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Ralph Waldo Emerson Self- Reliance (1841)
Ralph Waldo Emerson Self- Reliance (1841)
Ralph Waldo Emerson Self- Reliance (1841) Additional Background
Ralph Waldo Emerson Self- Reliance (1841) Additional Background
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Self- Reliance (1841) Main Points
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Self- Reliance (1841) Main Points
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Self- Reliance (1841) Main Points
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Self- Reliance (1841) Main Points
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Self- Reliance (1841) Main Points
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Self- Reliance (1841) Main Points
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Self- Reliance (1841) Main Points
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Self- Reliance (1841) Main Points
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Self- Reliance (1841) Historical Significance
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Self- Reliance (1841) Historical Significance
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Henry David Thoreau, Civil Disobedience (1848)
Henry David Thoreau, Civil Disobedience (1848)
Henry David Thoreau, Civil Disobedience (1848)
Henry David Thoreau, Civil Disobedience (1848)
Henry David Thoreau, Civil Disobedience (1848)
Henry David Thoreau, Civil Disobedience (1848)
Henry David Thoreau, Civil Disobedience (1848)
Henry David Thoreau, Civil Disobedience (1848)
Henry David Thoreau, Civil Disobedience (1848)
Henry David Thoreau, Civil Disobedience (1848)
Henry David Thoreau, Civil Disobedience (1848)
Henry David Thoreau, Civil Disobedience (1848)
Henry David Thoreau, Civil Disobedience (1848)
Henry David Thoreau, Civil Disobedience (1848)
George Bancroft (1800-1891) The Progress of Mankind (1854)
George Bancroft (1800-1891) The Progress of Mankind (1854)
Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass
Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (1861) 1813-
Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl (1861) 1813-
Main Point 1: The new Constitution is similar to the old only better
Main Point 1: The new Constitution is similar to the old only better
Main Point 1: The new Constitution is similar to the old only better
Main Point 1: The new Constitution is similar to the old only better
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Main Point 4: Slavery is the cornerstone of the Confederacy Our new
Main Point 4: Slavery is the cornerstone of the Confederacy Our new
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the Confederacy
Abraham Lincoln 1809-1865
Abraham Lincoln 1809-1865
Abraham Lincoln 1809-1865
Abraham Lincoln 1809-1865
The Gettysburg Address Delivered at the dedication of the Soldiers
The Gettysburg Address Delivered at the dedication of the Soldiers
The Gettysburg Address Delivered at the dedication of the Soldiers
The Gettysburg Address Delivered at the dedication of the Soldiers
Frederick Jackson Turner
Frederick Jackson Turner
POINT 2: ONLY THROUGH STRIFE AND STRENUOUS AND DARING EFFORT WILL WE
POINT 2: ONLY THROUGH STRIFE AND STRENUOUS AND DARING EFFORT WILL WE
POINT 2: ONLY THROUGH STRIFE AND STRENUOUS AND DARING EFFORT WILL WE
POINT 2: ONLY THROUGH STRIFE AND STRENUOUS AND DARING EFFORT WILL WE
POINT 2: ONLY THROUGH STRIFE AND STRENUOUS AND DARING EFFORT WILL WE
POINT 2: ONLY THROUGH STRIFE AND STRENUOUS AND DARING EFFORT WILL WE
POINT 2: ONLY THROUGH STRIFE AND STRENUOUS AND DARING EFFORT WILL WE
POINT 2: ONLY THROUGH STRIFE AND STRENUOUS AND DARING EFFORT WILL WE
POINT 2: ONLY THROUGH STRIFE AND STRENUOUS AND DARING EFFORT WILL WE
POINT 2: ONLY THROUGH STRIFE AND STRENUOUS AND DARING EFFORT WILL WE
POINT 2: ONLY THROUGH STRIFE AND STRENUOUS AND DARING EFFORT WILL WE
POINT 2: ONLY THROUGH STRIFE AND STRENUOUS AND DARING EFFORT WILL WE
POINT 2: ONLY THROUGH STRIFE AND STRENUOUS AND DARING EFFORT WILL WE
POINT 2: ONLY THROUGH STRIFE AND STRENUOUS AND DARING EFFORT WILL WE
Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the
Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the
Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the
Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the
Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the
Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the
Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the
Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the
Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the
Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the
Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the
Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the
Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the
Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the
Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the
Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the
Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the
Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the
Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the
Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the
Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the
Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the
Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the
Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the
Main Point 1: The leisure class is conservative, finding no reason to
Main Point 1: The leisure class is conservative, finding no reason to
Main Point 1: The leisure class is conservative, finding no reason to
Main Point 1: The leisure class is conservative, finding no reason to
Main Point 1: The leisure class is conservative, finding no reason to
Main Point 1: The leisure class is conservative, finding no reason to
Main Point 1: The leisure class is conservative, finding no reason to
Main Point 1: The leisure class is conservative, finding no reason to
Main Point 1: The leisure class is conservative, finding no reason to
Main Point 1: The leisure class is conservative, finding no reason to
Main Point 1: The leisure class is conservative, finding no reason to
Main Point 1: The leisure class is conservative, finding no reason to
Main Point 1: The leisure class is conservative, finding no reason to
Main Point 1: The leisure class is conservative, finding no reason to
Main Point 1: The leisure class is conservative, finding no reason to
Main Point 1: The leisure class is conservative, finding no reason to
Main Point 2: Conservatism is decorous and respectable
Main Point 2: Conservatism is decorous and respectable
Main Point 2: Conservatism is decorous and respectable
Main Point 2: Conservatism is decorous and respectable
Main Point 2: Conservatism is decorous and respectable
Main Point 2: Conservatism is decorous and respectable
Main Point 2: Conservatism is decorous and respectable
Main Point 2: Conservatism is decorous and respectable
Main Point 2: Conservatism is decorous and respectable
Main Point 2: Conservatism is decorous and respectable
Main Point 2: Conservatism is decorous and respectable
Main Point 2: Conservatism is decorous and respectable
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Points 3: The example of the leisure class fosters conspicuous
Main Point 4: Since the leisure class discourages change, it hinders
Main Point 4: Since the leisure class discourages change, it hinders
Main Point 4: Since the leisure class discourages change, it hinders
Main Point 4: Since the leisure class discourages change, it hinders
Main Point 4: Since the leisure class discourages change, it hinders
Main Point 4: Since the leisure class discourages change, it hinders
Main Point 4: Since the leisure class discourages change, it hinders
Main Point 4: Since the leisure class discourages change, it hinders
Main Point 4: Since the leisure class discourages change, it hinders
Main Point 4: Since the leisure class discourages change, it hinders
Main Point 4: Since the leisure class discourages change, it hinders
Main Point 4: Since the leisure class discourages change, it hinders
Main Point 4: Since the leisure class discourages change, it hinders
Main Point 4: Since the leisure class discourages change, it hinders
Main Point 4: Since the leisure class discourages change, it hinders
Main Point 4: Since the leisure class discourages change, it hinders
Main Point 4: Since the leisure class discourages change, it hinders
Main Point 4: Since the leisure class discourages change, it hinders
Main Point 4: Since the leisure class discourages change, it hinders
Main Point 4: Since the leisure class discourages change, it hinders
Myra Colby Bradwell Born in 1831 in Manchester, Vermont
Myra Colby Bradwell Born in 1831 in Manchester, Vermont
Myra Colby Bradwell Born in 1831 in Manchester, Vermont
Myra Colby Bradwell Born in 1831 in Manchester, Vermont
Myra Colby Bradwell Born in 1831 in Manchester, Vermont
Myra Colby Bradwell Born in 1831 in Manchester, Vermont
Bradwell v. The State of Illinois (1873), U.S. Supreme Court Main
Bradwell v. The State of Illinois (1873), U.S. Supreme Court Main
Bradwell v. The State of Illinois (1873), U.S. Supreme Court Main
Bradwell v. The State of Illinois (1873), U.S. Supreme Court Main
Bradwell v. The State of Illinois (1873), U.S. Supreme Court Main
Bradwell v. The State of Illinois (1873), U.S. Supreme Court Main
Main Point 3 (Concurring Opinion by Justice Bradley): Women belong to
Main Point 3 (Concurring Opinion by Justice Bradley): Women belong to
Main Point 4 (Concurring Opinion by Justice Bradley): God has given
Main Point 4 (Concurring Opinion by Justice Bradley): God has given
Main Point 4 (Concurring Opinion by Justice Bradley): God has given
Main Point 4 (Concurring Opinion by Justice Bradley): God has given
Main Point 4 (Concurring Opinion by Justice Bradley): God has given
Main Point 4 (Concurring Opinion by Justice Bradley): God has given
Main Point 4 (Concurring Opinion by Justice Bradley): God has given
Main Point 4 (Concurring Opinion by Justice Bradley): God has given
Thousands gathered in Paris, Texas,for the 1893 lynching of Henry
Thousands gathered in Paris, Texas,for the 1893 lynching of Henry
Thousands gathered in Paris, Texas,for the 1893 lynching of Henry
Thousands gathered in Paris, Texas,for the 1893 lynching of Henry
Thousands gathered in Paris, Texas,for the 1893 lynching of Henry
Thousands gathered in Paris, Texas,for the 1893 lynching of Henry
MAIN POINTS
MAIN POINTS
Spectacle lynching
Spectacle lynching
Spectacle lynching
Spectacle lynching
Spectacle lynching
Spectacle lynching
Booker T. Washington
Booker T. Washington
Main Point: We should concentrate on work and progress
Main Point: We should concentrate on work and progress
Main Point: We should concentrate on work and progress
Main Point: We should concentrate on work and progress
Main Point: We should concentrate on work and progress
Main Point: We should concentrate on work and progress
THE MESSAGE FOR BLACKS: Work hard, and do not agitate for equality
THE MESSAGE FOR BLACKS: Work hard, and do not agitate for equality
THE MESSAGE FOR WHITES: If white people insist on keeping the Negro
THE MESSAGE FOR WHITES: If white people insist on keeping the Negro
THE MESSAGE FOR WHITES: If white people insist on keeping the Negro
THE MESSAGE FOR WHITES: If white people insist on keeping the Negro
SIGNIFICANT FINE POINT FOR BOTH RACES: We do not have to socialize
SIGNIFICANT FINE POINT FOR BOTH RACES: We do not have to socialize
SIGNIFICANT FINE POINT FOR BOTH RACES: We do not have to socialize
SIGNIFICANT FINE POINT FOR BOTH RACES: We do not have to socialize
SIGNIFICANT FINE POINT FOR BOTH RACES: We do not have to socialize
SIGNIFICANT FINE POINT FOR BOTH RACES: We do not have to socialize
SIGNIFICANT FINE POINT FOR BOTH RACES: We do not have to socialize
SIGNIFICANT FINE POINT FOR BOTH RACES: We do not have to socialize
SIGNIFICANT FINE POINT FOR BOTH RACES: We do not have to socialize
SIGNIFICANT FINE POINT FOR BOTH RACES: We do not have to socialize
SIGNIFICANT FINE POINT FOR BOTH RACES: We do not have to socialize
SIGNIFICANT FINE POINT FOR BOTH RACES: We do not have to socialize
SIGNIFICANT FINE POINT FOR BOTH RACES: We do not have to socialize
SIGNIFICANT FINE POINT FOR BOTH RACES: We do not have to socialize
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1Ralph Waldo Emerson Self- Reliance 73European dress, industries, tools, modes
(1841). Background. Born in 1803, the son of travel, thought. It takes him from
of a conservative Unitarian minister. the railcar and puts him in the birch
Father died when he was eight, leaving canoe It strips off the hunting garments
family in meager circumstances. Influenced of civilization and arrays him in the
by an eccentric aunt, who encouraged his hunting shirt and the moccasins. It puts
education and broadminded thinking. him in the log cabin of the Cherokee and
Attended Harvard at age 14, graduating at Iroquois Before long he has gone to
18 and working as a schoolmaster before planting Indian corn and plowing with a
studying theology. Ordained as junior sharp stick.. at the frontier the
pastor of Bostons Second Church (1829) environment is at first too strong for the
where Cotton and Increase Mather preached man. He must accept the conditions in
more than a century before. Married Ellen which it furnishes, or perish, and so he
Tucker who died of tuberculosis sixteen fits himself into the Indian clearings and
months later. Resigned his pastorate in follows the Indian trails.
1932, because of his skepticism with the 74The Significance of the Frontier in
theological doctrines such as the Lords American History. Turner believed that
Supper. Traveled to Europe meeting the most important effect of the frontier
well-known writers, Coleridge, William has been in the promotion of democracy
Wordsworth, and Thomas Carlyle. Moved to here and in Europe. As has been
Concord, Massachusetts, began lecturing indicated the frontier is productive of
and writing. Married Lydia Jackson; individualism. Complex society is
fathered four children. His first born, precipitated by the wilderness into a kind
Waldo, died in 1842 at age 5. of primitive organization, based on
2Ralph Waldo Emerson Self- Reliance family. The tendency is anti-social.
(1841) Additional Background. Believed in It produces antipathy to control, and
individualism, non-conformity, and the particularly to direct control The
need for harmony between man and nature. A frontier individualism has been from the
proponent of abolition. His first book, beginning promoted democracy..
Nature (1836), influenced by a range of 75The Significance of the Frontier in
idealistic philosophies, confirmed his American History. Turner believed the
future as a prose writer -- establishing frontier led to a strong sense of
him as the center of the Transcendental nationalism. -The frontier promoted the
Movement. Self Reliance is his most famous formation of a composite nationality for
collection of essays. These essays were the American people. -The experiences of
gathered from his journals and lectures the frontiersmen gave them commonality and
and covered a period of years. The association with other migrants during
earliest essay from 1832, the year he left westward expansion.
the pulpit. Contributed to the 76Again now, four centuries from the
Transcendentalists magazine, The Dial, discovery of America, at the end of a
serving as editor from 1842-1844. Known as hundred years of life under the
a key figure in the New England Constitution, the frontier has gone, and
Renaissance [helping American Literature with its going has closed the first period
find its place in world literature]. of American history. The Significance of
Gained recognition for his poetry the Frontier in American History.
[collected in 1846]. An inspiration for 77Theodore Roosevelt, The Strenuous Life
many writers, especially Henry Thoreau and POINT 1: DO NOT LIVE A LIFE OF IDELNESS; A
Walt Whitman. STRENUOUS LIFE IS MUCH MORE REWARDING AND
3Ralph Waldo Emerson, Self- Reliance NOBLE. I wish to preach, not the doctrine
(1841) Main Points. Self reliance can be of ignoble ease, but the doctrine of the
defined as the bringing into the light strenuous life, the life of toil and
ones inner views on what is true and effort, of labor and strife; to preach
meaningful, and in the process enriching that highest form of success which comes,
an entire community through diversity. not to the man who desires mere easy
The power which resided in him is new in peace, but to the man who does not shrink
nature, and none but he knows what that is from danger, from hardship, or from bitter
which he can do, nor does he know until he toil, and who out of these wins the
tries. Emerson calls for greater splendid ultimate triumph. We do not
self-reliance, a new respect for the admire the man of timid peace. We admire
divinity in man, bringing revolutionary the man who embodies victorious effort;
change in all relations religion and the man who never wrongs his neighbor, who
prayer, education and literature, is prompt to help a friend, but who has
pursuits, modes of living, property and those virile qualities necessary to win in
views, and associations. In Emersons the stern strife of actual life. A mere
time, America still looked to Europe for life of ease is not in the end a very
its art, architecture, literature, instead satisfactory life, and, above all, it is a
of developing its own. He believed that life which ultimately unfits those who
by adopting the talent of another, one follow it for serious work in the world.
could only claim only half possession. He The man must be glad to do a man's work,
was critical of Americans for not using to dare and endure and to labor; to keep
their God-given individuality to become himself, and those dependent on him. The
more than mere imitators. Map of Concord. woman must be the housewife, the helpmeet
4Ralph Waldo Emerson, Self- Reliance of the homemaker, the wise and fearless
(1841) Main Points. True happiness and mother of many healthy children.
fulfillment can only come through a 78POINT 2: ONLY THROUGH STRIFE AND
recognition of ones own uniqueness, STRENUOUS AND DARING EFFORT WILL WE
talent and effort. Envy is ignorance; ACHIEVE NATIONAL GREATNESS. it is only
imitation is suicide. Its only when a through strife, through hard and dangerous
person puts his heart into his work and endeavor, that we shall ultimately win the
does his best that he is truly happy and goal of true national greatness.
at peace. Do not be ashamed to speak your 79Theodore Roosevelt, The Strenuous Life
unique thoughts, divine idea[s] rather POINT 3: WEAKNESS IS THE GREATEST OF
than quoting the words of some former CRIMES. OUR NATION HAS A RESPONSIBILTY TO
saint or sage. Roses do not make BRING THE HALF-CAST NATIONS OF THE WORLD
reference to former roses, but exist GOOD GOVERNMENT. IF WE DO THIS WE WILL BE
[perfectly] with God today. Actions GREAT, AND IF WE DO NOT WE WILL CEDE THE
should be genuine, honest and natural. OPPORTUNITY TO BOLDER AND STRONGER
Dont be afraid of being inconsistent -- PEOPLES. We cannot, if we would, play the
genuine action will explain itself over part of China, and be content to rot by
time, just as the zigzag path of a ships inches in ignoble ease within our borders,
voyage seen over a distance straightens taking no interest in what goes on beyond
itself. them, sunk in scrambling commercialism;
5Ralph Waldo Emerson, Self- Reliance heedless of higher life, the life of
(1841) Main Points. Truth comes from aspiration, of toil and risk, busying
within and lies beyond or transcends the ourselves only with the wants of our
knowledge we obtain from our senses. Trust bodies for the day, until suddenly we
in the truth, in your intuition. Accept should find, beyond a shadow of question,
your place in the world and do not cower what China has already found, that in this
in a corner, hemmed in by conformity. Be a world the nation that has trained itself
nonconformist. An infant conforms to no into a career of unwarlike and isolated
one. The world conforms to it. Do not give ease is bound, in the end, to go down
to causes that you do not believe in, just before other nations which have not lost
because you feel society expects it. Trust the manly and adventurous qualities. If we
yourself. There will be those who think are to be a really great people, we must
they know your duty better than you do. strive in good faith to play a great part
Trust yourself. Do not be concerned about in the world. The guns that thundered off
what others think. Trust that you have the Manila and Santiago left us echoes of
innate wisdom from God within. Become glory, but they also left us a legacy of
intuitive and in touch with yourself. duty. If we drove out a mediaeval tyranny
Nothing is at last sacred but the only to make room for savage anarchy, we
integrity of your own mind.. had better not begun the task at all. It
6Ralph Waldo Emerson, Self- Reliance is worse than idle to say that we have no
(1841) Main Points. Emerson advocates duty to perform, and can leave to their
independence not only of thought but also fates the islands we have conquered. Such
of action. Society continually changes, do a course would be a course of infamy. It
not let these changes encumber your would be followed at once by utter chaos
virtue. When a man builds a coach, he in the wretched islands themselves. Some
loses the use of his feet. If one uses stronger, manlier power would have to step
crutches, he loses muscle support. He in and do the work, and we would have
wears a watch and forgets how to tell time shown ourselves weaklings, unable to carry
by the sun. Emerson believed that reliance to successful completion the labors that
on property and the government to protect great and high-spirited nations are eager
it was a lack in self-reliance. Men have to undertake.
looked away from themselves at things too 80Theodore Roosevelt, The Strenuous Life
long and now measure each other by what he POINT 3 (CONTINUED): WEAKNESS IS THE
has not by what he is. Emerson describes GREATEST OF CRIMES. OUR NATION HAS A
dependence on foreign goods as leading to RESPONSIBILTY TO BRING THE HALF-CAST
a slavish respect for numbers. Emerson NATIONS OF THE WORLD GOOD GOVERNMENT. IF
recognized mens gamble with Fortune, WE DO THIS WE WILL BE GREAT, AND IF WE DO
gaining and losing all, but concludes that NOT WE WILL CEDE THE OPPORTUNITY TO
nothing can bring you peace but yourself. BOLDER AND STRONGER PEOPLES. The
Emersons Birthplace. Philippines offer a yet graver problem.
7Ralph Waldo Emerson, Self- Reliance Their population includes half-caste and
(1841) Historical Significance. native Christians, warlike Moslems, and
Self-Reliance [1841], had a great impact wild pagans. Many of their people are
on Emersons society, becoming his most utterly unfit for self-government and show
well-known essay. Self-Reliance, together no signs of becoming fit. Resistance [in
with Nature, established Emerson as a the Philippines] must be stamped out. The
writer and lecturer. He became regarded as first and all-important work to be done is
the founder of the Transcendental to establish the supremacy of our flag. We
movement, a distinctly American philosophy must put down armed resistance before we
emphasizing optimism, individuality, and can accomplish anything else, and there
mysticism. He was one of the most should be no parleying, no faltering, in
influential literary figures of the dealing with our foe. As for those in our
nineteenth century. As a result of the new own country who encourage the foe, we can
philosophy introduced in Self-Reliance, afford contemptuously to disregard them;
America developed literature and art but it must be remembered that their
uniquely different from any other country utterances are not saved from being
in the world and established for the first treasonable merely by the fact that they
time Americas place in the world of art are despicable. [We must send out there
and literature. Emerson, through his only good and able men.... [They] must
writing of Self-Reliance, had an impact on show the utmost tact and firmness,
future generations also. He became an remembering that, we such people as those
inspiration to such writers as Walt with whom we are to deal, weakness is the
Whitman and Henry David Thoreau. Today, greatest of crimes, and that next to
portions of Self-Reliance have been so weakness comes lace of consideration for
quoted that many are now clich?. The their principles and prejudices.
philosophy of individual independence has, 81Background. He grew up in Hartford,
to some extent, become the American way. Connecticut Is the son of a working class
Self-Reliance had a significant impact not English immigrant After graduating from
only on American writers and artists, but Yale, he became a minister Returned to
also on Unitarians and the liberally Yale as a professor of political and
religious opening them to science, Eastern social science He is known for his
religions and a naturalistic mysticism. In provocative ideas, rigorous intellectual
addition to group impact, Self-Reliance, standards and staunch moral conviction.
had an impact on the individual American, William Graham Sumner, What the Social
inspiring him to listen to and heed the Classes Owe to Each Other (1883).
still, small voice of God within. The 82Social Darwinism. Sumner became one of
impact of Self-Reliance and the subsequent the leading proponents of laissez-faire
Transcendental movement was one of supreme and social darwinism. William Graham
importance extending a challenge to Sumner, What the Social Classes Owe to
Americans to use their God-given talents Each Other (1883).
for the betterment of the individual and 83Main Points. A person that doesnt
thus the community. It proved to be a contribute to society is a burden on
positive, lasting, truly American change. society a man who is present as a
8Ralph Waldo Emerson. Ralph Waldo consumer, yet who does not contribute
Emerson, The Young American. Born May 25, either by land, labor, or capital to the
1803 Boston, MA - Died April 27, 1882 work of society, is a burden Every person
Concord, MA. American essayist, has a responsibility to take care of
philosopher, and leader of the themselves, to mind their own business
Transcendentalist movement in the early every man and woman in society has one
19th century. In October 1817, at big duty. That is, to take care of his or
fourteen, Emerson went to Harvard College her own self. This is a social duty..
and was appointed the Freshman's William Graham Sumner, What the Social
President. Tutored and taught during the Classes Owe to Each Other (1883).
winter vacation at his Uncle Ripley's 84Main Points Cont. The state can not
school in Waltham, Massachusetts. Over the make any money, they can only give money
next several years, Emerson made his to one person by taking it away from
living as a schoolmaster, then went to another these conflicts are rooted in the
Harvard Divinity School. Anonymously supposed reality that one group wins on
published his first essay, Nature, in the expense of another group. The gains of
September 1836. August 31, 1837, Emerson some imply the losses of others. The path
delivered his now-famous Phi Beta Kappa of achievement in society is trod over the
address, "The American Scholar". well being of others.. William Graham
He was denounced as an atheist, and a Sumner, What the Social Classes Owe to
poisoner of young men's minds for Each Other (1883).
discounting Biblical miracles and 85The social structure is based on
proclaiming that, while Jesus was a great contract. A society based on contract is
man, he was not God. a society of free and independent men, who
9Emerson on Slavery in 1844. Ralph form ties without favor or obligation, and
Waldo Emerson, The Young American. His co-operate without cringing or intrigue..
involvement with the antislavery movement William Graham Sumner, What the Social
grew as slavery escalated during the 1840s Classes Owe to Each Other (1883).
and early 1850s. Emersons fears 86And that of the Forgotton Man. He is
concerning its expansion grew, and he not, technically, poor or weak; he
acquired a deep admiration for the minds his own business, and makes no
abolitionist movement. He delivered his complaint. Consequently the
first public antislavery address in 1844, philanthropists never think of him, and
a commemoration of the British trample on him... William Graham Sumner,
emancipation of the slaves in the West What the Social Classes Owe to Each Other
Indies. (1883).
10Main Points. 1. Railroad Iron is a 87Thorstein Veblens Background. Born
magicians rod, in its power to evoke the Toston Bunde Veblen on July 30, 1857 in
sleeping energies of land and water. But Cato, Wisconsin to two Norwegian
I have abstained too long from speaking of immigrants. He was the sixth of twelve
that which led me to this topic,- [the children. Veblen graduated in 1880 from
railroads] importance in creating an Carleton College, Minnesota. In 1884, he
American sentiment. ..increased received his Doctorate in Philosophy from
acquaintance it has given the American Yale. For seven years Veblen read books by
people.. ..reduced England to a third of volume on the farm in Minnesota, while he
its size.. ..in this country it has recuperated from malaria. In 1891 Veblen
given a new celerity to time.. There is enrolled as a graduate student in
no American citizen who has not been economics at Cornell. Had an appointment
stimulated to reflection by the facilities at Stanford, but was asked to leave. A
now in progress of construction for travel year later he moved to the University of
and transportation of goods in the United Chicago, where he stayed for 14 years as a
States.. Ralph Waldo Emerson, The Young faculty member. In 1911, he joined the
American. University of Missouri, but did not like
11Main Points (cont.). 2. The uprise and it very much, but stayed until 1918. 1918,
culmination of the new power of Commerce he moved to New York and was editor of
is of most significance to the American at The Dial In 1919 he helped found The
this hour. From Washington, ..the city New School (The New School for Social
of magnificent distances, through all its Research) and stayed their until 1926. In
cities, states, and territories, it is a 1927, he moved back to Palo A lto where he
country of beginnings, of projects, of had property there, and ironically died a
designs, and expectations. It has no past: mere 3 months before the crash of the U.S.
all has an onward and prospective look. stock market, which brought on The Great
We concoct eleemosynary systems, and it Depression. Thorstein Veblen, Theory of
turns out that our charity increases the Leisure Class (1899).
pauperism. We inflate our paper currency, 88REVIEW. Thorsteins Views. Thorstein
repair commerce with unlimited credit, and was an economist who disagreed with the
are presently visited with unlimited views of Social Darwinism. Social
bankruptcy. Ralph Waldo Emerson, The Darwinism is a theory that competition
Young American. among all individuals, groups, nations, or
12Main Points (cont.). The History of ideas drives social evolution. More
commerce..is the record of this benficent commonly known with Darwinism: Survival
tendency.Trade, a plant which grows of the Fittest Majority of the Social
wherever there is peace, as soon as there Darwinist were wealthy, and Veblen saw
is peace, and as long as there is peace.. them as social parasites and hindrances
It is a new agent in the world, and one to human evolution. Veblen thought that
of great function; it is a very this was just greed and laziness and their
intellectual force. Trade goes to make wealth was not to "benefit all
the governments insignificant, and to others. WHAT IS SOCIAL DARWINISM?
bring every kind of faculty of every Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure
individual that can in any manner serve Class (1899).
any person, on sale This is good and this 89The Leisure class is sheltered from
the evil of trade, that it would put economic exigencies. The exigencies of
everything into market, talent, beauty, the struggle for the means of life are
virtue, and man himself Trade We less exacting for this class than for any
design it thus and thus; it turns out other; and as a consequence of this
otherwise and far better.. Ralph Waldo privileged position we should expect to
Emerson, The Young American. find it one of the least responsive of the
13Main Points (cont.). Gentlemen, the class of society to the demands with the
development of our American internal situation makes for a further growth of
resources, the extension to the utmost of institutions and a readjustment to an
the commercial system, and the appearance altered industrial situation. The
of new moral causes which are to modify exigencies of the general economic
the state, are giving an aspect of situation of the community do not freely
greatness to the Future, which the or directly impinge upon the members of
imagination fears to open.. Ralph Waldo this class. They are not required under
Emerson, The Young American. penalty of forfeiture to change their
14Henry David Thoreau, Civil habits of life and their theoretical views
Disobedience (1848). Thoreau was a of the external world to suit the demands
transcendentalist. Transcendentalism: A of an altered industrial technique, since
literary and philosophical movement, they are not in the full sense of an
associated with Ralph Waldo Emerson and organic part of the industrial
Margaret Fuller, asserting the existence community.. Main Point #1. Thorstein
of an ideal spiritual reality that Veblen, Theory of the Leisure Class
transcends the empirical and scientific (1899).
and is knowable through intuition. Source: 90Main Point #2. The Leisure Class IS
Excerpted from The American Heritage the Conservative Class. The conservatism
Dictionary of the English Language, Third of the wealthy class is so obvious a
Edition Copyright 1992 by Houghton feature that it has even come to be
Mifflin Company. Electronic version recognized as a mark of respectability.
licensed from Lernout & Hauspie Speech Conservatism, being an upper-class
Products N.V. characteristic, is decorous; and
15Henry David Thoreau, Civil conversely, innovation, being a lowered
Disobedience (1848). Essayist, poet, and class phenomenon, is vulger. So that
Transcendentalist Born to a pencil maker even in cases where one recognizes
in Concord, Mass. July 12, 1817 Went to substantial merits of the case for which
Concord Academy and then to Harvard Loved the innovator is spokesman-as may easily
the outdoors Best known for his book happen if the evils which he seeks to
Walden Other jobs teacher and pencil maker remedy are sufficiently remote in point of
Once went to chapel in a green coat time or space or personal contact-still
because the rules required black Refused one cannot but be sensible of the fact
to pay his poll tax. that the innovator is a person with whom
16Henry David Thoreau, Civil it is at least distasteful to be
Disobedience (1848). Under a government associated, and from whose special
which imprisons any unjustly, the true constant one must shrink. Innovation is
place for a just man is also a prison. bad form.. Thorstein Veblen, Theory of
Cast your whole vote, not a strip of paper the Leisure Class (1899).
merely, but your whole influence. --Henry 91Main Point #3. The Leisure class acts
David Thoreau. Thoreau dedicated his life to make the lower class conservative.
to the exploration of nature not as a From this proposition it follows that the
backdrop to human activity but as a institution of a leisure class acts to
living, integrated system of which you and make the lower classes conservative by
I are simply a part. --Randall Conrad, withdrawing from them as much as it may of
Director of the Thoreau Project. He the means of sustenance, and so reducing
[Thoreau] is a singular character a their consumption, and consequently their
young man with much wild original nature available energy, to such a point as to
still remaining in him; and so far as he make them incapable of their efforts
is sophisticated, it is in a way and required for the learning and adoption of
method of his own. He is as ugly as sin, new habits of though. The accumulation of
long-nosed, queer-mouthed, and with wealth at the upper end of the pecuniary
uncouth and somewhat rustic, although scale implies privation at the lower end
courteous manners, corresponding very well of the scale.. Thorstein Veblen, Theory
with such an exterior. But his ugliness is of the Leisure Class (1899).
of an honest and agreeable fashion, and 92Main Point #4. Conspicuous consumption
becomes him much better than beauty. is one of the main elements in the
---Nathaniel Hawthorne, distinguished standards of decency. The imperative
American novelist. "He [Thoreau] had example set by the upper class in fixing
a great contempt for those who made no the canons of reputability fosters the
effort to gauge accurately their own practice of conspicuous consumption. The
powers and weaknesses, and by no means prevalence of conspicuous consumption as
spared himself, of whom he said that a man one of the main elements in the stand of
gathers materials to erect a palace, and decency among all classes is of course not
finally concludes to build a shantee with traceable wholly to the example of the
them." --Ralph Waldo Emerson, wealthy leisure class, but the practice
philosopher and Thoreaus friend and and the insistence on it are not doubt
mentor. strengthened by the example of the leisure
17MAIN POINT 1: Thoreau prefers a class.. Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the
laissez-faire government, but he does not Leisure Class (1899).
call for abolishing government. Rather he 93Main Point #5. Progress is hindered by
wants a better government. Henry David underfeeding and excessive physical
Thoreau, Civil Disobedience (1848). That hardship. Consequently it follows that
government is best which governs least progress is hindered by underfeeding and
I ask for, not at once no government, excessive physical hardship, no less
but at once a better government.. effectually than by such a luxurious life
18Henry David Thoreau, Civil as will shut out discontent by cutting off
Disobedience (1848). MAIN POINT 2: Most the occasion for it. The abjectly poor,
men serve the state mechanically and do and all those persons whose energies are
not freely exercise moral judgment about entirely absorbed by the struggle for
their service. The mass of men serve the daily sustenance, are conservative because
state thus, not as men mainly, but as they cannot afford the effot of taking
machines, with their bodies. They are the thought for the day after to-morrow; just
standing army, and the militia, jailers, as the highly prosperous are conservative
constables, posse comitatus, etc. In most because they have small occasion to be
cases there is no free exercise whatever discontented with the situation as it
of the judgment or of the moral sense; but stand today.. Thorstein Veblen, Theory of
they put themselves on a level with wood the Leisure Class (1899).
and earth and stones; and wooden men can 94Main Point #6. The Institution of a
perhaps be manufactured that will serve leisure class hinders cultural
the purpose.. development. The institution of a leisure
19MAIN POINT 3: It is mans duty to wash class hinders cultural development
his hands of wrong. It is not mans duty, immediately (1) by the inertia proper to
as a matter of course, to devote himself the class itself. (2) through its
to the eradication of anywrong; he may prescriptive example of conspicuous waste
still properly have other concerns to and of conservatism, and (3) indirectly
engage him; but it is his duty, at least, through that system of unequal
to wash his hands of it, and, if he gives distribution of wealth and sustenance on
it no thought longer, not to give it which the institution itself rests.
practically his support. If I devote Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure
myself to other pursuits and Class (1899).
contemplations, I must first see, at 95Main Point #7. The Leisure class
least, that I do not pursue them sitting constantly retards adjustment to the
upon another mans shoulders. I must get environment. The leisure class, in the
off him first, that he may pursue his nature of things, consistently acts to
contemplations too.. Henry David Thoreau, retard that adjustment to the environment
Civil Disobedience (1848). which is called social advance or
20Henry David Thoreau, Civil development. The institution of a
Disobedience (1848). MAIN POINT 4: Order, leisure class, by force of class interest
Civil Government, and the rule of the and instinct, and precept and prescriptive
majority (i.e. democracy) sometimes example, makes for the perpetuation of the
prevents people from doing the right existing maladjustment of institution, and
thing. Unjust laws exist: shall we be even favours a reversion to a somewhat
content to obey them, or shall we endeavor more archaic scheme of life; a scheme
to amend them, and obey them until we have which would be still farther out of
succeeded, or shall we transgress them at adjustment with the exigencies of life
once? Men generally, under such a under the existing situation even than the
government as this, think that they ought accredited, obsolescent scheme that has
to wait until they have persuaded the come down from the immediate past..
majority to alter them. They think that, Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the Leisure
if they should resist, the remedy would be Class (1899).
worse than the evil. But it is the fault 96Thorstein Veblen, Theory of the
of the government itself that the remedy Leisure Class (1899) Veblen was the son of
is worse than the evil. It makes it worse. Norwegian immigrants, and he grew up in
Why is it not more apt to anticipate and rural Minnesota. He did not learn to speak
provide for reform? Why does it not English until he was a teenager. He
cherish its wise minority?. received a B.A. from Carleton College in
21Henry David Thoreau, Civil 1880 and a Ph.D. in philosophy from Yale
Disobedience (1848). MAIN POINT 5: Any man in 1884. At Yale, he developed a
more right than his neighbors constitutes friendship with his sociology professor,
a majority because he has God on his side, William Graham Sumner, and wrote his
and he should act immediately to wash his doctoral thesis on Immanuel Kant in the
hand of wrong. If a government is area of Moral Philosophy. In 1882, he
maintaining unjust laws, people should at started to teach political economy at the
once effectually withdraw their support, University of Chicago. He became known as
both in person and property, from the a brilliant and eccentric thinker and an
government. They should not wait till unconventional teacher. At the University
they constitute a majority of one, before of Chicago he gained a reputation as an
they suffer the right to prevail through insightful social critic, and it was
them. I think that it is enough if they during his years in Chicago that he wrote
have God on their side, without waiting The Theory of the Leisure Class. He taught
for that other one. Moreover, any man more political economy and later became editor
right than his neighbors constitutes a of the Journal of Political Thought. He
majority of one already.. taught at Stanford from 1906-1909 and at
22Henry David Thoreau, Civil the University of Missouri from 1911-1918.
Disobedience (1848). MAIN POINT 6: One In 1919 he became a founding member of the
honest man can change the state by New School for Social Research in New
standing up to it. if one thousand, if York. He died in 1929 of heart disease.
on hundred, if ten men whom I could 97Main Point 1: The leisure class is
name,if ten honest men only, ay, if one conservative, finding no reason to support
HONEST man, in this State of changes, because they enjoy the status quo
Massachusetts, ceasing to hold slaves, and are little affected by economic
were actually to withdraw from this pressures. The exigencies of the struggle
copartnership, and be locked up in the for means of life are less exacting for
county jail therefore, it would be the [the leisure] class than for any other;
abolition of slavery in America. For it and as a consequence of this privilege
matters not how small the beginning may position we should expect to find it one
seem to be: what is once well done is done of the least responsive of the classes of
forever. But we love better to talk about society to the demands which the situation
it: that we say is our mission. makes for a further growth of institutions
23Henry David Thoreau, Civil and a readjustment to an altered
Disobedience (1848). MAIN POINT 7: A man industrial situation. The leisure class is
can change an unjust system by refusing to the conservative class. exigencies do not
be unjust, and by being entirely willing readily produce in the members of this
to make a sacrifice. Under a government class, that degree of uneasiness with the
which imprisons any unjustly, the true existing order which alone can lead any
place for a just man is also a prison. body of men to give up views and methods
Cast your whole vote, not a strip of paper of life that have become habitual to them.
merely, but your whole influence. A The office of the leisure class in social
minority is powerless while it conforms to evolution is to retard the movement and to
the majority; it is not even a minority conserve what is obsolescent.
then; but it is irresistible when it clogs 98Main Point 2: Conservatism is decorous
by its whole weight.. and respectable. Innovation is vulgar.
24Henry David Thoreau, Civil This conservatism of the wealthy class is
Disobedience (1848). MAIN POINT 8: Blood so obvious a feature that it has even come
spilt is lamentable, but wounding ones to be recognized as a mark of
conscience is worse. Suppose blood should respectability. Since conservatism is a
flow when standing up to the government or characteristic of the wealthier and
the majority in refusal to consent to therefore more reputable portion of the
unjust laws. Is there not a sort of blood community, it has acquired a certain
shed when the conscience is wounded? honorific or decorative value. It has
Through this wound a mans real manhood become prescriptive to such an extent that
and immortality flow out, and he bleeds to an adherence to conservative views is
an everlasting death.. comprised as a matter of course in our
25MAIN POINT 9: The state should respect notions of respectability; and it is
the individual. The progress from an imperatively incumbent on all who would
absolute to a limited monarchy, from a lead a blameless life in point of social
limited monarchy to a democracy, is a repute. Conservatism, being an upper-class
progress toward a true respect for the characteristic, is decorous; and
individual. There will never be a really conversely, innovation, being a
free and enlightened State until the State lower-class phenomenon, is vulgar.
comes to recognize the individual as a progress is hindered by underfeeding and
higher and independent power, from which excessive physical hardship, no less
all its own power and authority are effectually than by such a luxurious life
derived, and treats him accordingly. I as will shut out discontent by cutting off
please myself with imaging a State at the occasion for it. The abjectly poor,
least which can afford to be just to all and all those persons whose energies are
men, and to treat the individual with entirely absorbed by the struggle for
respect as a neighbor; which even would daily sustenance, are conservative because
not think it inconsistent with its own they cannot afford the effort of taking
repose if a few were to live aloof from thought for the day after tomorrow; just
it, not meddling with it, nor embraced by as the highly prosperous are conservative
it, who fulfilled all the duties of because they have small occasion to be
neighbors and fellow-men.. Henry David discontented with the situation as it
Thoreau, Civil Disobedience (1848). stands today. From this proposition it
26George Bancroft (1800-1891) The follows that the institution of a leisure
Progress of Mankind (1854). class acts to make the lower classes
Transcendentalism: A literary and conservative by withdrawing from them as
philosophical movement, associated with much as it may of the means of sustenance,
Ralph Waldo Emerson and Margaret Fuller, and so reducing their consumption, and
asserting the existence of an ideal consequently their available energy, to
spiritual reality that transcends the such a point as to make them incapable of
empirical and scientific and is knowable the effort required for the learning and
through intuition. adoption of new habits of thought.
27George Bancroft The Progress of 99Main Points 3: The example of the
Mankind (1854) Point 1: Americans and leisure class fosters conspicuous
their political system have discovered how consumption, which diverts resources away
to bring to bear the Divine mind, and thus from sustenance of the lower classes. The
we are destined for greatness. the prevalence of conspicuous consumption as
condition of our race is one of growth or one of the main elements in the standard
of decay. It is the glory of man that he of decency among all classes is of course
is conscious of this law of his existence. not traceable wholly to the example of the
(We great Americans choose growth.) The wealthy leisure class, but the practice
progress of man consists in this, that he and the insistence on it are no doubt
himself arrives at the perception of strengthened by the example of the leisure
truth. The Divine mind, which is its class. The requirements of decency in this
source, left it to be discovered, matter are very considerable and very
appropriated and developed by finite imperative; so that even among classes
creatures. In this great work our country whose pecuniary position is sufficiently
holds the noblest rank. Our land extends strong to admit a consumption of goods
far into the wilderness, and beyond the considerably in excess of the subsistence
wilderness; and while on this side of the minimum, the disposable surplus left over
great mountains it gives the Western after the more imperative physical needs
nations of Europe a theatre for the are satisfied is not infrequently diverted
renewal of their youth, on the to the purpose of a conspicuous decency,
transmontane side, the hoary civilisation rather than to added physical comfort and
of the farthest antiquity leans forward fullness of life. Moreover, such surplus
from Asia to receive the glad tidings of energy as is available is also likely to
the messenger of freedom. The islands of be expended in the acquisition of goods
the Pacific entreat our protection, and at for conspicuous consumption or conspicuous
our suit the Empire of Japan breaks down boarding. The result is that the
its wall of exclusion. requirements of pecuniary reputability
28George Bancroft The Progress of tend (1) to leave but a scanty subsistence
Mankind (1854) Point 2: In order to minimum available for other than
progress, each individual must contribute conspicuous consumption, and (2) to absorb
to the whole, and the whole of society is any surplus energy which may be available
more intelligent than the wisest after the bare physical necessities of
individual. In order to advance human life have been provided for. What is a
progress, it is every individuals living wage? Why is there starvation?
responsibility to contribute some share 100Main Point 4: Since the leisure class
to the general intelligence. The many are discourages change, it hinders
wiser than the few; the multitude than the evolutionary progress. the leisure class,
philosopher; the race than the individual; in the nature of things, consistently acts
and each successive generation than its to retard that adjustment to the
predecessor.. environment which is called social advance
29George Bancroft The Progress of or development. The characteristic
Mankind (1854) Point 3: Historians study attitude of the class may be summed up in
Gods work, and history is the studys of the maxim: "Whatever is, is
mans progress. At the foot of every page right" whereas the law of natural
in the annals of nations, may be written, selection, as applied to human
God reigns. It is because God is institutions, gives the axiom:
visible in History that its office is the "Whatever is, is wrong." Not
noblest except that of the poet. Of all that the institutions of today are wholly
pursuits that require analysis, wrong for the purposes of the life of
historystands first. It is equal to today, but they are, always and in the
philosophy; for as certainly as the actual nature of things, wrong to some extent.
bodies forth the ideal, so certainly does They are the result of a more or less
history contain philosophy. It is grander inadequate adjustment of the methods of
than the natural sciences; for its study living to a situation which prevailed at
is man, the last work of creation, and the some point in the past development. The
most perfect in its relations with the institution of a leisure class, by force
Infinite. In surveying the short period or class interest and instinct, and by
since man was created, the proofs of precept and prescriptive example, makes
progress are so abundant, that we do not for the perpetuation of the existing
know with which of them to begin, or how maladjustment of institutions, and even
they should be classified. He is seen in favors a reversion to a somewhat more
the earliest stages of society, bare of archaic scheme of life; a scheme which
abstract truth, unskilled in the methods would be still farther out of adjustment
of induction, and hardly emancipated from with the exigencies of life under the
bondage to the material universe. How existing situation even than the
wonderful is it, then, that a being whose accredited, obsolescent scheme that has
first condition was so weak, so humble, come down from the immediate past.
and so naked, and s of whom no monument 101Seneca Falls Convention, Declaration
older than forty centuries can be found, of Sentiments (1848). All women are
should have accumulated such fruitful created equal. We hold these truths to be
stores of intelligence, and have attained self-evident; that all men and women are
such perfection of culture! created equal Women, too, are given
30George Bancroft The Progress of certain unalienable rights by God. that
Mankind (1854) Point 4: The human mind they are endowed by their Creator with
tends not only toward unity, but certain inalienable rights; that among
UNIVERSALITY. The world is just beginning these are life, liberty, and the pursuit
to take to heart this principle of the of happiness When under oppression,
unity of the race, and to discover how women have the right to refuse allegiance
fully and how beneficently it is fraught to their government and lobby for a better
with international, political, and social one that grants equality. Whenever any
revolutions. form of government becomes destructive of
31Frederick Douglass. What to the Slave these ends, it is the right of those who
is the Fourth of July? suffer from it to refuse allegiance to it,
32Background. The son of a slave woman and to insist upon the institution of a
and an unknown white man Born in February new government, laying its foundation on
of 1818 as "Frederick Augustus such principles, and organizing its powers
Washington Bailey Escaped from slavery in such form, as to them shall seem most
and married Anna Murray in 1938, he likely to effect their safety and
changed his name to Frederick Douglass He happiness. Men have repeatedly harmed and
became a speaker for the Massachusetts dominated women. The history of mankind
Anti-Slavery Society William Lloyd is a history of repeated injuries and
Garrison became his mentor, but later usurpations on the part of man toward
would disagree him Garrison on issues such woman, having in direct object the
as the constitution and the dissolution of establishment of an absolute tyranny over
the Union Douglass wrote an autobiography her. To prove this, let facts be submitted
titled Narrative of the Life of Frederick to a candid world. Because women are
Douglass, an American Slave, Written By equal, but because they have been
Himself in 1845 He also published his own oppressed, they should be immediately
four page weekly paper called the North admitted as full American citizens.
Star He conferred with Abraham Lincoln because women do feel themselves
during the Civil War and recruited aggrieved, oppressed, and fraudulently
northern blacks for the Union Army. After deprived of their most sacred rights, we
the War he fought for the rights of women insist that they have immediate admission
and African Americans alike. He passed to all the rights and privileges which
away in 1895 In 1852, he was invited to belong to them as citizens of these United
give a speech celebrating the Fourth of States..
July. 102Main Points. Seneca Falls Convention,
33The celebration of the Fourth of July Declaration of Sentiments (1848). Women
is hypocritical and contradictory. declared their independence and
Fellow-Citizens Pardon me, and allow me inalienable Rights: Life, Liberty and the
to ask, why am I called upon to speak her pursuit of Happiness. We insist that
today? What have I, or those I represent, [women] have immediate admission to the
to do with your national independence? Are rights and privileges which belong to them
the great principles of political freedom as citizens of the United States. Such
and of natural justice, embodied in that has been the patient sufferance of the
Declaration of Independence, extended to women under this government, and such is
us? I am not included within the pale of now the necessity which constrains them to
this glorious anniversary! Your high demand the equal station to which they are
independence only reveals the immeasurable entitled..
distance between us. This Fourth of July 103Main Points. Seneca Falls Convention,
is yours, not mine. You may rejoice, I Declaration of Sentiments (1848). Men have
must mourn. What, to the American slave, created a social and political tyranny
is your 4th of July? I answer: a day that over women by not recognizing their civil
reveals to him, more than all other days liberties. He has endeavored, in every
in the year, the gross injustice and way that he could, to destroy her
cruelly to which he is the constant confidence in her own powers, to lessen
victim. To him, your celebration is a her self-respect, and to make her willing
sham; your boasted liberty, an unholy to lead a dependent and abject life. He
license; your national greatness, swelling has made her, if married, in the eye of
vanity; your sounds of rejoicing are empty the law, civilly dead. He has compelled
and heartless; your denunciations of her to submit to laws, in the formation of
tyrants, brass fronted impudence; your which she had no voice. He has withheld
shouts of liberty and equality, hollow from her rights which are given the most
mockery; your prayers and hymns, your ignorant and degraded men- both natives
sermons and thanksgivings, with all your and foreigners. He has never permitted
religious parade, and solemnity, are, to her to exercise her inalienable right to
him, mere bombast, fraud, deception, the elective franchise. He has taken
impiety, and hypocrisy - a thin veil to from her all right in property, even to
cover up crimes which would disgrace a the wages she earns. In the covenant of
nation of savages. There is not a nation marriage, she is compelled to promise
on the earth guilty of practices, more obedience to her husband, he becoming, to
shocking and bloody, than are the people all intents and purposes, her master. if
of these United States, at this very single, and the owner of property, he has
hour.. taxed her to support a government which
34Slavery is unjust and against the recognizes her only when her property can
Constitution. I should not have to argue be made profitable to it. 1.
this point. What point in the 104Horatio Storer, The Origins of the
anti-slavery creed would you like me to Insanity in Women (1865) Mental disease in
argue? On what branch of the subject do women results from a disturbance in their
the people of this country need light? reproductive system. That in women mental
Would you have me argue that man is disease is often, perhaps generally,
entitled to liberty? that he is the dependent upon the functional or organic
rightful owner of his own body? You have disturbance of the reproductive system.
already declared it. Must I argue the These mental disorders coincide with
wrongfulness of slavery? Is that a womens menstrual cycles. That in
question for Republicans? Is it to be womenmental disease is usually coincident
settled by the rules of logic and with the catamenial [menstrual]
argumentation, as a matter beset with establishment. Therefore, focusing only
great difficulty, involving a doubtful on the disorder is like only treating the
application of the principle of justice, symptoms. The disease the dysfunctional
hard to be understood? How should I look reproductive system must be cured to
to-day, in the presence of Americans, ensure a healthy patient. it is just as
dividing, and subdividing a discourse, to unscientific here, and generally as
show that men have a natural right to futile, to treat primarily the mental
freedom? speaking of it relatively, and disturbance, which is usually a symptom
positively, negatively, and affirmatively. only or a consequence.
To do so, would be to make myself 105The Origins of Insanity in Women,
ridiculous, and to offer an insult to your Horatio Storer (1865). Main Points 1. His
understanding. There is not a man beneath propositions: Mental disease (insanity) in
the canopy of heaven, that does not know women is due to their reproductive
that slavery is wrong for him. Must I systems. Mental disease is made worse by
undertake to prove that the slave is a menstruation To treat mental disease
man? That point is conceded already. (insanity) in women, you must believe the
Nobody doubts it. The slave-holders above theories. 2. Storer wanted to cure
themselves acknowledge it in the enactment insane women. The necessity of removing a
of laws for their government. They cause to prevent or to cure its effect is
acknowledge it when they punish as decided in mental pathology as in
disobedience on the part of the slave. physical. We recognize it everywhere else;
There are seventy-two crimes in the State we must recognize it in the treatment of
of Virginia, which, if committed by a insane women 3. Storers view of women
black man (no matter how ignorant he be), was preconceived and warped. they have
subject him to the punishment of death; become habitually thievish, profane, or
while only two of these same crimes will obscene, despondent or self-indulgent,
subject a white man to like punishment.. shrewish or fatuous Storer felt like
35Freedmen have proven themselves just women needed to be sheltered and
as capable as white men. They deserve protected. For them to have their own
liberty. For the present, it is enough to views and feelings was wrong. Being
affirm the equal manhood of the Negro passionate or sexually aggressive was
race. Is it not astonishing that, while we something that needed to be taken care of.
are ploughing, planting and reaping, using Nymphomania was a term used only to
all kinds of mechanical tools, erecting describe obsessive sexual desires in
houses, constructing bridges, building women. 4. As the weaker sex, women are
ships, working in metals of brass, iron, more vulnerable to their passions. The
copper, silver and gold; that, while we attacks of this (sexual desire) were
are reading, writing and cyphering, acting clearly coincident with the menstrual
as clerks, merchants and secretaries, period, and so extreme that the patient
having among us lawyers, doctors, could with difficulty restrain herself
ministers, poets, authors, editors, from soliciting the approach of the other
orators and teachers; that, while we are sex. Upon treatment (removal of the
engaged in all manner of enterprises ovaries, menstrual pain, potassium
common to other men, digging gold in monoxide), the morbid desires stopped.
California, capturing the whale in the The sexual desires for men were normal,
Pacific, feeding sheep and cattle on the sexual desires in women had to be treated.
hill-side, living, moving, acting, Why?
thinking, planning, living in families as 106Fourteenth Amendment to The U.S.
husbands, wives and children, and, above Constitution: No State shall make or
all, confessing and worshipping the enforce any law which shall abridge the
Christians God, and looking hopefully for privileges or immunities of citizens of
life and immortality beyond the grave, we the United States; nor shall any State
are called upon to prove that we are deprive any person of life, liberty, or
men!. property, without due process of law; nor
36The time for persuasive arguing that deny to any person within its jurisdiction
slavery is wrong has passed, now is the the equal protection of the laws..
time for the harsh reality. Oh had I the 107Myra Colby Bradwell Born in 1831 in
ability, and could I reach the nations Manchester, Vermont. In 1852 Myra married
ear, I would today pour out a fiery stream James B. Bradwell, an Englishman who had
of biting ridicule, blasting reproach, immigrated to the United States and
withering sarcasm, and stern rebuke. The studied law in Memphis Tennessee. In 1854,
feeling of the nation must be quickened; the Bradwells moved to Chicago, where
the conscience of the nation must be James opened a law office and eventually
roused; the propriety of the nation must became a judge of the Cook County Court.
be startled; the hypocrisy of the nation Myra began to study law to help her
must be exposed; and its crimes against husband as his assistant. She later
God and man must be proclaimed and decided to open a practice of her own. In
denounced.. 1868 Myra founded a weekly legal newspaper
37My Bondage and My Freedom (1855) called the Chicago Legal News. With
Frederick Douglass MAIN POINTS: 1. Slavery Bradwell servicing as both editor and
dehumanizes by destroying the family unit. business manager, the Chicago Legal News
It undermining family values of both quickly became a success. In 1869, after
slaves and slave owners. The practice of passing the state bar examination,
separating children from their mother, and Bradwell applied to the Illinois Supreme
hiring the latter out at distances too Court for admission to the bar. The court
great to admit of their meeting, except at rejected her application on the grounds
long intervals, is a marked feature of the that as a married woman she would be
cruelty and barbarity of the slave system. bound neither by her express contracts nor
But it is in harmony with the grand aim of by those implied contracts which it is the
slavery, which, always and everywhere, is policy of the law to create between
to reduce man to a level with the brute. attorney and client. She reapplied, but
It is a successful method of obliterating the court rejected her again, this time
from the mind and heart of the slave, all because she was a woman, regardless of her
just ideas of the sacredness of the marital status. The Court ruled, "God
family, as an institution. My poor designed the sexes to occupy different
mother, like many other slave-women, had spheres of action, and that it belonged to
many children, but NO FAMILY! Slavery has men to make, apply and execute laws, was
no use for fathers, as it does away with regarded as an almost axiomatic
families. Slavery has no use for either truth." She appealed to the U.S.
fathers or families, and its laws do not Supreme Court, which in 1873 upheld the
recognize their existence in the social Illinois decision, saying that it could
arrangements of the plantation. He [the not interfere with each states right to
master] can be father without being a regulate the granting of licenses within
husband, and may sell his child without its borders. James Bradwell. Myra Colby
incurring reproach, if the child be by a Bradwell.
woman in whose veins courses one 108Bradwell v. The State of Illinois
thirty-second part of African blood. (1873), U.S. Supreme Court Main Point 1
[T]he fact remains, in all its (Majority Decision written by Justice
odiousness, that, by the laws of slavery, Miller): Citizenship does not give one the
children, in all cases, are reduced to the right, under the fourteenth amendment, to
condition of their mothers. This practice law in the courts of a state. We
arrangement admits of the greatest license agree with [counsel] that there are
to brutal slaveholders, and their privileges and immunities belonging to
profligate sons, brothers, relations and citizens of the United States, in that
friends, and gives to the pleasure of sin, relation and character, and that it is
the additional attraction of profit. these and these alone which a State is
38My Bondage and My Freedom (1855) forbidden to abridge. But the right to
Frederick Douglass 2. Education of slaves admission to practice in the courts of a
was dangerous to slave owners because it State is not one of them. This right in no
empowered slaves and could possibly lead sense depends on citizenship of the United
to their freedom. Mr. Auld promptly States. p. 84. Myra Bradwell. Justice
forbade continuance of her instruction; Samuel Freeman Miller.
telling her, in the first place, that the 109Main Point 3 (Concurring Opinion by
thing itself was unlawful; that it was Justice Bradley): Women belong to the
also unsafe, and could only lead to domestic sphere, and should not adopt a
mischief. (Douglass masters response to career distinct and independent from that
his wife teaching Douglass to read the of her husband. The constitution of the
Bible) If you learn him now to read, family organization, which is founded in
hell want to know how to write; and, this the divine ordinance, as well as in the
accomplished, hell be running away with nature of things, indicates the domestic
himself. It was a new and special sphere as that which properly belongs to
revelation, dispelling a painful mystery, the domain and functions of womanhood. The
against which my youthful understanding harmony, not to say identity, of interests
had struggled, and struggled in vain, to and views which belong, or should belong,
wit: the white mans power to perpetuate to the family institution is repugnant to
the enslavement of the black man. Very the idea of a woman adopting a distinct
well, thought I; knowledge unfits a and independent career from that of her
child to be a slave. I instinctively husband. p. 85. Justice Bradley. Main
assented to the proposition; and from that Point 2 (Concurring Opinion by Justice
moment I understood the direct pathway Bradley): Men and women are very
from slavery to freedom different. Women are naturally timid and
39Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life delicate and there are many occupations
of a Slave Girl (1861) 1813- Harriet Ann for which they are unfit. Man is womans
Jacobs is born 1819- Harriets mother dies protector and defender. [T]he civil law,
and she realizes she is a slave 1825- as well as nature herself, has always
Harriet Jacobs mistress dies and she recognized a wide difference in the
becomes the slave to Dr. Flints 3 year respective spheres and destinies of man
old daughter 1828- Dr. flint begins to and woman. Man is, or should be, woman's
harass Harriet and tries to sexually take protector and defender. The natural and
advantage of her 1829- Harriet and Mr. proper timidity and delicacy which belongs
Sands son is born and the baby and Harriet to the female sex evidently unfits it for
move in with her grandmother 1831- Harriet many of the occupations of civil life. p.
and Mr. Sands daughter is born 1835- 85.
Harriet escapes and goes into hiding in 110Main Point 4 (Concurring Opinion by
the attic of her grandmothers house 1842- Justice Bradley): God has given women the
Harriet Jacobs escapes to the North 1844- role of wives and mothers. This is a
Harriet moves to Boston with her 2 natural law to which we must adapt, and
children 1849- Harriet moves to Rochester, not be persuaded by exceptional cases. The
New York, while Dr. Flints daughter paramount destiny and mission of woman are
continues searching for her 1852- Harriet to fulfill the noble and benign offices of
finds out her owner is in New York, so she wife and mother. This is the law of the
flees to California to join her brother. Creator. And the rules of civil society
She becomes free when Cornelia Willis, her must be adapted to the general
employer and friend, buys her freedom for constitution of things, and cannot be
$300 1853- Harriets grandmother dies; she based upon exceptional cases. p. 85.
begins to write about her experiences in 111Historical Significance In the 1875
anonymous letters to a New York paper. case Minor V. Happersett, the Court ruled
Later she starts her book Incidents in the against women suffrage in Missouri on the
Life of a Slave Girl. 1858- She finishes basis that the Fourteenth Amendment does
her book, and travels to England to try to not add to the privileges and immunities
sell her story 1861- Harriets book is of a citizen, and that historically
published 1897- Harriet Jacobs dies on citizen and eligible voter have not
March 7, in Washington D.C. been synonymous. About a hundred years
40Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life later, the Court began employing the
of a Slave Girl (1861) . Main Points: 1) A Fourteenth Amendment as a way of
slave was property and no legal rights, overturning gender-discriminatory state
and therefore a slave could not go against laws. In doing so, however, it would
their masters will, even sexual affairs. typically use the "equal
But he was my master. I was compelled to protection" clause, rather than the
live under the same roof with him---where clause cited in Bradwell, "privileges
I saw a man forty years my senior daily and immunities." In 1882, the
violating the most sacred commandments of Illinois legislature passed a law
my nature. He told me I was his property; guaranteeing all persons, regardless of
that I must subject to his will in all sex, the right to select a profession as
things. My soul revolted against the mean they wished. Although Bradwell never
tyranny. But where could I turn for reapplied for admission to the bar, the
protection? No matter whether the slave Illinois Supreme Court informed her that
girl be as black as ebony or as fair as her original application had been
her mistress. In either case, there is no accepted. As a result, she became the
shadow of law to protect her from insult, first woman member of the Illinois State
for violence, or even from death; all Bar Association; she was also the first
these are inflicted by fiends who bear the woman member of the Illinois Press
shape of men. 2) The people in the North Association. On March 28, 1892, she was
would not ever believe what was taking admitted to practice before the U.S.
place in the South, and they would not put Supreme Court. In addition to her efforts
up with it. Surely, if you credited one to win admission to the bar, Bradwell
half the truths that are told you played a role in the broader women's
concerning the helpless millions suffering rights movement. She was active in the
in this cruel bondage, you at the north Illinois Woman Suffrage Association and
would not help to tighten the yoke. You helped form the American Woman Suffrage
surely would refuse to do for the master, Association. She was also influential in
on your own soil, the mean and cruel work the passage of laws by the Illinois
which trained bloodhounds and the lowest legislature that gave married women the
class of whites do for him at the south. right to keep wages they earned and
41Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life protected the rights of widows. Bradwell
of a Slave Girl (1861) . Main Points: 3) died February 14, 1894, in Chicago,
The mistress will end up hating the slave Illinois.
girl the most. If a slave is beautiful, 112Background. Born: Sep. 14, 1879, 6th
jealousy and hatred could make her a out of 11 children. Sanger believed the
victim of her slave owner. She listens to reason her mother died at age 50 was
violent outbreaks of jealous passion, and because of 18 pregnancies. In 1896 Sanger
cannot help understanding what is the entered Claverack College and Hudson River
cause. She will become prematurely knowing Institute, she then attended White Plains
in evil things. Soon she will learn to Hospitals nursing program in 1900.
tremble when she hears her masters Published The Woman Rebel in March of 1914
footfall. If God has bestowed beauty upon and was indicted in August of 1914 for
her, it will prove her greatest curse. obscenity laws because of its urging women
That whish commands admiration in the to use contraceptives Sanger returned to
white woman only hastens the degradation U.S. to face charges, charges were dropped
of the female slave. 4) Sex between master because 5 yr. old daughter died
and slave represent unequal power unexpectedly of pneumonia. In October
relationship, which is often exploited to 1916, first birth control clinic
the benefit of the master and the Brownsville, Brooklyn , only to be closed
detriment of the slave. My master met me down 9 days later. Margaret Sanger, Woman
at every turn, reminding me that I and the New Race (1920).
belonged to him, and swearing by heaven 113Background (cont.). She formed the
and earth that he would compel me to National Committee on Federal Legislation
submit to him. If I went out for a breath for Birth Control in 1929 in order to
of fresh air, after a day of unwearied lobby for legislation to allow physicians
toil, his footsteps dogged me. If I knelt to legally provide women with
by my mothers grave, his dark shadow fell contraceptives She helped form the
on me even there. The light heart which International Planned Parenthood
nature had given me became heavy with sad Federation in 1952 and served as its first
forebodings........ president until 1959. The 1965 Supreme
42Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life Court ruling in Griswold v. Connecticut
of a Slave Girl (1861) . Main Points: 5) A allowed married couples to legally acquire
slave had no recourse against violations, birth control. Margaret Sanger died on
and was often in a situation of isolation October 6, 1966. Margaret Sanger, Woman
and loneliness. I longed for some one to and the New Race (1920).
confide in..But Mr. Flint swore he would 114Main points. 1. Birth control is the
kill me, if I was not as silent as the concrete foundation for improving
grave. Then although my grandmother was civilization and diminishing the evils of
all in all to me, I feared her as well as society. The creators of over-population
loved her..I was very young and felt are the women, who, while wringing their
shamefaced about telling her such impure hands over each fresh horror, submit anew
things, especially as I knew her to be to their task of producing the multitudes
very strict on such subjects. 6) The wives who will bring about the next tragedy of
of the slave owners often also suffered civilization. She was replenishing the
from the unequal relations between their ranks of the prostitutes, furnishing grist
slave-master husbands and his female for the criminal courts and inmates for
slaves. Moreover, she often blamed the prisons.. Margaret Sanger, Woman and the
slave for her husbands infidelity. I had New Race (1920).
entered my sixteenth year, and every day 115Main points (cont.). 2. Birth control
it became more apparent that my presence is the way for women to attain basic
was intolerable to Mrs. Flint. Angry words freedom. They [women] are determined to
frequently passed between her and her decide for themselves whether they shall
husband. He had never punished me himself, become mothers, under what conditions and
and he would not allow any body else to when. Through birth control she will
punish me. In that respect, she was never attain to voluntary motherhood. Having
satisfied; but, in her angry moods, no attained this, the basic freedom of her
terms were to vile for her to bestow upon sex, she will cease to enslave herself and
me. Yet I, whom she detested so bitterly, the mass of humanity.. Margaret Sanger,
had far more pity for her than he had, Woman and the New Race (1920).
whose duty it was to make her life happy. 116Main points (cont.). 3. Women need to
I never wronged her; and one word of educate themselves on the issue of birth
kindness from her would have brought me to control. Doing so will diminish unwanted
her feet pregnancies and solve many of humanities
43Harriet Jacobs, Incidents in the Life weaknesses. Famine, tyrannies, insane,
of a Slave Girl (1861) . Main Points: 7) slums, and war. She cannot pay it with
Southern woman often looked at her palliatives-with child labor laws,
husbands-slave children as unwanted prohibition, regulations of prostitution
objects, who didnt deserve any special and agitation against war. War, famine,
treatment, and might preferably be sold. poverty and oppression of the workers will
..Southern woman often marry a man continue while woman makes life cheap.
knowing that he is the father of many They will cease only when she limits her
little slaves. They do not trouble reproductively and human life is no longer
themselves about it. They regard such a thing to be wasted.. Margaret Sanger,
children as property, as marketable as the Woman and the New Race (1920).
pigs on the plantation; and it is seldom 1173rd main point cont. The problem of
that they do not make them aware of this birth control has arisen from the effort
by passing them into the slave-traders of the feminine spirit to free itself from
hands as soon as possible, and thus bondage. Women herself has wrought that
getting them out of their sight. bondage through her reproductive powers
44Main Point 1: The new Constitution is and while enslaving herself has enslaved
similar to the old only better All the the world.. Margaret Sanger, Woman and
great principles of Magna Charta are the New Race (1920).
retained in it. No citizen is deprived of 118Main points (cont.). 4. Birth control
life, liberty or property, but by the is primarily a womans problem. Within
judgment of his peers, under the laws of her is wrapped up the future of the
the land. The great principle of religious race-it is hers to make or mar. It is
liberty, which was the honor and pride of womans duty as well as her privilege to
the old Constitution, is still maintained lay hold of the means of freedom. In an
and secured. So, taking the whole new ideal society, no doubt, birth control
Constitution, I have not hesitancy in would become the concern of the man as
giving it as my judgment, that it is well as the woman. Man has not only
decidedly better than the old.. Alexander refused any such responsibility, but has
Hamilton Stephens Slavery and the individually and collectively sought to
Confederacy. prevent woman from obtaining knowledge by
45Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery which she could assume this responsibility
and the Confederacy. Main Point 2: With for herself.. Margaret Sanger, Woman and
the Independence of the Confederate States the New Race (1920).
of America, the South will no longer 1194th main point cont. The task is
suffer from the oppressive tariffs of the hers. It cannot be avoided by excuses, nor
United States federal government. The can it be delegated. It is not enough for
old thorn of the tariff, which occasioned women to point to the self-evident
the cause of so much irritation in the old domination of man. It makes no difference
body politic, is removed forever from the that she does not formulate industrial
new The cost of the grading, the systems nor that she is an instinctive
superstructure and equipments of our roads believer in social justice. In her
was borne by those who entered upon the submission lies her error and her guilt.
enterprise The true principle is to She goes through the vale of death alone,
subject commerce of every locality to each time a babe is born. As it is the
whatever burdens may be necessary to right neither of man nor the state to
facilitate it.. coerce her into this ordeal, so it is her
46Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery right to decide whether she will endure
and the Confederacy. Main Point 3: Slavery it. Birth control is a womans problem.
is the cause of the split of the Union The quicker she accepts it as hers and
African slavery as it exists among hers alone, the quicker will society
us-the proper status of the negro in our respect motherhood. The quicker, too, will
form of civilization. This was the the world be made fit a place for her
immediate cause of the late rupture and children to live.. Margaret Sanger, Woman
present revolution. JEFFERSON anticipated and the New Race (1920).
this, as the rock upon which the old 120Historical Significance. Margaret
Union would splitWhat was conjecture Sanger revolutionized America more than
with him, is now realized fact. But anyone else has. She opened the minds of
whether he fully comprehended the great others to women's rights to choose when
truth upon which that rock stood and and how many children to have. By giving
stands, may be doubted. The prevailing women the opportunity to make choices
ideas entertained by him and most of the about motherhood she reduced the amount of
leading statesmen at the time of the evils in humanity. What would the world be
formation of the old Constitution were, like if there were not birth control? Can
that the enslavement of the African was in you imagine the crime rate, the depletion
violation of the laws of nature; that it of resources, famine, and other
was wrong in principle, socially, morally, tribulations if there was no control of
and politically. Those ideas, however, the population. By introducing a method to
were fundamentally wrong. They rested upon control the population, Sanger enhanced
the assumption of the equality of the the value of life for those who wanted
races. This was an error. It was a sandy children and those who did not. Life
foundation, and the idea of a Government became more of a gift for those who had
built upon it-when the storm came and the the opportunity to choose when to have
wind blew, it fell. (Matthew 7:27). children. Margaret Sanger, Woman and the
47Main Point 4: Slavery is the New Race (1920).
cornerstone of the Confederacy Our new 121Thousands gathered in Paris, Texas,
Government is founded upon exactly the for the 1893 lynching of Henry Smith.
opposite ideas; its foundations are laid, 122Thousands gathered in Paris, Texas,
its cornerstone rests, upon the great for the 1893 lynching of Henry Smith.
truth that the negro is not equal to the 123MAIN POINTS. For more than thirty
white man; that slavery, subordination to years Negroes were killed without due
the superior race, is his natural and process. During these years more than ten
moral condition. [Applause] This, our new thousand Negroes have been killed in cold
Government, is the first, in the history blood, without the formality of judicial
of the world, based upon this great trial and legal execution. Race Riots
physical, philosophical, and moral truth. Unjust Suffrage Violators of white women
It is upon this, as I have stated, our The government did nothing to stop brutal
social fabric is firmly planted.. lynchings of Negroes. The government
Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery and which had made the Negro a citizen found
the Confederacy. itself unable to protect him. It gave him
48Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery the right to vote, but denied him the
and the Confederacy. Main Point #5: protection which should have maintained
Northerners are fanatics. Those at the that right..
North who still cling to these errors with 124Main Points Continued. After Negroes
a zeal above knowledge, we justly were given emancipation, White women from
denominate fanatics. All fanaticism the north began teaching the negroes
springs from an aberration of the mind; despite allegations by southern white
from a defect in reasoning. It is a women that these negroes were violent.
species of insanity. Main Point #6: Before the world adjudges the Negro a
Northerners are trying to make equal what moral monster, a vicious assailant of
the Creator has made unequal. They assume womanhood and a menace to the sacred
that the negro is equal, and hence precincts of home, the colored people ask
conclude that he is entitled to equal the consideration of the silent record of
privileges and rights, with the white man. gratitude, respect, protection, and
If their premises were correct, their devotion of the millions of the race in
conclusions would be logical and just; but the South, to the thousands of northern
their premises being wrong, their whole white women who have served as teachers
argument fails. They were attempting to and missionaries since the war.
make things equal which the Creator had 125Main Points Continued. The Negroes
made unequal. The truth of the Negros were helpless in the fight against the
inferiority has been slow in the process white men. The white mans victory soon
of its development, like all other truths became complete by fraud, violence,
in the various departments of science.. intimidation, and murder. The franchise
Anti-Lincoln Political Ad, 1964. vouchsafed to the Negro grew to be a
49Alexander Hamilton Stephens Slavery barren ideality, and regardless of
and the Confederacy. Main Point 8: The numbers, the colored people found
people of the confederacy are peaceful themselves voiceless in the councils of
people, but do not try to coerce them. those whose duty it was to rule..
Our object is Peace, not only with the 126Spectacle lynching. The Burning and
North, but with the world The ideal of Lynching of Jesse Washington, Waco Texas
coercing us, or subjugating us, is utterly 1916. Although accurate figures on the
preposterous. Main Point 9: If we stay lynching of blacks are lacking, one study
true, we will succeed. Ifwe are true to estimates that in Texas between 1870 and
ourselves, true to our cause, true to our 1900, extralegal justice was responsible
destiny, true to our high mission, in for the murder of about 500 blacksonly
presenting to the world the highest type Georgia and Mississippi exceeded Texass
of civilization ever exhibited by numbers in this grisly record. Between
manthere will be found in our Lexicon no 1900 and 1910, Texas mobs murdered more
such word as FAIL.. than 100 black people. In 1916 at Waco,
50FAST DAYS SERMONS 1861. B.M. Palmer approximately 10,000 whites turned out in
M.J. Raphall Henry W. Beecher. holiday-like atmosphere to watch a mob
51Fast Day Sermons. In 1860 Pres. mutilate and burn a black man named Jesse
Buchanan called upon the nations ministers Washington. (Source: Calvert, De Leon and
to lead their congregations in a day of Cantrell, The History of Texas, pp. 189,
fasting. Church leaders from around the 261-262.).
nation lead sermons discussing their 127Booker T. Washington.
stands on slavery and the possible 128Main Point: We should concentrate on
succession of the south. work and progress. Blacks and whites need
52Rev. B.M. Palmer. From New Orleans, stop fighting, agitating and relocating.
was one of the leading members of the The South will progress if we work
Presbyterian church in the south. together. We only hurt ourselves by
53Slavery a Devine Trust: Duty of the fighting.
South to Preserve and Perpetuate it. God 129THE MESSAGE FOR BLACKS: Work hard, and
gave us slavery, and is trusting us to do not agitate for equality. Start at the
keep it going. My own conviction is, that bottom and work your way up. Cast it down
we should at once lift ourselves, in agriculture, mechanics, in commerce, in
intelligently, to the highest moral domestic service, and in the professions.
ground, and proclaim to all the world that when it comes to business, it is in the
we hold this trust from God. South that the Negro is given a mans
54Slavery is essential for our nations chance in the commercial world. Our
self-preservation. This system of greatest danger is that in the great leap
servitude supports our material inertest. from slavery to freedom we may overlook
Our wealth is in land and the people who the fact that the masses of us are to live
tend it. For production to be certain, we by the productions of our hands, and fail
must have certain labor. to keep in mind that we shall prosper in
55The worst foes of the black race are proportion as we learn to dignify and
those who have intermeddled on their glorify common labour and put brains and
behalf. We know better than others that skill into the common occupations of
every attribute of their character fits life. No race can prosper till it learns
them for dependence and servitude no that there is as much dignity in tilling a
calamity can befall them greater than the field as in writing a poem. It is at the
loss and protection that thy enjoy under bottom of life we must begin, and not at
this patriarchal system Freedom would be the top. The wisest among my race
their doom. understand that the agitation of questions
56It is a duty which we owe to the of social equality is the extremist folly,
civilized world. Not just America but the and that progress in the enjoyment of all
world has come to depend on slavery to the privileges that will come to us must
deliver products. Strike now a blow to be the result of severe and constant
this system of labor, and the world itself struggle rather than of artificial
totters at the stroke... forcing. However, working together does
57Slavery was given from GodSociety is not necessary include socializing
trying to take it away. Under this together.
specious cry of reform, it demands that 130THE MESSAGE FOR WHITES: We are a loyal
every evil be corrected, or society become and humble people who serve you well if
a wreck-the sun must be stricken from the you treat us well. It is in your interest
heavens, if a spot is found on his disk. to encourage and help black people. Cast
58Rabbi M.J. Raphall. Head of the Jewish it down among the eight millions of
Synagogue of New York. Negroes whose habits you know, whose
59Bible View of Slavery. The New fidelity and love you have tested.. Cast
Testament nowhere, directly or indirectly, down your bucket among these people who
condemns slaveholding God gave the ten have without strikes and labor wars tilled
commandments when it is commanded that your fields, cleared your forests, builded
the Sabbath of the lord is to bring rest your railroads and cities, brought forth
to Thy male slave and thy female slave treasures from the bowels of the earth,
Thou shalt not covet thy neighbors house just to make possible this magnificent
or his male slave, or his female slave. representation of the progress of the
60What gives you the right to condemn South. Casting down bucket among my
slavery? Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Job the people, helping and encouraging them as
men whom the Almighty conversed and whom you are doing on these grounds, and to
He vouchsafed to give the character of education of head, hand, and heart, you
perfect, upright, and fearing God were will find that they will buy your surplus
all slave holders. In their time slavery land, make blossom the waste places in
was lawful and wasnt a sin. When and by your fields, and run your factories. While
what authority did you draw that line?. doing this, you can be sure in the future,
61Rev. Henry W. Beecher. Was one of the as in the past, that you and your families
most prestigious church men in the United will be surrounded by the most patient,
States Minister to the prestigious faithful, law-abiding, and unresentful
Plymouth Church of Brooklyn. people that the world has seen. As we have
62The whole nation is guilty. The sins proved our loyalty to you in the past, in
of a nation are always the sins of a nursing your children, watching by the
certain central passion but they are the sickbed of your mothers and fathers, and
same sins The corrupt passion which often following them with tear-dimmed eyes
lead in the Southern States to all the to their graves, so in the future, in our
gigantic evil of slavery, in Northern humble way, we shall stand by you with a
cities break out in other forms Slavery devotion that no foreigner can approach,
started in the South because they loved ready to lay down our lives,. [We will
money. And the North went against its interlace ] our industrial, commercial,
morals because of their love for money. civil, and religious life with yours in a
63Were these theological divisions way that shall make the interests of both
irreconcilable? Does the Bible condemn or races one.
support the institution of slavery? 131THE MESSAGE FOR WHITES: If white
According to each of these ministers, what people insist on keeping the Negro down,
was the moral responsibility of a they will only be hurting themselves.
religious person in January 1861? Nearly sixteen millions of hands will aid
64Abraham Lincoln 1809-1865. The you in pulling the load upward, or they
Gettysburg Address. Born 1809 in Kentucky will pull against you the load downward.
to uneducated farmers in a one room log We shall constitute one-third and more of
cabin (making him the first President born the ignorance and crime of the South, or
outside of the 13 colonies) Elected to one-third its intelligence and progress;
Illinois General Assembly in 1834 Elected we shall contribute one-third to the
to US House of Representatives in 1846 business and industrial prosperity of the
Elected 16th President (first Republican) South, or we shall prove a veritable body,
of the US in 1861. of death, stagnating, depressing,
65Other facts about Ole Abe. Mother retarding every effort to advance the body
died when he was 9 years old. Became very politic. Stamp commemorating Booker T.
close to step-mother. Formal education was Washington Issue Date: April 7, 1940.
only 18 months. Very well read and mostly 132SIGNIFICANT FINE POINT FOR BOTH RACES:
self educated. Skilled in wrestling and We do not have to socialize together, but
using an axe. Stood 6 ft. 4 in. tall. we should work together for the common
Married to Mary Todd, whose family owned cause of development. In all things that
slaves. Had four sons. Only one survived are purely social we call be as separate
into adulthood, Robert Lincoln. as the fingers, yet one as the hand in all
66Historical Context Battle of things essential to mutual progress.
Gettysburg. Battle was July 1-July 3, 1863 133W.E.B. Du Bois, Strivings of the Negro
in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania Approximately: People (1897) Main Points: 1. Being a
163,000 soldiers fought the battle 7,500 problem [i.e. being an black person in
were killed 27,000 were wounded 11,100 19th c. America] is a disturbing
were captured or missing The southern experience, compelling one to always take
forces were defeated. other peoples estimation of them in
67The Gettysburg Address Delivered at consideration and creating a
the dedication of the Soldiers National double-consciousness. [T]he Negro is a
Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania sort of seventh son, born with a veil, and
November 19, 1863. 15,000 spectators were gifted with second-sight in this American
in attendance. world,--a world which yields him no
68Main Points. Our forefathers founded a self-consciousness, but only lets him see
nation in liberty on the proposition that himself through the revelation of the
all men are created equal. This war is other world. It is a peculiar sensation,
testing the nation on its endurance of this double-consciousness, this sense of
that premise. It would be improper to always looking at ones self through the
dedicate and hallow these grounds to the eyes of others, of measuring ones soul by
dead. Instead, we should dedicate the the tape of a world that looks on in
living to the work of preserving the amused contempt and pity.
nation. The men did not die in vain, but 1342. The African American feels his
died so the people could have freedom and duality of being both African and
a government that shall endure. American. One ever feels his two-ness,
69Frederick Jackson Turner. Born in an American, a Negro; two souls, two
Portage, Wisconsin, in 1861. His father thoughts, two unreconciled strivings; two
was journalist by trade and local warring ideals in one dark body, whose
historian which piqued Turner's interest dogged strength alone keeps it from being
in history Graduated from the University torn asunder. The history of the American
of Wisconsin in 1884 Turner decided to Negro is the history of this strife,
become a professional historian, and this longing to attain self-conscious
received his Ph.D. from Johns Hopkins manhood, to merge his double self into a
University in 1890. He was a teacher at better and truer self. In this merging he
the University of Wisconsin from 1889 to wishes neither of the older selves to be
1910, when he began to teach at Harvard. lost. He does not wish to Africanize
He retired in 1924 but continued his America, for America has too much to teach
research until his death in 1932. the world and Africa; he does not wish to
70The Significance of the Frontier in bleach his Negro blood in a flood of white
American History. Turner's major Americanism, for he believes foolishly,
contribution to American history was to perhaps, but fervently that Negro blood
argue that the frontier past best has yet a message for the world. He simply
explained the distinctive history of the wishes to make it possible for a man to be
United States. He first delivered this both a Negro and an American without being
lecture to a gathering of historians in cursed and spit upon by his fellows,
1893 at Chicago, which was the site of the without losing the opportunity of
World's Columbian Exposition which was an self-development. 3. The end of the
enormous fair to mark the four-hundredth Negros striving is to be a co-worker in
anniversary of Columbus' voyage. Although the kingdom of culture, to escape both
almost totally ignored at the time, death and isolation, and to husband and
Turner's lecture eventually gained such use his best powers.
wide distribution and influence that a 1353. Prejudice and discrimination keep
contemporary scholar has called it the freedman oppressed. The freedman has
"the single most influential piece of not yet found in freedom his promised
writing in the history of American land. Whatever of lesser good may have
history." come in these years of change, the shadow
71The Significance of the Frontier in of a deep disappointment rests upon the
American History. Three years before Negro people. 4. Americans, including
Turner's frontier thesis, the U.S. Census white Americans, should appreciate the
Bureau had announced the disappearance of Negro race. Work, culture, and
the frontier line. Turner took this liberty,--all these we need, not singly,
"closing of the frontier" as an but together; for to-day these ideals
opportunity to reflect upon the influence among the Negro people are gradually
the frontier had exercised. The coalescing, and finding a higher meaning
peculiarity of American institutions is in the unifying ideal of race,--the ideal
the fact that they have been compelled to of fostering the traits and talents of the
adapt themselves to the changes of an Negro, not in opposition to, but in
expanding people-to the changes involved conformity with, the greater ideals of the
in crossing a continent, in winning a American republic, in order that some day,
wilderness, and in developing at each area on American soil, two world races may give
of progress out of the primitive economic each to each those characteristics which
and political conditions of the frontier both so sadly lack.
into the complexity of city life.. 136W.E.B. Du Bois, The Niagara Movement,
72The Significance of the Frontier in (1905) We should meet, despite the
American History. The American Frontier existence of other organizations for
and European frontier differ. Turner Negroes. We must complain about common
described the European frontier as a wrongs toward blacks. We must complain.
fortified boundary line running through Yes, plain, blunt complaint, ceaseless
dense populations. Turner describes the agitation, unfailing exposure of
American frontier as that it lies on the dishonesty and wrongthis is the ancient,
hither edge of free land. unerring way to liberty, and we must
73The Significance of the Frontier in follow it. (p. 100) In not a single
American History. Turner observed how instance has the justice of our demands
Europeans entered the continent and how it been denied, but then come the excuses.
changed them. First it finds settlers in
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