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Database Design

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1Database Design. Sections 12 & 15 20D_PLAY_LIST_ITEMS, D_JOB_ASSIGNMENTS
- Introduction to Application Express Global Fast Foods database tables:
(APEX) SQL editor, Introduction to SQL F_CUSTOMERS, F_REGULAR_MENUS,
statements. F_PROMOTIONAL_MENUS, F_SHIFTS, F_STAFFS,
2Using APEX SQL editor. You may either F_FOOD_ITEMS, F_ORDERS, F_ORDER_LINES,
type the command into the SQL editor or F_SHIFT_ASSIGNMENTS Print out these tables
use the cut and paste option If you are for your reference when using the
going to cut/paste the command copy the Application Express editor These tables
command from the word or PowerPoint are available on the Student Resource web
document into NotePad. This will drop out page for this class. Marge Hohly. 20.
hidden characters. You may need to do some 21Review the tables. There are six
editing to remove extra characters, or properties of tables in a relational
replace incorrect characters. Next copy database: Property 1: Entries in columns
the command from the NotePad into the are single-valued. Property 2: Entries in
editor. Marge Hohly. 2. columns are of the same kind. Property 3:
3Enter SQL command. Marge Hohly. 3. Each row is unique. Property 4: Sequence
4Display the Table structure. Enter the of columns is insignificant. Property 5:
following command: DESCRIBE music; The Sequence of rows is insignificant.
structure of the table should be shown. Property 6: Each column has a unique name.
Results on next slide. Marge Hohly. 4. Marge Hohly. 21.
5Music Table Structure. Marge Hohly. 5. 22Categories of SQL Statements. Data
6Select command structure. SELECT manipulation language (DML) statements
field1, field2, field3 FROM table_name Begin with INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, or
WHERE condition; Try the following command MERGE Used to modify the table by entering
SELECT employee_id, first_name, last_name, new rows, changing existing rows, or
department_id FROM employees; SELECT removing existing rows. Data definition
employee_id, first_name, last_name, language (DDL) statements set up, change,
department_id FROM employees WHERE and remove data structures from the
department_id = 90; Marge Hohly. 6. database. The keywords CREATE, ALTER,
7Resulting Screen. Marge Hohly. 7. DROP, RENAME, and TRUNCATE begin DDL
8SQL DESCRIBE. DESCRIBE <table statements. Transaction control (TCL)
name>; DESCRIBE employees; Try the last statements are used to manage the changes
statement. Marge Hohly. 8. made by DML statements. Changes to the
9Inserting Data. INSERT INTO tablename data are executed using COMMIT, ROLLBACK,
(column1, column2,....) and SAVEPOINT. TCL changes can be grouped
VALUES(value1,value2,...); Remember together into logical transactions. Data
character data needs to be enclosed in control language (DCL) keywords GRANT and
single quotes. Marge Hohly. 9. REVOKE are used to give or remove access
10Insert Data. Note the data types for rights to the database and the structures
each column Inserting data into the table. within it. Marge Hohly. 22.
Since the table is empty all fields need 23Questions. The Fast Foods database
to be populated, so column names can be consists of how many tables? ____ tables
omitted INSERT INTO music VALUES How is the F_SHIFTS table related to the
(10,'Marge Hohly','Folk'); This will F_STAFFS table? What are the names of the
insert one record into the table Next columns in the F_CUSTOMERS table? How many
display the contents of the table to view rows of data have been entered in the
the data SELECT * FROM music; Marge Hohly. F_PROMOTIONAL_MENUS table? In the
10. F_FOOD_ITEMS table, column _________ is a
11Insert Data into table. INSERT INTO foreign-key column. What table and column
<table name> VALUES (value 1, value is this key referencing? List the primary
2, value 3, etc); INSERT INTO music VALUES key to foreign key relationships required
(10,'Marge Hohly','Folk'); Marge Hohly. to go from the F_SHIFTS table to the
11. F_REGULAR_MENUS table. Which table(s)
12Typical error messages. The following contain null values? Marge Hohly. 23.
statement has a spelling error: SELCT * 24KEYWORD, CLAUSE, STATEMENT. Throughout
FROM employees; The error message is: this course, the words keyword, clause,
ORA-00900: invalid SQL statement The and statement are used as follows: A
following statement incorrectly names the keyword refers to an individual SQL
table employee instead of employees: element. For example, SELECT and FROM are
SELECT * FROM employee; The error message keywords. A clause is a part of a SQL
is: ORA-00942: table or view does not statement. SELECT employee_id, last_name,
exist Run the correct statement. Marge .... is a clause. A statement is a
Hohly. 12. combination of two or more clauses. SELECT
13Subset of data WHERE clause. SELECT * FROM employees; is a SQL statement.
<column name 1, column name 2, etc.> Marge Hohly. 24.
FROM <table name> WHERE 25Selection vs. Projection. 10. John.
<condition>; SELECT first_name, Doe. 4000. 20. Jane. Jones. 3000. 30.
last_name, salary FROM employees WHERE Sylvia. Smith. 5000. 40. Hai. Nguyen.
salary > 5000; Marge Hohly. 13. 6000. SELECT salary FROM employees WHERE
14ALTER table structure. ALTER TABLE last_name like ‘Smith’; Selection (row)
<table name> ADD Projection (column). ID. First_name.
(<new_column_name> <data Last_name. salary. Marge Hohly. 25.
type>); Try to modify the structure of 26Join. Marge Hohly. 26.
the MUSIC table Add a column (which you 27SELECT statement. SELECT statements
will misspell) COUNTRI instead of can provide the same information depending
COUNTRY). ALTER TABLE my_music ADD on how they are written Example: SELECT *
(countri VARCHAR2(20)); Marge Hohly. 14. FROM d_songs; SELECT id, title, duration,
15Deleting a column from a table. ALTER artist, type_code FROM d_songs; Marge
TABLE <table name> DROP COLUMN Hohly. 27.
<column_name>; Now delete the column 28SELECTION. SELECT * FROM employees
(COUNTRI) you just added. Marge Hohly. 15. WHERE department_id = 60; SELECT * FROM
16Deleting a row. DELETE from <table employees WHERE salary > 10000; Marge
name> WHERE <column_name> = 'some Hohly. 28.
value' ; DELETE from music WHERE musicid = 29Projections. A subset of columns
10; DELETE from music WHERE type = ‘Folk’; SELECT first_name, last_name, salary FROM
Marge Hohly. 16. employees; SELECT id, title, artist FROM
17Database Facts. Currently 20% of the d_songs; Marge Hohly. 29.
world's data resides in relational RDBMSs. 30Arithmetic Expressions. Create
In the next two years, databases are expressions with number and date data by
expected to grow larger than 100 using arithmetic operators. Operator.
terabytes. A database this big would be Description. +. Add. -. Subtract. *.
able to store 100,000 copies of the Multiply. /. Divide. Marge Hohly. 30.
Encyclopedia Britannica or 200,000 hours 31Operator Precedence. Operator
of music or about 10 billion web pages. Precedence Multiplication and division
The top 10 world's largest databases using take priority over addition and
the Oracle RDBMS are: France Telecom, subtraction. Operators of the same
29.2TB -- a communications company (a TB priority are evaluated from left to right.
is a terabyte equivalent to 1,000 Parentheses are used to force prioritized
gigabytes) Amazon.com with, 13 TB -- evaluation and to clarify statements.
selling books and merchandise The Claria Remember: Please excuse my dear aunt
Corporation,12TB -- Internet behavioral Sally. () ^ * / + -. Marge Hohly. 31.
marketing company tracking Internet user 32Rewrite in order of precedence. You
behavior. Marge Hohly. 17. want to calculate the annual salary if the
18Oracle Facts. One of Oracles first employee received $100 raise each month
customers was the CIA, for which they Revise the following statement in the
created a relational database management correct order of precedence to get the
system. Much of Oracles early success was desired results Run each example in the
owed to picking up IBM as a major editor SELECT last_name, salary,
customer. 2nd half of the ‘90s was spend 12*salary+100 FROM employees; Marge Hohly.
retooling Oracle products in line with 32.
that online strategy (the internet) 33What is null? If a row lacks the data
Ellison said in 1998: “If the internet value for a particular column, that value
turns out not to be the future of is said to be null, or to contain a null.
computing, we’re toast. But if it is, A null is a value that is unavailable,
we’re golden.” Oracle was the first unassigned, unknown, or inapplicable. A
enterprise software to fully embrace the null is not the same as zero. Zero is a
Java Programming language back in 1998. number. A null is not a space. Space is a
Oracle has purchased 57 different character. Marge Hohly. 33.
companies in the last 5 years. The buying 34Null Values in Arithmetic Expressions.
frenzy was launched with the $10.3 billion SELECT last_name, salary, commission_pct,
acquisition of PeopleSoft in 2005, which salary*commission_pct FROM employees;
put Oracle squarely in the ERP software 2500. (null). (null). 10500. .2. 2100.
fray. Marge Hohly. 18. 11000. .3. 3300. 8600. .2. 1720. 7000.
19Oracle Facts. The latest .15. 1050. (null). (null). (null). SALARY.
mega-purchase: Sun Microsystems, a $7.4 COMMISSION_PCT. SALARY*COMMISSION_PCT.
billion acquisition due to close this year Marge Hohly. 34.
if regulators don't object. Oracle today 35Practice. SELECT * FROM d_songs;
now has 345,000 customers worldwide. SELECT id, title, duration, artist,
Oracle employs more than 73,201 people type_code FROM d_songs; SELECT id, title,
around the globe. Some of the top 10 artist, FROM d_songs; SELECT last_name,
world’s largest databases using Oracle salary, salary – 300 FROM employees;
RDBMS are: France Telecom, 29.2 TB – a SELECT last_name, salary, salary * 1.05
communications company (a TB is a terebyte FROM employees; Marge Hohly. 35.
equivalent to 1,000 gigabytes) Amazon.com 36Column Alias. Renames a column heading
with, 13TB – selling books and merchandise Is useful in naming columns of derived
The Clarian Corporation, 13TB – Internet values Immediately follow the column name
behavioral marketing company tracking Uses optional AS keyword between the
Internet user behavior. Marge Hohly. 19. column name and alias Required double
20Application Express SQL editor. The quotation marks if it contains spaces or
SQL course will use the three following special characters or is case sensitive.
sets of database tables for examples and Marge Hohly. 36.
practice exercises. Oracle tables: 37Using Aliases. NAME. SALARY. Annual
COUNTRIES, REGIONS, DEPARTMENTS, Salary. Whalen. 4400. 52800. Hartstein.
EMPLOYEES, JOBS, JOB_HISTORY AND 13000. 156000. Fay. 6000. 72000. SELECT
JOB_GRADES DJs on Demand database tables: last_name name, salary AS Salary,
D_CDS, D_PACKAGES, D_TYPES, D_THEMES, salary*12 “Annual Salary” FROM employees;
D_CLIENTS, D_VENUES, D_SONGS, Marge Hohly. 37.
D_TRACK_LISTINGS, D_PARTNERS, D_EVENTS,
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