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1AUTOMOTIVE CORE TOOLS; SPC, MSA, FMEA, 23material quarantined; (Corrective Action
APQP/CONTROL PLAN CQI Wessex - 11 December Report - CAR). . . . . . . . . .
2012 John Skinner. rdaconsultancy.com. 1. . . . . . . . . . Date (Original):
2AUTOMOTIVE PROGRESS SINCE 1990. Best Date (Original): Customer Engg. Appr./Date
selling car in the UK in 1990 – Ford (Opt): Customer Engg. Appr./Date (Opt):
Fiesta – sold in EU 1.4, 1.6 CVH engines Cust. Quality Appr./Date (Opt): Cust.
were very harsh and had early failures Quality Appr./Date (Opt): Other
(valve guide wear, dropping valve seats Approval/Date (Optional): Other
damaging the engine). Rust was still a Approval/Date (Optional): Control Plan
problem, though better than the 1970’s No.: Control Plan No.: CP001. CP001.
& 80’s. Radio-cassette, some speaker CP001. Methods. . . . . . Eval. Mst.
adjustments, maybe electric windows. No Technique. Sample Size. Sample Frequency.
a/c and definitely no climate control. No Control Method. Reaction Plan. .
airbags, little in the way of crumple 24Control Plan. Identifies the controls
zones. Central locking on higher end required to ensure product quality with a
models. Door mirrors had ‘remote focus on special characteristics Defines
adjustment’ on top models. Security was the reaction plans required to be
very poor – cars like the XR2 were being implemented where non-conformance is
stolen by joyriders on a regular basis identified (containment of product, 100%
(epidemic levels in some areas). Car inspection to ensure process becomes
insurance costs on ‘hot’ models went stable and capable) Is an output from the
through the roof. No ABS, stability FMEA process.
control etc. Cost – around ?8500 – roughly 25Statistical Process Control.
equivalent to ?15000 in today’s prices. Traditional inspection techniques (patrol
3WHAT CHANGED? Improvements demanded by inspection, batch sampling etc.) rely on
legislation (emissions, safety), safety detection, which is wasteful as time and
(NCAP), competition (i.e. VW/Audi), resources are put into producing parts
consumer demand (phone compatibility, that are not always useable Prevention
convenience features etc.) A thorough verses detection; i.e. not producing the
focus on improved product quality achieved non-conforming parts in the first place is
through; computer modelling/simulation, an obvious preferred situation If we can
enhanced testing techniques (bench and predict the process output, then we may be
road), consumer feedback (JD Power), able to ensure conforming parts
supplier capability, effective corrective Statistical techniques can be used for
action (8D) Increased use of electronics process control.
(particularly powertrain) Need to improve 26Process Control System Model with
product reliability (reducing warranty/ Feedback. Manufacturing Process. People
product recall costs) Application of Equipment Materials Methods Environment.
ISO/TS16949 and mandated use of Automotive Product. Customers. Inputs. Feedback from
Core Tools ? Customers. Statistical Process Control
4ISO/TS16949. Initiated as QS9000 in (SPC). Identifying changing expectations;
1995, based on the requirements of direct feedback on product quality.
ISO9001, but adds many automotive industry 27Goals of SPC. To achieve a state of
specific requirements (though only one statistical control (stability) To
additional documented procedure from maintain a state of statistical control
ISO9001) Produced and controlled by the (stability over time; prevention verses
International Automotive Task Force (IATF) detection) To improve process capability.
Members include; Ford, GM, VW/Audi, PSA, 28Statistical Process Control. Taking
BMW, Chrysler, Renault, Daimler and major action on the result of the output of a
trade organisations across the globe process (traditional inspection
Recognised and required as a prerequisite techniques) permits waste –
for becoming an ‘approved supplier’ to the rejected/reworked product, wasted
respective automotive customers. resources, potential for rejects to
5AUTOMOTIVE REQUIREMENTS. APQP; ‘escape’ the process Understanding the
Advanced Product Quality Planning FMEA; variation of the process and applying
Failure Mode & Effect Analysis Control statistical techniques allows for
Plan SPC; Statistical Process Control MSA; predictable process output (capability) To
Measurement System Analysis These require do this, we need to understand the types
a team approach (cross functional teams of variation present in the process.
with management commitment) Automotive 29Statistical Process Control. Machining
Industry Action Group (AIAG) manuals process; part dimensions vary from each
define basic requirements for application other. If the output is stable (only
There are other requirements, based on the common cause variation), the results form
customer. a pattern that can be described as
6Advanced Product Quality Planning distribution. Size. Size.
(APQP). ISO9001 requires Planning of 30Statistical Process Control. Common
Product Realisation; The Automotive cause variation; inherent in the process –
industry goes further; ‘Some customers backlash/clearances, coolant feed, machine
refer to project management or APQP as a tolerances. Special cause variation (or
means to achieve product realization. APQP assignable cause) – machine set up,
embodies the concepts of error prevention material change, environment.
and continual improvement as contrasted 31Special Cause Variation. If special
with error detection and is based on a causes of variation are present, the
multidisciplinary approach’. (extract from process output is not stable over time and
ISO/TS). is not generally predictable; we cannot
7Advanced Product Quality Planning. Why always use sampling and SPC to control the
plan? What gets in the way of planning? process. Target line. Predictable ? Time.
8Product Quality Planning Timing Chart. Size.
Concept Initiation /Approval. Program 32Common Cause Variation. If only common
Approval. Prototype. Pilot. Launch. causes of variation are present, the
Planning. Planning. Product design. output of a process forms a distribution
Process design. Validation. Production. that is stable over time and is
Feedback assessment & corrective predictable; we can then monitor the
action. Product Design & Development process using sampling and SPC charts.
Verification. Product & Process 33Statistical Process Control. _ X –
Validation. Plan & Define Programme. Range Control chart (AIAG SPC manual).
Feedback Assessment & Corrective 34General Rules for Interpretation. A
Action. point outside a control limit 7 points in
9APQP – Project Scope. 2011 model year a row on one side of the centreline 6
Range Rover – minor changes. points in a row steadily increasing or
10APQP – Project Scope. 2012/13 model decreasing 2 out of 3 points more than 2
year Range Rover - major project. New standard deviations from the centreline
design, technologies, material – (same side) 4 out of 5 points less than
aluminium, using self piercing rivets and one standard deviation from the centreline
aerospace sourced epoxy adhesive. (same side).
11Advanced Product Quality Planning 35Process Capability. Capability indices
(APQP). Advantages; Thorough planning and are able to summarise process performance
improved decision making Shorter as a number to reflect how well the
development timescales Simultaneous process will meet customer requirements
engineering (design & manufacturing) (specification). They will indicate; - How
Early procurement of long lead time variable the process is (i.e. spread of
tooling/facilities Defined objectives, results) - Where the process output is in
measured as project stages are achieved relation to the specification limits.
Defined project gateways, with key 36Process Capability. Upper
deliverables Improved use of resources specification. Lower specification.
Significant cost savings (known impact on Process variation or spread. Tolerance.
company finances) Effective feedback & 37Capability Indices. Process
corrective action (enhanced with use of capabilities are an index produced by
computer systems). comparing the observed process variation
12Failure Mode & Effect Analysis or spread against the required tolerance.
(FMEA). Typically used at design (DFMEA) Examples include; Capability Index Cp =
and manufacturing process planning (PFMEA) USL - LSL 6 ? (process variation) _ _
stages FMEA - a systematic set of Capability Index Cpk = USL – x OR x - LSL
activities intended to: Recognise and (largest of) 3 ? 3 ? i.e. Worst case
evaluate the potential failure of a result Cpk will indicate the position of
product/process and the consequential the process relative to the specification
effects of failure (risk management) (i.e. centering).
Identify actions that could eliminate or 38Capability Indices. If the process
reduce the chance of the potential failure data has a normal distribution, the
occurring (improvement) Document the following can be used to interpret Cpk:
entire process Needs a ‘team approach’ to Cpk Approximate proportion out of spec
be successful. 1.33 63/1,000,000 1.67 0.6/1,000,000 2.0
13DFMEA. DFMEA. . System. FMEA Number: 0.02/1,000,000 (Where the process is
001. 001. 001. 001. FMEA Team: xxxxxxxx. centred between the specification limits).
. Subsystem. FMEA Date: (Original). 39Attribute Charting. Attribute data is
xxxxxxxxxx. Team Leader: xxxxxxxx. X. the result of inspection or testing that
Component. xxxxxxx. (Revised). . . . . produce a fixed result and cannot be
. . . . . . . . . . Action measured using measurement equipment e.g.
Results. . . . . Item and Function/ number of paint defects on a door panel,
Requirements. Potential Failure Mode. number of rejected units from a functional
Potential Effect(s) of Failure. Severity. test batch, number of weld failures on a
Class. Potential Cause(s)/ Mechanism(s) of floor-pan assembly Attributes can also be
Failure. Occurrence. Current Controls - monitored using control charts with
Prevention. Current Controls -Detection. control limits to determine long term
Detection. RPN. Recommended Action. stability.
Responsibility and Target Completion Date. 40What are the Benefits of SPC? Properly
Action Taken. Severity. Occurrence. used, control charts and SPC can:
Detection. RPN. . . . 9. . . 5. . . Distinguish special from the common causes
5. 225. . . . 9. 3. 3. 81. of variation, as an aid to improvement in
14DFMEA. DFMEA. . System. FMEA Team: capability Enable the process perform
xxxxxxxx. . Subsystem. Team Leader: consistently and predictably Provide a
xxxxxxxx. X. Component. Wheel hub. . . common language for discussing the
. . . . . . . . . Item and performance of the process (capability
Function/ Requirements. Potential Failure indices) Be used by employees for on-going
Mode. Potential Effect(s) of Failure. control of a process.
Severity. Class. Potential Cause(s)/ 41Measurement System Analysis (MSA). As
Mechanism(s) of Failure. Occurrence. measurement data is often used to make
Current Controls - Prevention. Current decisions with regard to manufacturing
Controls -Detection. Detection. RPN. Wheel (and test) activities then the ‘quality’
bolts; Support wheel & tyre Transmit of this data needs to be assured No
loads to stub axle/vehicle suspension. measurement system is ‘perfect’ (i.e.
Bolts fail after wheel impact with kerb. measures exactly with reference to known
Loss of wheel,loss of control of vehicle, standards each time); some variation will
possible fatalities, resulting legal be evident in all systems, including human
action. 10. CC. Incorrect material grade influences A series of analytical
(new hub nut design). 7. Design techniques can be used to ensure that the
calculations. Pre design freeze test to inherent variation in measurement systems
failure vaidation. 5. 350. can be determined and the effects
15DFMEA. FMEA Number: 001. 001. 001. understood i.e. possibility for accepting
001. FMEA Date: (Original). xxxxxxxxxx. ‘bad’ parts and rejecting ‘good’ parts In
(Revised). . . . Action Results. . . essence, we need to understand the
. . Recommended Action. Responsibility variation and limitations of the
and Target Completion Date. Action Taken. measurement systems we are using to enable
Severity. Occurrence. Detection. RPN. confidence in those results (for equipment
Conduct a full virtual analysis using on the control plan).
design FEA & simulation software 42Measurement System Analysis.
(proven performance). PTO engineering; Q1 43Variable Gauge R&R study. Gauge
2013. Virtual anlysis completed; results repeatability and reproducibility data
acceptable to spec. xxxx. 10. 7. 2. 140. sheet used for the numerical analysis of
16DFMEA. Ignores manufacturing issues; the study data (MSA software is also
i.e. manufacturing producing/using parts available). 10 parts used to represent
that are to specification Can direct variability of the process; 3 appraisers.
design effort to critical/significant Typically 3 trials per appraiser Complete
characteristics and improve design the study using usual equipment and
validation/ verification testing results, individuals (random presentation of parts
avoiding late design changes Identifies to avoid influence on the results).
special characteristics that need to be 44Gauge R&R. Extract from the AIAG
controlled in manufacturing to assure MSA manual.
product quality Provides a documented 45Variable Gauge R&R study. The
record of the analysis which can be used study estimates the variation and
into the future (many vehicle recalls percentage of process variation for the
could have been prevented by effective measurement system (Gauge R&R) and its
DFMEA) Needs to be maintained as a live components - Repeatability -
document; continual improvement. Reproducibility - Part to part variation
17PFMEA. A PFMEA will follow the stages (how representative the parts are; this
defined for the manufacturing route from will influence the results).
material receipt, through the 46Gauge R&R. Acceptable Gauge
manufacturing stages to despatch Typically R&R% results; Up to 10% - generally
the manufacturing route will be defined on acceptable 10 to 30% - may be acceptable
a process flow diagramme, including based on importance of measurement
locations, machines, operation sequences feature, cost of better equipment, cost of
etc. refurbishment/repair of equipment, OR the
18PFMEA. PFMEA. . System. FMEA Team: skill level of the appraisers Over 30% -
xxxxxxxx. . Subsystem. Team Leader: would be considered un-acceptable and
xxxxxxxx. X. Component. Wheel hub/new improvement is required Where results are
design. . . . . . . . . . . . not acceptable, check the data,
Item and Function/ Requirements. Potential calculations etc. to determine if there
Failure Mode. Potential Effect(s) of are any errors.
Failure. Severity. Class. Potential 47Use of Graphical Techniques. There are
Cause(s)/ Mechanism(s) of Failure. many different methods for presenting data
Occurrence. Current Controls - Prevention. for analysis ‘A picture paints a thousand
Current Controls -Detection. Detection. words’. The AIAG MSA manual strongly
RPN. OP 70; Finish machine bearing bores recommends the use of both calculated
(CNC)/ dimensions to specification. methods and graphical techniques. Other
Bearing ? oversize. Bearing wear (with methods are available for specific
warning), loss of wheel, loss of control situations and where more detail is
of vehicle, possible fatalities, resulting required – Analysis of Variance (ANOVA),
legal action. 100% of product may be gauge performance curves, regression
scrapped. 9. CC. Incorrect tooling set up. analysis etc.
5. Pre-set tooling used. Post operation 48Attribute Studies. Go/No-go gauging
gauging - 10%. 6. 270. systems (acceptance gauging, gap gauges
19PFMEA. FMEA Number: 001. 001. 001. etc.) A series of comparative techniques
001. FMEA Date: (Original). xxxxxxxxxx. are available to evaluate the
(Revised). . . . Action Results. . . effectiveness of attribute gauging
. . Recommended Action. Responsibility systems, again using several appraisers
and Target Completion Date. Action Taken. and trials.
Severity. Occurrence. Detection. RPN. 49Product Part Approval Process (PPAP).
Install in-station gauging as part of The intent of PPAP is to validate that
machine upgrade. PTO engineering; Q1 2013. products made from production
in-station gauging integrated into tools/processes meet engineering
machine; auto lockout on detection. 9. 5. requirements (specifications), that the
3. 135. processes are capable (Cpk, SPC data) and
20PFMEA. Focuses on potential for are capable of producing acceptable
non-conforming product (in use and impact product consistently over time. The type
on manufacturing process including and format of submission will depend on
employee safety) and mistake proofing the customer requirements, but the AIAG
techniques Identification/prioritisation PPAP manual has defined formats.
of potential failure modes and 50PPAP. To support this, appropriate
implementation of preventive/corrective data has to be completed and be made
action Focus on special characteristics available for review by the customer; Part
Continual improvement Assumes product as Submission Warrant (PSW), DFMEA, PFMEA,
designed will meet intent Should be Control Plan, MSA data, initial process
extended to other areas; receiving, capability results, material
storage, transport, despatch etc. certification, marked up drawing/
(complete process) Provide feedback to dimensional results, engineering change
design (mistake proofing features etc.). documents, material/performance test
21Control Plan. A documented description results, qualified laboratory
of the systems and processes required for documentation, appearance approval report
controlling product This is a key output (if applicable), sample product Approval
once the DFMEA and PFMEA analysis has been may require full or partial submission of
completed Applies to distinct stages; the information (invariably depending on
Prototype, Pre-launch and Production. Each supplier approval status) reviewed at the
part must have a control plan, but family customer location or supplier site.
control plans can be used where justified 51PPAP. Acceptance of the PPAP detail is
(e.g. a foundry producing many different key for several possible events; Authority
castings). to ship production parts Meeting customer
22Control Plan. Control Plan. Control timing requirements for the project
Plan. Control Plan. . . . . . N/A. . Support the supplier approval rating (i.e.
. . Production Control Plan. . . . . PSW submission on time) Trigger tooling
. . . . . . . . . . . OP 70; payments to the supplier (tooling will
Finish machine bearing bores (CNC). Finish typically be owned by the customer).
machine; 25mm/min, CBN tip (XYZ). . xxxx. 52AUTOMOTIVE PROGRESS SINCE 1990. Best
. . xxx, xxx, aaa, bbb, ccc. #REF! . . selling car in the UK 2012 (to date) -
. . . . . . . . 70. XXX CNC Ford Fiesta. ex. Zetec 1.2 - ?12495 OTR
machining centre. . Bearing Inner Bore price – 3 year warranty, plus breakdown
diameter. CC. 75 +0.008 -0.000 mm 0.003 mm cover – sold in EU & USA. Airbags x2,
run out max. In cycle gauging. . . . . side airbags, knee airbag, anti-whiplash
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . head restraints, optional curtain airbags
. . . . . . . . . . Wheel Hub / ABS, brake force distribution, stability
new design. #REF! . . . #REF! . Part control, traction assist, auto brake
#: Prepared By: Prepared By: Part assist, auto hazard warning lights High
Name/Description: Part Name/Description: strength steels, active seat belts,
Core Team: Core Team: Notes: Latest Change anti-submarine seats, Halogen projector
Level: Latest Change Level: Supplier/Plant head lights Immobiliser/alarm, deadlock
App./Date: Supplier/Plant App./Date: doors Heated, electric remote door
Vendor ID: . Other Approval/Date: Other mirrors, auto wipers with rain sensor,
Approval/Date: . Supplier Plant/Code: alloy wheels Radio/CD,, AUX connection for
Supplier Plant/Code: Oper. #. Process phones, IPODs, A/C etc. 4 way adjustable
Description. Machine/Device/Jig/Tools. front seats Electronic power assist
Characteristics. Characteristics. steering, advanced engines up to 85 mpg
Characteristics. CC. . . . Item#. possible with some models.
Product. Process. SC. Process/Pdt. 53Summary. In truth, many factors have
Spec./Tolerance. G.ID. influenced the improvement in product
23Control Plan. . . . . . . . . quality over the past 20 odd years, but
. . . . . . . . . . . . xxxxx. the use of APQP and core tools have
xxxxx. xxxxx. . . . . . . In cycle provided a focus on improved process
gauging. 100%. 100%. Machine control capability and product quality/
datalogger. Lock out; setter informed, reliability throughout the automotive
machine checked and re-set. Suspect supply chain. The aerospace industry are
material quarantined; (Corrective Action now utilizing many of these tools to
Report - CAR). Lock out; setter informed, improve supplier performance.
machine checked and re-set. Suspect 54Questions Thank you.
AUTOMOTIVE CORE TOOLS; SPC, MSA, FMEA, APQPCONTROL PLAN CQI Wessex - 11 December 2012 John Skinner.ppt
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