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Antonin Artaud Sept
Antonin Artaud Sept
Antonin Artaud Sept
Antonin Artaud Sept
Artaud was reputedly unhappy with Dulac's realisation of his scenario,
Artaud was reputedly unhappy with Dulac's realisation of his scenario,
Artaud also acted in several movies He played Marat in Abel Gance's
Artaud also acted in several movies He played Marat in Abel Gance's
Final Years
Final Years
The Museum of Modern Art (NYC) had a showing of his drawings and
The Museum of Modern Art (NYC) had a showing of his drawings and
Artaud’s Theater of Cruelty
Artaud’s Theater of Cruelty
Artaud’s Theater of Cruelty
Artaud’s Theater of Cruelty
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1Artaud’s Theater of Cruelty. 19have the power they possess in dreams.
2Introduction. During the early 1930s, Language will become an incantation Action
the French dramatist and actor Antonin will remain the center of the play, but
Artaud put forth a theory for a Surrealist its purpose is to reveal the presence of
theatre called the Theatre of Cruelty. extraordinary forces in man. The
Based on ritual and fantasy, this form of metteur-en-sc?ne becomes a kind of
theatre launches an attack on the magician, a holy man, in a sense, because
spectators' subconscious in an attempt to he calls to life themes that are not
release deep-rooted fears and anxieties purely human.
that are normally suppressed, forcing 20"The theatre must make itself the
people to view themselves and their equal of life --- not an individual life,
natures without the shield of that individual aspect of life in which
civilization. CHARACTERS triumph, but the sort of
3Theatre of Cruelty usually minimizes liberated life which sweeps away human
the text by emphasizing screams, individuality and in which man is only a
inarticulate cries, and symbolic gestures. reflection. The true purpose of the
In order to shock the audience and thus theatre is to create Myths, to express
evoke the necessary response, the extremes life in its immense, universal aspects,
of human nature (often madness and and from that life to extract images in
perversion) are graphically portrayed on which we find pleasure in discovering
stage. ourselves."
4Antonin Artaud Sept. 4, 1896 - March 21The real objective of the theater for
4, 1948. Artaud is the translation of life into its
5French dramatist, poet, actor, and universal immense form, the form that will
theoretician of the Surrealist movement extract from life images in which we would
who attempted to replace the “bourgeois” have pleasure in being. This is what he
classical theatre with his “theatre of means by the word "double" (Le
cruelty,” a primitive ceremonial Th??tre et son double). The theater is not
experience intended to liberate the human a direct copy of reality; it is of another
subconscious and reveal man to himself. kind of dangerous reality where the
6Early Years. Artaud’s infancy was a principles of life are always just
difficult one and influenced him a lot At disappearing from beyond our vision. He
the age of four, Antonin had a severe compares these principles to dolphins, who
attack of meningitis. The virus gave as soon as they show their heads above the
Antonin a nervous, irritable temperament surface plunge down into the depths. This
throughout adolescence He also suffered reality is beyond man, with his habits and
from neuralgia, stammering and severe character. It is inhuman. If the theater
bouts of depression. As a teenager, he was is able to lead the spectator back into
stabbed in the back by a pimp for his world of dreams and primitive
apparently no reason, similar to the instincts, he will find himself "in a
experience of his fellow surrealist world that is bloodthirsty and
playwright Samuel Beckett. inhuman" (sanguinaire et inhumain).
7He was institutionalized by his 22Artaud has acknowledged that in this
parents in a sanatorium for five years, conception of the theater, he is calling
during which time he read the works of upon an elementary magical idea used by
Rimbaud, Baudelaire, and Poe In May 1919 modern psychoanalysis wherein the patient
he was prescribed opium, which opened the is cured by making him take an exterior
way to a life-long addiction to this drugs attitude of the very state that he should
and others as well. recover or discover. A play that contains
8In 1920, Artaud moved to Paris and the repressed forces of man will liberate
tried to publish some of his poems He sent him from them. By plastic graphic means,
his Surrealist poetry L'Ombilic des limbes the stage production will appeal to the
(1925; “Umbilical Limbo”) and Le spectators, and will even bewitch them and
P?se-nerfs (1925; Nerve Scales) to the induce them into a kind of trance.
influential critic Jacques Rivi?re, thus 23Final Years. Artaud was committed to a
beginning their long correspondence. psychiatric hospital from 1937 to 1946
9He studies acting in Paris and made During his stay at the asylum, Artaud's
his debut in Aur?lien Lugn?-Po?'s behavior was characterized by delusions,
Dadaist-Surrealist Th??tre de l'Oeuvre. auditory hallucinations, glossolalia and
Expelled from the Surrealist movement when violent tantrums. He underwent a myriad of
he co-founded Th??tre Alfred Jarry with bizarre treatments for this behavior
Roger Vitrac. (they ran this theater including coma-inducing insulin therapy
together for two years, from 1926-1928). and electroshock therapy.
He produced and directed original works, 24Antonin Artaud's final work was a
as well as pieces by Claudel and radiophonic creation entitled "To
Strindberg. Have Done With The Judgment Of God.“ The
10Artaud also developed a passion for work was recorded in the studios of the
cinema He wrote the script for the first French Radio at the end of 1947 and
Surrealist film, The Seashell and the scheduled to be broadcast at 10:45 PM on
Clergyman, directed by Germaine Dulac. The February 2, 1948, but the broadcast was
film is about a clergy man who, obsessed cancelled at the last minute by the
with a general’s woman, has strange director of French Radio, Vladimir Porche
visions of death and lust, struggling Artaud died a little over a month later,
against his own eroticism. profoundly disappointed over the rejection
11Artaud was reputedly unhappy with of the work. It was not broadcast over the
Dulac's realisation of his scenario, and airwaves until thirty years later.
it's true that the story's 25In the actual text of "To Have
anti-clericalism is somewhat undermined by Done With The Judgment Of God"
the director's determined visual lyricism. America is denounced as a baby factory
12At the film's premier, writer Antonin war-mongering machine. Bloody and
Artaud, who was obviously not pleased by apocalyptic death rituals are described.
what director Germain Dulac did to his Shit is vividly exalted as evidence of
screenplay, shouted at the screen life and mortality. Questions about
insulting her as a cow. The British Board consciousness and knowledge are pursued
of Film Censors banned this film in the UK and answered with more unanswerable
in 1927, saying, "This film is so questions. It all dead-ends in a scene in
obscure as to have no apparent meaning. If which God itself turns up on an autopsy
there is a meaning, it is doubtless table as a dissected organ taken from the
objectionable." defective corpse of mankind. In the
13Artaud also acted in several movies He recording all this would have been
played Marat in Abel Gance's film Napol?on interspersed with shrieks, screams,
(1927) and appeared as a friar in Carl grunts, and an extensive vocabulary of
Dreyer's classic film La Passion de Jeanne nonsense words-.
d'Arc (1928). 26Artaud and Brook. Artaud and his
14In 1935, Artaud staged The Cinci, his Theater of Cruelty did not achieve
adaptation of the texts by Shelley and popularity during his lifetime Artaud
Stendhal. Le Cenci was destined by Artaud became known and applauded for the first
to establish a closer contact between time after Brook’s experiment in the
actors and spectators than the normal 1960’s Brook, assisted by Charles Marowitz
theater could ever realize In this selected a group of 12 actors and
production mechanical devices were used to organised a 5-days long production. Their
create a visible and audible frenzy: work was presented under the name of
strident and dissonant sound effects, “Theater of Cruelty” and employed some of
whirling stage sets, the effects of storms Artaud’s theories. One of Brooks
by means of light, unusual speech effects. productions, “Marat/Sade”, was one of the
The production was a failure. most successful and influencial
15In 1938, Artaud published “The Theatre productions of the ’60s.
and Its Double”, the most important of his 27Trivia. Artaud believed that sexual
works This book contained the two activity, including masturbation, was
manifestos of the Theater of Cruelty, harmful to the creative process and should
essential texts in understanding his be avoided if one hoped to achieve purity
artistic project. In his book The Theatre in one's art.
and Its Double, Artaud expressed his 28The Museum of Modern Art (NYC) had a
admiration for Eastern forms of theatre, showing of his drawings and paintings,
particularly the Balinese. composed while he was a patient in a
16Influence of the Balinese Theater. At mental institution, where he was
the Colonial Exposition of 1931, where he encouraged to draw and paint as part of
saw the Balinese theater, he was struck by his therapy. [1996].
the tremendous difference between those 29Who am I? Where do I come from? I am
plays and our traditional Western play. A Antonin Artaud and if I say it as I know
dramatic presentation should be an act of how to say it immediately you will see my
initiation during which the spectator will present body fly into pieces and under ten
be awed and even terrified--and to such a thousand notorious aspects a new body will
degree that he will lose control of his be assembled in which you will never again
reason. "All true feeling is in be able to forget me.
reality untranslatable. To express it is 30
to betray it. But to translate it is to 31
dissimulate it." 32In January 1948, Artaud was diagnosed
17The fact that words are not the with intestinal cancer. He died shortly
essential features in Balinese theatre afterwards on March 4, 1948. Artaud died
appealed strongly to Artaud; he who had alone in his pavilion, seated at the foot
always had such difficulties formulating of his bed, holding his shoe. It was
ideas by means of them and who described suspected that he died from a lethal dose
his struggles in this domain so of the drug chloral, although whether or
pathetically. Artaud was absolutely not he was aware of its lethality is
convinced that words are just incapable of unknown. He didn't want any church burial
expressing certain attitudes and feelings, but his family decided to do it against
and that these can be revealed only his will. Only actress Maria Casar?s and a
through gestures or sounds, symbolically few other friends tried to oppose.
felt. 33Quote. “The truth of life lies in the
18Although Artaud was usually impulsiveness of matter. The mind of man
condemnatory of Christianity, he defined has been poisoned by concepts. Do not ask
the goal of the theater in spiritual him to be content, ask him only to be
terms. Its "sacred" goal, he calm, to believe that he has found his
claimed, is to communicate delirium place. But only the madman is really calm.
whereby the spectators will experience “.
trances and inspiration. A true play, 34Bibliography. www.imdb.com
according to Artaud's concept, will www.wikipedia.com www.timeout.com
disturb in the spectator his tranquillity http://www.strangemusic.com/philostone_bal
of mind and his senses, and it will nese.htm
liberate his subconscious. The method http://www.deutsches-filminstitut.de/colla
Artaud proposes by which this will be e/collate_sp/se/se_05_02.html
brought about is to associate the theater
with danger and cruelty. "This will http://www.albany.edu/scj/jcjpc/vol8is3/sh
bring the demons to the surface," he ham.html#------.%201986.
says. http://members.aol.com/mindwebart2/page169
19Words spoken on the stage will then htm.
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