive tasks in driving
social consciences and consider the way such as applying the brakes and the clutch
their designs will integrate and interact because they are much stronger than arms
with everyone and everything that they and hands, which are more nimble and
come into contact with. Learning and better suited to finer controls like using
Teaching Scotland 2006. the steering wheel or adjusting the volume
5Product design. Products have the on the radio. Learning and Teaching
ability to enhance or hinder our Scotland 2006.
existence. Ultimately, they should be easy 68Ergonomics. Psychology is concerned
and enjoyable to use. They should provide with the human mind and the way it works.
benefits to everyone who comes into Human senses (sight, hearing, smell,
contact with them and they should be well touch, taste) are continually being
designed. Some of the benefits product stimulated and send messages to the brain
design can offer A product can: Improve where they are processed. Some signals are
the quality of life for a user Give an ignored while others provoke a rapid
improved performance over previous models response, some are interpreted accurately
Provide the user with status Minimise whereas others may be misunderstood.
manufacturing costs Create a new market or Understanding some of these processes
expand an existing market Increase company involved in the interpretation activity
profits Use existing resources more proves to be vital in the development of a
economically Create a new or better good design. An example of psychology
aesthetic. Learning and Teaching being taken into consideration at the
Scotland 2006. design stage is mobile-phone buttons. When
6Main menu. Design issues The design you press the button, you know that you
team Intellectual property. Click on the have pressed it because it makes a click
appropriate star. Learning and Teaching sound or it lights up or makes a noise.
Scotland 2006. The phone does not need to do this to
7Design issues. Function Performance operate, but these features are included
Market Aesthetics Ergonomics Economics because it makes it easier for us to use.
Environment. Click on the appropriate Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006.
star. Learning and Teaching Scotland 69Task 9. Measure the heights of all the
2006. people in your class and make up a table
8Function. All products have a primary of all the sizes to show who is the
function and some also have secondary smallest, average and tallest. Now that
functions, i.e. they do something else or you have this information, how might you
can be used for something else other than be able to use it from a design point of
their primary function. This may or may view? Why is an adjustable chair a better
not be related to the design, i.e. using a option for someone who works at a desk all
litter bin as a door stop. A product must day? What other issues affect the fact
do the job it was designed to do; if it that most school chairs are
fails to do this, the user may become non-adjustable? What physiological issues
frustrated with it. For example, A tin need to be considered in the design of a
opener should be able to open a tin, but laptop computer? What areas of a kettle
should a lightweight portable camping tin suggest that psychological issues have
opener work as well as an electric tin been considered to make it a more user
opener for use in a restaurant or canteen friendly product? Learning and Teaching
? There are other issues that need to be Scotland 2006.
considered in this scenario, such as the 70Task 9 Suggested answers. This
market the product is aimed at or its information could be used to aid the
durability. So a designer should establish design of a bed or a doorway or anything
a checklist of features that are essential else that involves a persons height. It
and desirable at the start of the design can be adjusted to suit that particular
process. Essential - musts Desirable - persons posture. If they do repetitive
wants. Learning and Teaching Scotland tasks all day, comfort is important to
2006. minimise repetitive strain injury (RSI).
9Task 1. A mobile phones primary Cost affects the choice of chair in the
function is as a telephone. List as many classroom. Although adjustable chairs are
other possible secondary functions of a a more comfortable choice, they are more
mobile phone as you can think of. List the expensive and to furnish every classroom
essential and desirable features of the with them for a lesson that will last no
mobile phone. Select a product of your more than an hour and a half does not
choice and repeat the previous 2 balance up. As it is portable, the weight
exercises. Learning and Teaching is an issue. If it is too heavy people
Scotland 2006. will tire after carrying it around for a
10Task 1 Suggested answers. Secondary while. The screen must open up easily
functions of a mobile phone: Text without causing strain. The buttons must
messaging Play games Camera Personal be easy to push; if they are too stiff
organiser Video recorder Voice recorder they could cause RSI. The on/off switch
WAP (internet access) PDA (Personal makes a click sound when the kettle is
Digital Assistant). Essential features: switched on; a light usually comes on to
Desirable features: Make calls Camera/ indicate that it is boiling; the on/off
Video recorder Send texts Games, etc Be switch clicks off when the water has
hand held Ergonomic design Be rechargeable boiled; there is a water gauge to indicate
Available in range of styles. Learning how much water is in it; this is often by
and Teaching Scotland 2006. the cup as opposed to litres. Learning
11Performance. All of the design issues and Teaching Scotland 2006.
discussed in this presentation interlink 71Economics. Most products are much
with one another when considering the cheaper to buy today than in the past.
design of a product. So when looking at This is mainly due to the economies of
the Performance of a product it is mass production. The more a process
important that we consider the following produces, the cheaper each item
issues: Durability Value for money Ease of becomes.The use of modern materials, e.g.
maintenance Running costs Materials and plastics, means that complex items can be
manufacturing processes. Click on the produced by a single process like
appropriate star. Learning and Teaching injection moulding. Savings can be made by
Scotland 2006. careful selection of the most suitable
12Durability. Durability is the the life materials and processes. Designers also
expectancy of a product, or how long it is make use of standard components to reduce
expected to last. For each product its costs, for example with bulbs, switches,
life expectancy depends on the following simple fixings to alternators and even
issues: Use of product Market niche whole engines. Manufacturers will often
Planned obsolescence. Click on the use facilities in other countries where
appropriate star. Learning and Teaching labour costs are lower than at home. Many
Scotland 2006. products are manufactured in countries
13Use of the product. When designing or such as China or Korea where labour costs
analysing a product we must consider how, are very low and efficiency is high
and in what conditions, the product will compared to Europe. Learning and
be used. Linking back to Function, if a Teaching Scotland 2006.
product is used for something it was not 72Economics. The price of a product
intended for, it may not last very long. depends on creating a balance between:
The way the product will be used will Manufacturing costs Advertising and
influence the choice of materials. For distribution costs Design and development
example: A plastic wing mirror for a car costs Profits, overheads and reinvestment
will have to withstand stone chips, Prices set by other manufacturers.
washing with detergents, sharp knocks, a Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006.
range of temperatures, fading in bright 73Environment. Three key considerations
sunlight. Sometimes the material will have of the environment should be kept in mind:
to accept a painted finish. Learning and Pollution Aesthetics Sociology. Click on
Teaching Scotland 2006. the appropriate star. Learning and
14Market niche. Where in the market are Teaching Scotland 2006.
you aiming to sell your product? Bottom 74Environment and pollution. Pollution
end Cheap but functional for a is created by the manufacturer during
reasonable lifespan. Top end Expensive, the making of the product, its use and/or
best of everything, long lasting. its disposal at the end of its life.
Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006. Designers have a large responsibility to
15Planned obsolescence. In many the environment and must try to keep
instances it is possible to design a pollution to a minimum in their designs.
product that will last a lifetime. But is Some products are advertised as being
this necessary or indeed desirable? If a environmentally friendly, like the
manufacturer of washing machines produces Volkswagon Golf MK3. Learning and
a machine that will last forever, what Teaching Scotland 2006.
impact will this have on the 75Environment and pollution. For this to
manufacturers business? 1. The be true these conditions must apply: The
manufacturer will not sell as many use of finite resources must be avoided
machines. 2. The machines will be very Most materials should be recyclable
expensive. 3. The buyer will end up with a (>90%) The processes used in
product that still works well, but is old manufacture should not pollute the
fashioned in style and uses older environment The waste products produced
technology. Think of computers - who wants during manufacture should not cause
last years model? Learning and Teaching pollution The operation and maintenance of
Scotland 2006. the product should not pollute the
16Planned obsolescence. Designers and environment The disposal of the product at
manufacturers have to find a balance the end of its useful life should not
between profit, value for money, pollute the environment. Learning and
durability and satisfying the buyers Teaching Scotland 2006.
desire to own the latest, most fashionable 76Task 10. Designers today are accepting
products. So they build in obsolescence a growing responsibility for the
and this allows the manufacturer to conservation of some of the worlds
constantly sell new models, bringing in dwindling resources. Recycling is one way
more business by continuing to satisfy the in which this is being tackled. Briefly
buyers desire to have the latest, most describe how the need for recycling has
fashionable model. In reality, most affected: 1. Soft-drinks packaging. 2. The
products have a built-in life expectancy. family car. Learning and Teaching
Light bulbs are expected to last no more Scotland 2006.
than six months in normal use. Washing 77Task 10 Suggested answer.
machines are designed to be replaced after Soft-drinks packaging has been influenced
about six years. Learning and Teaching by recycling in that cans are now made of
Scotland 2006. aluminium which can be recycled and used
17Task 2. Mass produced cars have again. Cardboard juice cartons can also be
built-in obsolescence. 1. Explain the manufactured using recycled material, as
implications of this for the consumer and can plastic (PET) containers. 2. The
the manufacturer. 2. List two other family car is now made up of a lot more
products which you consider to have plastic parts, which can be recycled, and
built-in obsolescence. Often similar some of the metals used are now much
products are available with different life thinner in section and can have lower
expectancies. Consider and compare the melting points allowing them to recycled
following for different ends of the more easily. Because designers are always
market: Cars Razors/shavers Pens. looking for materials that are strong,
Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006. light and easy to recycle, this has had an
18Task 2 Suggested answers. Question 1 effect on material development. Lots of
Consumer: Parts of the car will fail after car parts are standardised, making them
a certain amount of operations and the more re-usable; for example if you
consumer will have to pay to replace and needed a part for your car, you could find
maintain them. This can be expensive. The the part at a scrap yard instead of
more the consumer pays initially for the ordering a brand new one. Learning and
car the less they would expect to have to Teaching Scotland 2006.
pay for maintenance and repairs, i.e. 78Environment and aesthetics. The
although an old banger may be cheap to buy designer has the ability to create
it may cost more than its worth to keep products in any style he/she chooses. It
it up and running. On the other hand, if is possible to design products that merge
the car lasted for ever the consumers well with their environment or
would not have an excuse to update their alternatively those that contrast with
car and keep up with the latest fashion their surroundings. Products which
and technology. Manufacturer: This can harmonise well with their surroundings are
work for and against the manufacturer. If pleasing to the eye but might be
they do not build in obsolescence their considered boring by some. A bus shelter
customers will have no need for warranties may be designed in mock Georgian style to
and the company may not make as much money blend in with the surrounding
through parts and maintenance. However, if architecture. However, this safe
they build in too much obsolescence they approach can create an environment which
may require a bad reputation in the market could be described by some as monotonous.
and the consumer will look elsewhere for a Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006.
more reliable product. Learning and 79Environment and aesthetics.
Teaching Scotland 2006. Alternatively the designer might choose a
19Task 2 Suggested answers. Question 2 modern design to contrast with the
Products with obsolescence built in: existing buildings. S/he might use modern
Electrical goods (irons, fridges, materials such as steel and plastic and
microwaves, etc.) Cameras Mobile phones incorporate features such as integrated
Electric drills Any other suitable lighting so that the shelter stands out
products. Learning and Teaching Scotland day and night. This concept can be seen in
2006. the glass pyramid metro entrance at the
20Task 2 Suggested answers. Question 3 Louvre in Paris. This bold approach to
Cars: Often, cars at the lower end of the design can be shocking and often attracts
market cost less but are more likely to controversy, particularly in relation to
break down sooner and require parts to be architecture. Such an approach can be
bought and maintenance to be carried out. interesting and exciting to some people
Whereas cars at the higher end of the and yet offensive to others. The designer
market may cost more initially but they then has to come to a decision regarding
should last longer and have less need for the impact the design will have and then
replacement parts. Razors/shavers: At the decide if it is acceptable. Learning and
lower end of the market, disposable razors Teaching Scotland 2006.
are cheap to buy but are intended only for 80Task 11. What approach has the
a single use. At the higher end, electric designer of the salt and pepper pots below
shavers are expensive initially but should taken in their design with regard to their
last a long time (but there are still environment? Learning and Teaching
maintenance costs like buying new shaver Scotland 2006.
heads and cleaning equipment, service 81Task 11 Suggested answer. The salt
charges, etc.). Pens: Disposable ballpoint and pepper pots are to be used in a
pens are an example of a pen at the lower kitchen/dining room environment where
end of the market. Once it is finished you traditional shapes and colour schemes are
throw it away. At the higher end there are usually adopted. These stand out because
refillable pens that cost more to buy but they are very colourful and of an
are usually nicely styled. They may suit interesting shape (almost egg-like, which
the user better, especially a person who does in fact tie in with the kitchen
does a lot of writing and finds a theme), that may or may not blend in
particular pen comfortable to use. with a typical kitchen or dining room
Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006. environment. The designer has been very
21Value for money. To determine whether bold with this product because it is not
a product is good value for money you must obvious that the product is a salt and
consider several things: Is it worth the pepper set. Learning and Teaching
price it is sold at? Consider its quality, Scotland 2006.
how well it performs its intended purpose 82Environment and sociology. The
as well as other design factors such as physical and social impact of the product
its aesthetic and ergonomic qualities. on the user and society in general need to
Compare the price with like or similar be considered. Studies show that if we
products. Learning and Teaching Scotland simply alter the lighting from day to day
2006. in a factory, it will improve the output
22Ease of maintenance. The maintenance of the workforce. It is not the quality of
requirements of a product depend a great the light but rather that there has been a
deal on its life expectancy. A cheaper change that causes this. A changing
product is probably intended to be thrown environment is more stimulating and
away after use and will need no therefore more motivating than a static
maintenance. A more expensive product is one. Products such as computers or even
likely to last much longer and will hair dryers all have a bearing on our
require periodic maintenance to keep it in general state of mind, particularly in a
good order. Making allowances for society where people lead very busy lives.
maintenance in the design of a product The feelings of frustration we feel when a
(i.e bolting on the panels of a washing product fails to function are commonplace.
machine to allow access to repair or Well designed products should be pleasing
replace parts) inevitably results in a to use, reliable and do the job they were
more expensive product. In the higher-cost designed to do. Learning and Teaching
market niche, this may be justified, but Scotland 2006.
at the lower end of the market the 83Environment and sociology. In catering
increased price may result in a product for the needs of the individual the
pricing itself out of its market niche. designer must consider age, culture and
Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006. physical ability/disability. They all have
23Running costs. The consumer may or may an effect on a users reaction to the
not see this as an issue, but in general product. A designer must try to make new
the less wealthy user of a product will be technology as user friendly as possible;
more likely to be concerned about its for example high tech products can be
running costs. The more affluent will be threatening to older people because they
more concerned about things like the do not understand how they work, which
products aesthetics and efficiency. For makes them feel insecure. Care must be
the designer, the products running costs taken that a design does not cause offence
have to be considered in terms of its to a particular race or culture. Many
market niche. Running costs tend to be products do not take into account the
made up of: Fuel/energy consumption problems of the elderly, disabled or very
Maintenance costs Depreciation. Learning young. In particular handles and switches
and Teaching Scotland 2006. are often too small or difficult to
24Task 3. When buying a cycle lamp a operate. With some thought many of these
teenager can choose between a cheaper problems could have been avoided. Good
model with disposable batteries or a more design will take account of as many users
expensive version with rechargeable as possible. Learning and Teaching
batteries. In terms of running costs, Scotland 2006.
discuss the issues this youngster should 84Environment and sociology. Peoples
consider before making the choice. lifestyles have changed over the years and
Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006. these sociological factors have an effect
25Task 3 Suggested answer. Cost is on Product Design. Today leisure time is
obviously the main issue here as teenagers seen to be very important. Factors that
do not usually have much money. When would have been important even thirty
deciding which lamp to buy the teenager years ago are seen as unimportant today.
must consider how often he/she will be Tasks such as cooking and cleaning have to
using the bike after dark. For example, if be quicker and easier to do, hence the
the teenager has a paper round and will be increase in the use of things like
using it every morning or if they have an precooked foods, microwave ovens and
evening job and cycle home each night it dishwashers. People therefore now have
may be worth while spending that extra bit more leisure time and this has increased
of money on the purchase of the demand for items like stereo systems,
rechargeable lamp. However, if they only video and more recently home cinema.
used the bike at night or early morning on Linked to this has been the increase in
the odd occasion, it would probably make the use of sports / leisure equipment such
sense to purchase the cheaper alternative as exercise bikes, jogging machines and
and replace the batteries every once in a sun beds. Learning and Teaching Scotland
while. Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006.
2006. 85The design team. Products today have
26Materials and manufacturing processes. to compete in very wide market places and
Materials When coming up with a design for most commercially-produced items are mass
a product we must consider how many are to produced. They are usually the result of
be produced, who the target market is, quite extensive developments in materials,
what the product is going to be used for, systems technologies and production
how and where it is to be used. When we methods. The more complex nature of modern
have established all of this it becomes products has made it impossible for any
easier to decide which materials would be single designer to work on his or her own.
most suitable for the job. In order to Most designers now work as part of bigger
decide which materials to use we must have teams, liaising with other experts from
an idea of what properties we wish them to time to time. The diagram below gives an
have. For instance, a car wing-mirror must indication of the type of experts who may
be waterproof, resistant to sunlight, be asked to contribute to a design team.
impact resistant, chemically resistant and Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006.
corrosion resistant. On top of this, the 86The design team. Ergonomist: Works
shape of the wing mirror must be able to with all aspects of ergonomics specific to
be formed easily as it is a mass the product being developed. Will give
produced product. Learning and Teaching suggestions to the designer as well as
Scotland 2006. facts relating to the human body and human
27Task 4. Select a product of your behaviour. Manufacturer: Manufactures the
choice, analyse it and justify the components of the product and assembles
materials used considering the following the final product. Uses the plans and
points: how many would be produced specifications given by the designer.
(production method) who the target market Electronic engineer: Has knowledge and
is (cost) what the product is used for experience of electronics. Can advise the
(properties) how it is used (properties) designer about this area with regard to
where it is used (properties, what is possible for the product. Lawyer:
environment). Learning and Teaching Advises the designer on all legal aspects
Scotland 2006. including intellectual property and
28Task 4 Suggested answer. Suitable ensures that the product being designed
analysis of any product considering as does not breach copyrights in the other
many of the points stated as possible. The products by rival companies or vice versa.
justifications should be backed up with Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006.
factual information from textbooks, the 87The design team. Consumer/client and
internet or elsewhere, e.g. when user: Person who will buy/use the the
justifying the properties of the product. Can aid the designer by offering
materials. Suggested method of answering: opinions and feedback on the product at
Selected product, and materials used various stages of the design process.
stated clearly at the top of the page Each Consumer demand: the consumers have either
bullet point written out and underneath a need or a want to which the designer
each one a short written answer A short will try to respond. Retailer: Sells the
conclusion. Learning and Teaching product to the consumer. Can aid the
Scotland 2006. designer by telling him/her what the
29Materials and manufacturing processes. public want and when they want it.
Manufacturing processes As we select an Retailers can identify trends in sales and
appropriate material from which to target markets, i.e. who is buying what
manufacture the product (or parts of the and when. Retailers are the first people
product) we must also consider the best to know what is selling well and what is
way to manufacture it. When selecting the not. Accountant: Budgets the project.
best method of manufacture we should Offers advice to the designer on the
consider the following: The materials to costing of the project, restrictions, etc.
be used The number of products to be Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006.
produced (one-off, batch, mass) The 88The design team. Economist: Has
location of the manufacturing facilities knowledge of local, nationwide and
(locally would be ideal) The cost of worldwide economies and can offer advice
tooling, materials, labour, etc. on whether or not people are likely to buy
Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006. the product. Taxes, house prices, petrol
30Materials and manufacturing processes. costs, etc., have a direct effect on
Most products can be made in more than one peoples lives and can control their
way, e.g. metal castings can be made one standard of living. Production specialist:
at a time by sand casting or many at once Has strong knowledge of available
by die casting. Sand casting is a processes and offers this to the designer
relatively cheap process and is ideal when during certain stages of the design
numbers are low (<100) Die casting uses process. Will try to find the most
expensive moulds but many items can be suitable method of production for a
produced at once. So the most appropriate product by taking into consideration
method must be selected to suit the economics, environmental concerns,
product to be manufactured. Learning and materials, availability, etc. Marketing
Teaching Scotland 2006. team: Carries out research on what the
31Task 5. Consider this chess pawn and consumers wants/needs are. Compiles
consider two different methods of findings and presents to the designer.
manufacturing it. One method for a product Also is involved in the advertising and
aimed at the top end of the market and aids with sales of the product. Learning
another for the bottom end of the market. and Teaching Scotland 2006.
Justify your choices. Learning and 89The design team. Materials
Teaching Scotland 2006. technologist: Has knowledge of materials
32Task 5 Suggested answer. Top end of and their properties. Offers advice to the
the market It could be made of solid brass designer about the materials which would
and would be turned on a centre turning be best suited to the job, taking into
lathe and polished. This would be a consideration their properties, working
time-consuming process and therefore more characteristics, cost, availability, etc.
expensive but the product would be Sub-contractor: Carries out work on
substantial and would give the feel of certain areas of production. Could be used
being higher quality. Or turned ebony wood to manufacture components that the main
(black) and boxwood (white) could be used. manufacturer could not produce (i.e.
Bottom end of the market It could be cast electronic circuitry, specifically
using a cheaper metal and then given a engineered components); or could be used
coating to make it appear more expensive. to save time. Advantages of
This process would be much cheaper and sub-contractors are: They will already
suitable for producing batches, and it have the specialist skills required They
would also give a lighter product. It will already have the facilities available
would have lines down the side of it where for manufacture. Sub-contracting saves the
it had been removed from the mould. Or company investing in new
injection-moulded plastic could be used. machinery/facilities and training the
Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006. work-force how to use the machinery. If a
33Market. Marketing is a subject in its company sub-contracted successfully it
own right; but a designer must be aware to might consider expanding its market, i.e.
a certain extent of what marketing entails by investing in electronics fabrication
in order to design a successful product. tooling, it might decide to further
Here we shall look at the following: develop products of this type. Learning
Identifying the market Commercial and Teaching Scotland 2006.
enterprise Market research Market 90Intellectual property. What is
pull/technology push Fashion/style/fads. intellectual property? Creative processes
Click on the appropriate star. Learning generate new ideas, whether in the field
and Teaching Scotland 2006. of product design, music, art or
34Identifying the market. To design a elsewhere. These ideas, which may have
product that will appeal to everybody is commercial value, are the intellectual
pretty much impossible. So designers tend property (IP) of the creator, whether they
to break people up into groups and target are an individual or a company
them specifically. This is called niche organisation. IP can have enormous
marketing. The four major groups that commercial value, and can be traded as a
people are broken up into are: Geographic commodity. However, commercially valuable
such as countries, regions, cities ideas can be at risk if not carefully
Demographic such as age, sex, income, protected, and others may gain commercial
education Psychographic such as advantage as a result. Over the last three
personality, lifestyle, social class hundred years five different types of IP
Behaviouristic such as purchase protection have been developed on top of
frequency, usage, benefits sought, brand the first type ever used: Confidentiality.
loyalty. Learning and Teaching Scotland These five types of protection are:
2006. Copyright, Trademark, Design right,
35Identifying the market. Each of the Registered design, and Patent. Learning
four market segments can be narrowed down and Teaching Scotland 2006.
even more by designers by splitting them 91Intellectual property. Why is
into age ranges. 5-10 yrs this age group intellectual property important? IP is
could be classified as fun years 11-17yrs important because it brings benefits to
these are often fashion-driven years those who know how to take advantage of
18-25 yrs most people become independent it. The two main ways to do this are:
26-35 yrs many people are motivated by Ideas can be protected from exploitation
their careers 36-55 yrs often family by other parties 2. Much research work
becomes the major priority 56+ yrs this becomes public and is thus a valuable
is a time when more choice is available. resource. Learning and Teaching Scotland
Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006. 2006.
36Commercial enterprise. Probably the 92Intellectual property. Confidentiality
single most important factor the designer Copyright Trademark Design right
has to consider is cost. This obviously Registered design Patent. Click on the
affects the volume of sales and therefore appropriate star. Learning and Teaching
the profit for the company. The designer Scotland 2006.
should take advantage of any factor which 93Confidentiality. Background This the
is likely to create a market niche. This big name for secrets. Secrets have been
will give the product a head start in the around for a long time, and they are cheap
marketplace as it ensures reduced to keep as long as the people keeping them
competition. Creating a market niche can can be trusted. In general, the fewer
be achieved in many ways Learning and people who know a secret, the safer it is.
Teaching Scotland 2006. Some companies use confidentiality rather
37Commercial enterprise. 1. Using new than patents because applying for patents
technology to make new and better products results in the application becoming
than before 2. Use of new materials and public. Not much use if you are designing
processes to save costs 3. Creating a new a top-secret product! But secrets are not
use or image for an existing product to much use for some people. For example,
give it a new lease of life 4. Use of protecting a new tune with a
clever marketing, e.g. linking products to confidentiality agreement would mean that
fashion trends, books, films, etc. the composer would never earn any money,
Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006. as no one would be able to hear it.
38Market research. At some stage the Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006.
designer will have to carry out market 94Confidentiality. Example Only three
research (this could be before or after people in the world know the exact recipe
the target market has been defined) in for Barrs Irn Bru. Until recently they
order to gather information about how well were all members of the Barr family, but
the product will sell, what the public now one of the company employees has the
want and what the competition is like. The know how. The reason that the recipe is
two basic types of research techniques are kept secret is that competitors have to
desk research and field research. Desk guess how to copy it, whereas if it was
research External sources Reports, patented they could visit the patent
newspapers, journals, media reports, library, find out exactly how it is made
government audits Internal sources and alter their own brew slightly, and not
Accounts, sales records. Learning and to infringe the Barr patent. Some
Teaching Scotland 2006. agreements prohibit those in the know
39Market research. Field research from travelling together in the case the
Experiments Such as demonstrating a new secret is lost due to an accident. Process
product in a store after its launch Audits A confidentiality agreement is usually
Carrying out a check of product stock in drawn up by a solicitor and is signed by
shops and stores Observing Like noting how those in the know. This is then legally
many people use a public telephone over a binding and any breach could result in
set period Recording Counting how often legal action. Learning and Teaching
consumers use a specific product over a Scotland 2006.
set time Surveys Interaction with a 95Task 12. Try to find some other
specific market group through examples of well known secret recipes.
questionnaires, individual interviews and Explain why Barrs Irn Bru is kept secret
group interviews. Learning and Teaching and not patented. Learning and Teaching
Scotland 2006. Scotland 2006.
40Market pull/ technology push. Products 96Task 12 Suggested answers. Drambuie,
can be developed through market pull Heather Ale, Campbells soup, Kelloggs
(consumer demand) or technology push. Frosties, Mars Bars, etc. The recipe for
Market pull is when the market recognises Irn Bru is kept secret because, as a
a need for a particular product. commercially successful product, its
Technology push occurs when technology makers need to prevent competitors from
produces a new/improved product for which copying the recipe. Learning and
demand has to be created: thus, it is Teaching Scotland 2006.
being pushed onto the market. A 97Background Copyright is used mainly to
Pushme-Pullyou. Learning and Teaching protect written, printed or broadcast
Scotland 2006. materials, and is relatively simple to
41Consumer demand. Consumer demand, also use. It actually exists on any written
known as market pull, produces products piece, the copyright usually belonging to
that derive from the demands of the the author automatically, although it can
market. In most cases this demand is belong to the company employing the author
identified through market research. if that has been agreed. Look at the
Designers and manufacturers are always bottom of this page to see who owns the
looking for new markets in which to sell copyright in this PowerPoint presentation.
their products, or markets for which they The copyright can be bought and sold in
can design new products (market niche). the same way as any other commodity. .
Specialist market research companies are Copyright. Learning and Teaching
constantly gathering data on the Scotland 2006.
requirements of the market-place. Often 98Copyright. Example The most obvious
this is done by questionnaire. A market examples of copyright are books and other
researcher complete with clipboard is now printed materials, where the copyright
a common sight on our High Streets. usually belongs to the author, or the
Sometimes the data collected will be publisher. Films, TV programmes, songs and
offered for sale by the research company. music are nearly all protected by
Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006. copyright. Pop groups often copy other
42Consumer demand. Any designer or groups songs; this is called making a
manufacturer who does not carry out cover version. The second band to record
thorough market research is taking a very the song have to pay royalties to the
great risk indeed. A classic example of writer of the song and therefore do not
this is the Sinclair C5 which was make as much money. Process The simplest
developed by Sir Clive Sinclair. After a method to ensure that the copyright is
huge success with his computer known to belong to the author is to mark
innovations, Sinclair decided to design a the item with the mark, and then proving
small electric three-wheeled vehicle it was produced on or before that date.
intended to be a powered alternative to This proof can be easily provided by the
the bicycle. Although it was an innovative author posting a copy of the item to
product and a technological success story, themselves and not opening it on its
lack of market research doomed it before return. The postmark on the stamp is proof
it even started. Learning and Teaching of the date of posting. This can be used
Scotland 2006. as evidence if someone else is found to be
43Consumer demand. Market research has infringing the idea. A more formal method
led to a number of success stories is to send a copy to a lawyer or bank for
however. VW introduced the Golf, which was safekeeping. A copyright registry exists
the first real hatchback car, in direct for music, and this charges a fee.
response to the results of market Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006.
research. This design satisfied an 99Task 13. Make a list of five items
identified need for a small economical that you can find with the copyright mark
utility vehicle which fitted in with the on them. Design a logo which uses your
lifestyle of the modern European. Other own surname, and copyright it using the
successes in this area have been products postal method stated on the previous
that satisfy a need to provide for a slide. Remember that copyright only
healthy, environmentally sound lifestyle. protects the appearance of your design and
Examples of these are organic foods, not the actual word. Learning and
biodegradable detergents and sports Teaching Scotland 2006.
equipment such as home exercise machines. 100Task 13 Suggested answers. Five
Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006. suitable examples of copyright work might
44Task 6. Designers recognise the market be books, sheet music, CDs, photographs,
force of people wanting to buy products maps, etc. Suitable standard of design
which they feel will boost their personal work for the student concerned. Learning
image. 1. Give two examples of products and Teaching Scotland 2006.
which you feel may be bought for this 101Trademark. Background Trademarks are
purpose. 2. Give one reason for each of all around us nowadays; indeed you may be
you choices. Learning and Teaching displaying some on your clothing as you
Scotland 2006. read this. Most logos that you see on
45Task 6 Suggested answer. Mobile anything from adverts to clothing are
phones They are seen as accessories Trademarks. They identify the product with
nowadays and it is uncommon not to own a company, and the company hopes that its
one. Due to the fashion status attached to image will help to sell the product.
having a mobile phone people feel they Trademarks have been registered since
need to keep up to date with the latest 1876, at the Patent Office. Trademarks are
technology to boost their personal image usually words, although it is becoming
and social status. Cars These are also more common for other items to be
often bought to boost ones personal protected in this way too, for example
image, more so within the younger tunes (T-mobile) and aromas (perfumes,
car-buying generations. The latest model etc.). Companies protect their names to
that can be added to and personalised is prevent other competitors from copying or
often desirable. Other image-linked passing off their products. It is common
products include computers, games practice not to trademark the companys
consoles, clothes, jewellery, electrical own name, but only the brands that they
gadgets, etc Learning and Teaching produce. Some companies may wish to
Scotland 2006. protect their company logo and in some
46Technological opportunity. Products cases this can be done, for example Nike.
which appear on the market sometimes do so Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006.
as a result of technological innovation. 102Trademark. Example There are thousands
As we saw, this is often referred to as of different trademarks in existence at
technology push. Scientists, engineers and present, and many more whose protection
designers are always looking for new ways has expired. Trademarks have become a
of doing things and always striving for fashion accessory, particularly in the
the ultimate solution to a given problem. clothing industry, where clothing
Often new technology is stumbled upon in manufacturers use their trademarks to
this search. Sometimes the new technology create very strong brand images, which the
has an immediately obvious application and public find desirable and stylish.
sometimes not. Sometimes technology is Trademarks are applied in groups, each
transferred from one application to group representing a different range of
another. In other words sometimes new products. For example, the name Mazda is
technologies create new products and trademarked by three different companies:
therefore a completely new market niche the car manufacturer, the light-bulb
appears. (This is one of the four ways to manufacturer and the cooking-oil
create a market niche mentioned in the manufacturer. The reason this can be done
Commercial Enterprise section). is that each company operates in a
Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006. different sector and thus will not be
47Technological opportunity. Examples of competing in the others markets. There
products from new technology: Microwave are different trademark sectors, and as it
oven - from research into wave energy costs money to register for each sector,
Ceramic knives - from space-shuttle most companies only register in the sector
research.The shuttle nose is covered in that directly affects their business.
ceramic tiles Sony Walkman - through Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006.
advances in microelectronics CD player - 103Trademark. Process Companies do not
through advances in laser technology. have to trademark their names, but it can
Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006. be very worthwhile to do so. Even if a
48Task 7. Select a product that was name is not registered, after some time it
initially a technology push but once will begin to be associated with the
introduced to the market became a market product and rights will be established:
pull. Explain you answer in detail. these names have beside them. However,
Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006. registering the trademark is much more
49Task 7 Suggested answer. The mobile clear cut and has distinct advantages.
phone was initially a technology push Trademarks are best applied for early in a
and came about due to advancements in products life to prevent problems. When a
microelectronics and communications company applies to the Patent Office for a
technology. In their initial stages trademark a search is carried out to find
mobiles were very expensive and only the whether other companies are using the same
rich could afford to have them. As they or similar names. Companies can have the
developed, although they were not expected same name however if the other company
to catch on, some people bought them as an falls into a different sector. If a
emergency device to be kept in the car. As trademark is granted it can last forever,
the costs came down due to the development or as long as the company keeps paying the
of the technologies and competing renewal fees every 7 years, and the
manufacturers, people started to become letters RTM or the symbol can be used
more interested and now through clever beside the name. The first ever trademark
marketing (using celebrities to endorse registered was by Bass, the brewers, and
them) people are demanding better phones it is still registered. Learning and
with more functions and more choice. Teaching Scotland 2006.
Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006. 104Task 14. Make up a trademark for an
50Fashion/style. Product design, like imaginary product you have invented. 2. If
all areas of creativity, follows patterns internet access to the Patent Office
or trends in style. These trends are website (www.patent.gov.uk) is possible,
closely linked to fashion. Throughout conduct a search in the Trademark Register
design history there have been very for your invented name to see if anyone
distinctive styles that can be linked to else is already using it and if so, what
specific periods in time, such as: for? 3. What is the difference between the
Victorian (1830s to 1890) Art Nouveau meaning of the two symbols, and ? 4.
(1890 to 1905) Art Deco (1925 to 1939) Pop Sketch from memory three trademarks and
art (1960s) Each one of these styles was then compare them to the originals.
fashionable during the periods indicated Observe how recognisable the best designs
and has features that make each are, and try to explain what it is about
particularly recognisable. Learning and the designs that makes them so effective.
Teaching Scotland 2006. Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006.
51Fashion/style/fad. The difference 105Task 14 Suggested answers. A
between fashion and style can be suitable new word is created. 2. Search
confusing. Think of them as: Fashion a conducted and any hits recorded. 3.
trend that tends to change over a period means that the symbol is legally
of time Style - something that lasts registered, whereas means that it is not
forever, even if it is associated with a formally registered. 4. The recognition
period of time There is also something activity shows how recognisable most
else called a fad. Fads are seen as trademarks are. Learning and Teaching
short-term gimmicks that are very popular Scotland 2006.
for a brief period of time and then the 106Design Right. Background Design Right
hype dies down and they are dropped. is a new form of IP that was introduced in
Examples of fads are: Yo-yos Electronic the UK in 1988 and which is very similar
pets Mini scooters. Learning and to Copyright, although there are some
Teaching Scotland 2006. important differences. Design Rights main
52Fashion/style/fad. In order to keep up similarity to Copyright is that it exists
with the market, designers must use market automatically, i.e. there is no
research to find out what the current application process involved. However this
trends are and respond to them with the in turn means that it offers less
style of their products. Although products protection, and is really only suitable
designed by the leading designers are very for protecting items that fall outwith the
expensive, it is still possible to other forms of IP protection. Due to its
purchase style products that have been simple nature it is also a cheap form of
mass produced at relatively low cost. protection. Learning and Teaching
IKEA, for example, sell stylish furniture Scotland 2006.
at very low cost. Designers also have to 107Design Right. Examples Design Right is
take advantage of fashion changes in order particularly useful for protecting the way
to cash in; think of how fashion designers things look; shape, form and appearances
produce clothes by the season and come up of products that are different from before
with new ideas to keep us spending. but sufficiently so to allow for
Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006. patenting. For example, the appearance of
53Fashion. Increased awareness of the a new toaster may be protected by Design
problems facing the environment has also Right because underneath the stylish case
influenced design. Many new products are are the same mechanisms as the previous
designed to be recycled, e.g. the MK3 models. Process As there is no formal
Volkswagen Golf Products are often made registration system for Design Right, all
from recycled materials. This has become that needs to be done is to mark the work
fashionable. Learning and Teaching Design Right and date it. However, it is
Scotland 2006. a good idea to keep the idea secret until
54Aesthetics. This is concerned with the this has been done and an original has
appearance of a product. This is a very been kept somewhere secure with proof of
important factor with regards to selling a the date when it was done. Design Right
product because it is literally the first only protects the idea in that specific
thing the consumer sees. If a product form, and it is easy for competitors to
catches your eye and interests you enough copy with minor changes so as to avoid
to investigate it further it is said to infringement of the Design Right. DR has a
have the X-factor. Every product has short lifespan of only 10 years from the
aesthetic qualities that can be examined first sales, and during the last 5 of
in depth. Consideration must be given to these anyone is entitled to copy the
the following: Shape Harmony Form Balance design provided they pay a licence fee to
Line Light Colour Pattern Proportion the owner of the IP. Learning and
Texture Contrast Rhythm. Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006.
Teaching Scotland 2006. 108Task 15. If you have made any project
55Aesthetics. We shall now look at some material, mark it with Design Right,
of these aesthetic qualities in a bit more your name and date. Design a symbol to
detail. Shape Shapes are 2D (i.e. squares, represent design right, in the same way
circles, ellipses, etc.) and certain ones that represents copyright. IP is not
can affect us in certain ways, suitable for protecting the symbol you
particularly those based on the human body have just designed. Explain why the symbol
as they relate to our most primitive should not be protected. Learning and
feelings. In the analysis of a product Teaching Scotland 2006.
look for the different shapes used within 109Task 15 Suggested answers. Design
them, e.g. on a mobile phone look at the work marked appropriately. A suitable
overall shape of the handset, the shape of symbol is designed. No protection is
the screen, the shape of the buttons, etc. required because people should feel free
and decide how well they go together. Many to use the symbol wherever necessary.
products combine different shapes for Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006.
contrast; some use shapes to help identify 110Registered design. Background
a function; for example, think of a DVD Registered Design is a form of IP
players remote control. Learning and protection that was first used in 1787, in
Teaching Scotland 2006. response to the demands of the textile
56Aesthetics. Form Form is shape with manufacturers who were concerned about
the third dimension added. For example, competitors using their patterns. It is
the square becomes a cuboid, the circle a still much used by industry today as this
sphere or cylinder, etc. The form of a form of protection covers the appearance
product gives us a perception of its bulk; of a product, but not how it works. If the
it can help a product to appear large and way it works is new then a Patent may be
heavy or small and light. Line Different applied for, in addition to using
types of line can create different Registered Design to protect its
effects. A horizontal line is associated appearance. It is important to understand
with passive or stable feelings, whereas a that one product may involve several or
zig-zag suggests excitement and even even all of the forms of IP protection.
chaos. A vertical line on a horizontal Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006.
line can dominate the horizontal by 111Registered design. Examples Car body
stopping our horizontal eye movement. shapes are good examples of Registered
Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006. Designs. Manufacturers want to stop other
57Aesthetics. Colour Colour affects us companies copying successfully styled
in the same way as shapes. Red and orange cars, even if the technology inside the
will make us feel hot, while blue and car is too similar to the previous models
green make us feel cool. It has been to be able to patent them. Distinctive
proven by experimentation that a red room features such as radiator grills can be
will tend to raise the blood pressure of protected as well as the overall body
the people in it while a green room will shape. Process The process for registering
lower it. Red can also suggest danger, a design is similar to that for obtaining
whereas blue evokes passive feelings. a patent and is also controlled by the
Black and yellow are used together to Patent Office. The design has to be kept
suggest danger and are often used in confidential before the application is
warning signs. In nature they are used by filed, and then a search is carried out to
bees and wasps to warn others to stay see if there is any previous work that is
away. We also associate colours with similar. If the search does not show up
commands and functions, i.e. green for GO any possible conflicts, the design is
and red for STOP. Learning and Teaching granted its Registration. Once granted,
Scotland 2006. the registration can be kept for 25 years,
58Aesthetics. Colour cont Colours as long as renewal fees are paid. If the
relate to each other in different ways. company does not feel it is worth spending
For example, colours that are next to each the money as the products life cycle
other on the colour wheel are said to be nears its end, they may allow its
in harmony, while colours that are registration to lapse. This enables
opposite each other are contrasting or competitors to begin copying the design
complimentary. Our response to any legally. Learning and Teaching Scotland
sensation can usually be increased by 2006.
using contrast, for example, a sweet taste 112Task 16. Find one example of a product
can be made sweeter by contrasting it with that is protected by Registered Design,
a sour one, and a loud noise seems louder and write down its registration number.
if it comes after a period of silence. If Why does Registered Design offer more
a product has an equal colouring of red protection than Design Right? Design a
and green (two colours opposite each other symbol to signify that a product is
on the colour wheel) it may appear garish protected by Registered Design, in the
and unsettling, but if the product is same way that means that a name is
mostly red and uses small amounts of protected by Trademark law. Learning and
green, it can help to enhance the red Teaching Scotland 2006.
without creating a garish colour scheme. 113Task 16 Suggested answers. One
Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006. suitable example with a registration
59Aesthetics. Proportion Proportion number. Because it is formally registered
concerns the relationship of one size or with the Patent Office. A suitable symbol
area to another. Proportion can be used to designed. Learning and Teaching Scotland
balance, contrast or highlight different 2006.
areas of a design. In an asymmetric 114Patent. Background The first patent
composition, like the one shown below, the was granted in 1449, to John Utynam, who
large difference between the sizes of the wanted to protect his method for making
two surfaces creates a contrasting effect stained glass. He was granted a monopoly
where one area is contrasted against on the process for 20 years by the King,
another. This can create a dynamic look. in the form of an open letter. This was
The balanced or symmetrical composition, the method before the Patent Office was
shown below, gives an impression of opened in London in 1852. Nowadays, over
stability and order. Learning and 30,000 patents are applied for each year.
Teaching Scotland 2006. If you own the patent on a product you
60Aesthetics. Proportion cont There is will have exclusive design rights on it
something in design called the Golden for up to 20 years. However, as part of
ratio, or the Golden section, or the the process the patent is made available
Golden number, or Phi. Basically, this to the public for any interested parties,
Golden ratio is 1:1.618 and was defined including competitors, to see. This has
by Euclid over 2000 years ago. It is said two results: firstly, competitors can keep
to have been used in many works of art and an eye on what the opposition are working
architecture over the years and it also on and see which way the market may be
appears in mollusc shells, sunflower going; and secondly, 65% of research and
florets and the shape of the galaxy to development (R&D) has been done before
name a few. From a practical point of and is available for viewing in the
view, if you can incorporate this Golden Patents Library. This can save vast sums
ratio in your designs they should look of money in R&D budgets. The main aim
just right. For example, this bed was of this process is to encourage
designed considering the Golden ratio. innovation. Learning and Teaching
The length and width were designed Scotland 2006.
considering the size of the mattress that 115Patent. Examples Tracks: Tanks and
was to fit it, but the headboard is 1.618 diggers are fitted with tracks which
x the size of the tailboard and it appears enable them to travel over soft ground
to look just right. Learning and without them sinking and becoming stuck.
Teaching Scotland 2006. The first use of tanks was at the Battle
61Aesthetics. Contrast and harmony As of Cambrai in 1916, during WW1, and most
mentioned before, to increase our response people think that this was the first time
to any sensation we can use contrast. This that tracks had been used. In fact the
is the most dynamic of visual techniques, first patent for such devices was issued
where different parts of a design can be in 1770! A famous example of a successful
compared or differences made clear. patent is the Anglepoise lamp. This was
Contrast can be made using shape, colour, developed in the 1930s, and is still used
texture, pattern, etc. On the other hand, worldwide today. Learning and Teaching
the above elements (shape, colour, etc.) Scotland 2006.
can be combined to give design a 116Patent. Process The flowchart below
harmonious look. The almost oval shape of shows the main stages in obtaining a
the wing mirrors combined with the overall patent. Patents do not have to be
flowing shape of the car gives the Audi TT maintained for 20 years. They can be
roadster a harmonious look. Learning and allowed to lapse by not paying renewal
Teaching Scotland 2006. fees which arise annually after the 4th
62Task 8. Two kettles are shown below. year. If the patent lapses your
Write a comparison of both in terms of competitors may start using your idea.
aesthetics. Decide which one appeals to Learning and Teaching Scotland 2006.
you more and explain why. A design for a 117Task 17. Find one product in your
drawer unit is shown on the right. Suggest kitchen that is patented. What do new
how the proportions could be altered in products have marked on them if sold
order to make it more pleasing to the eye. before a patent is finally granted? Find
Use notes and sketches to explain your one of the above. Try to find the
answer. Kettle B. Kettle A. Learning and approximate cost of a patent being awarded
Teaching Scotland 2006. for 20 years. a) Conduct an internet
63Task 8 Suggested answers. 1.A) search to find Espacenet (www.espacenet),
Kettle A is a dynamic and streamlined and then search for patents on products
kettle. It has a large base which looks that interest you, or relate to current
stable and it tapers up to a point at the project work. b) Could you improve any of
top. The kettle does look balanced but it the products that you have found during
also looks like it might be quite heavy to your search? If so, how? Learning and
pick up when full. The shapes used for the Teaching Scotland 2006.
main body are mostly round, soft shapes 118Task 17 continued. Product. Inventor.
and combined with the sharp spout shape Year. Some examples of famous inventions
and the almost straight handle, this that have been patented are shown below in
creates a contrast that accentuates the the table. Try to fill in the gaps:
soft body shape. The colours used look Cats-eye road stud. Workmate folding
very stylish, silver with elements of bench. Electric light bulb. Anglepoise
black, and it looks modern and clean. B) lamp. Pneumatic tyre. Learning and
Kettle B is very simple and could Teaching Scotland 2006.
described as boring in design. It looks 119Task 17 Suggested answers. One
quite boxy in shape with a very straight suitable example Patent pending or Patent
handle and body. The base is not wider applied for One suitable example In the
than the top but it does still look region of ?20,000 5.a) search conducted b)
relatively balanced and stable. It does suitable suggestions made. Learning and
not look as if it would be too heavy to Teaching Scotland 2006.
lift up when full, but it does look like 120Task 17 Suggested answers continued.
it may be awkward to pour if full. Its Product. Inventor. Year. 6. Cats-eye road
colour is quite bland, with the only stud. Percy Shaw. 1933. Workmate folding
contrast being the red switch. So it would bench. Ronald Hickman. 1961. Electric
blend in with the other white goods in a light bulb. Joseph Swan (UK) or Thomas
kitchen and could be seen to be a safe Edison (US). 1878 1879. Anglepoise lamp.
design in this respect. 2. A decision George Cowardine. 1934. Pneumatic tyre.
should be backed up with appropriate John Dunlop or Robert Thompson. Oct 1888
reasoning. Learning and Teaching Dec 1945. Learning and Teaching Scotland
Scotland 2006. 2006.
64Task 8 Suggested answers. Drawer
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The english-speaking countries - Australia. Disneyland. Great Britain. Scotland. The English-speaking countries. USA.

The green movement - Several active workers managed to steal up on a raft to a platform and to chain themselves to it. One of the largest victories in the given campaign can name refusal of flooding of an oil platform brent spar as it contained many toxic substances. It became the first African who has headed this organization.

the woman - = . . , . , , . 9 , : Der mann- . ; .

The animals - The animals which live in the polar regions. GRIFFIN. POLAR BEAR. TIGER. The animals which live in the OCEAN. LIZARD. STARFISH. SEAL. KANGAROO. BOBCAT. KOALA. PANDA. WHALE. ZEBRA. The animals which live in the forest. EMU. The animals which live in the desert. CAMEL. FOX. SCORPIO. The animals which live in Australia.

- ? ? .. . The first Russias automobile was designed by P.A. Frez and E.A. Yakovlev. ? . ? .

The first flight - Americans achievements. The Worlds Celebrities. Americans began to launch rockets with animals in 1948. The beginning of the exploration. Belka and Strelka made a flight 19 august 1960. Firstly, scientific employees tamed dogs. Animals got accustomed to wear special uniform. Preparations. Technical characteristics.

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