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Free Trade vs

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1Free Trade vs. Protectionism. 11-permit a stipulated amount to enter the
Frederick University 2009. country duty free or at a low rate, but
2Free Trade vs. Protectionism. “If when that quantity is reached, a much
there were an Economist’s Creed it would higher duty is charged for subsequent
surely contain the affirmations: ‘I importations technical regulations
understand the principle of comparative administrative regulations other
advantage’ and ‘I advocate free trade’” regulations of imports.
Paul Krugman. 12The Import Quota. }. a – producer
3Free Trade vs. Protectionism. Trade gain. Sd. Dd. a + b + c + d – consumer
Protection (Protectionism) - Policies that loss. Sq. c – transfer from domestic
limit imports, usually with the goal of consumers to someone else. Pq. b + d – a
protecting domestic producers in loss to the country. a. b. c. d. Pw. q.
import-competing industries from foreign Qs. Qd. Qdq. Qsq. P. Q.
competition. 13Arguments for trade restrictions. The
4The Gains from trade. }. Oz widget need of protection of domestic labour
market. Local consumer's extra gains = d+e markets against cheap foreign labour The
Local producer’s extra gains = -d. S. P. desire to reduce domestic unemployment The
a. a. 4. Po= 4. d. e. b. Pw = 2. c. need to counteract dumping in
Imports = 28. D. Qo =16. Q = 44. Qo = 30. international trade The need to protect
Q. Trade: world price = 2; Qo= 16, Q the infant industries Protect industries
imports = 28, Q = 44 Consumer surplus = important for national defence Decrease
a+d+e Producer surplus = c. No trade: Oz the national balance of payments deficit
price = 4; Q = 30 consumer surplus = a Improve the nation’s terms of trade and
producer surplus = b. welfare Strategic trade policies The
5The Gains from trade. }. Zo widget scientific tariff The need to protect
market. Zo consumer’s extra gain = -i national health and safety standards.
Producer’s extra gains = i + j. P. Exports 14Strategic Trade Policies. economies of
= 28. S. S. h. P = 2. j. i. f. 1.5. Pz = scale justify the operation of just one
1.5. D. g. D. g. Q. 50. 78. Qz = 60. firm in the world market as a whole lucky
Trade: P = 2; Q = 78 Consumer surplus = h firms in the industry may be able generate
= f – i Producer surplus = g + i + j. No returns higher than the opportunity costs
trade: P = 1.5; Q = 60 Consumer surplus = of the resources they employ the country
f Producer surplus = g. can raise its national income at other
6The Gains from trade. Total: + e + j. countries’ expense if it can somehow
Surplus before trade. a. c + d. h + i. g. ensure that the lucky firm that gets to
Surplus after trade. c. h. g + i + j. d + earn excess returns is domestic rather
e + a. Oz consumers. Oz producers. Zo than foreign.
consumers. Zo producers. 15Strategic Trade Policies – an example.
7Free Trade vs. Protectionism. Showing Assumptions: Two companies from two
that free trade is better than no trade is countries are capable of producing a good
not the same thing as showing that free Neither country has any domestic demand
trade is better than sophisticated for the good – the good is intended solely
government intervention. for export The producer surplus coincides
8Trade Restrictions. Tariffs - taxes with the national interest Each firm faces
levied basically on imported goods. They only a binary choice – either to produce
are imposed as an attempt to raise foreign or not to produce The market is profitable
exchange revenue and increase the welfare for either firm if it enters alone,
at the expense of other nations. Nontariff unprofitable for both if both enter.
barriers - all forms of trade restrictions 16Strategic Trade Policies – an example.
other than tariffs. The Payoff Matrix. The Payoff Matrix. The
9Tariffs. ad valorem import tariff - Payoff Matrix. The Payoff Matrix. Airbus.
expressed as a percentage of the invoice -5. 0. Boeing. -5. 100. 100. 0. 0. 0. The
value of the imported good specific tariff good is a 150 – seat passenger aircraft
- a fixed sum levied on a physical unit of The firms are Boeing and Airbus The
the good no matter what its invoice price countries are the U.S. and the EU. P. N.
is compound duty - a combination of ad P. . . . . . . N. . .
valorem and specific duties variable levy 17Strategic Trade Policies – an example.
- calculated daily official prices - a Boeing has some kind of head start that
basis for ad valorem duty calculations. allows it to commit itself to produce
10}. }. The Effect of a Tariff. S. a – before Airbus’s decision Boeing earns 100
producer gain. a + b + c + d – consumer while deterring entry by Airbus The EU
loss. Pd. c – government collection. Pt. decides to subsidize Airbus at a point
a. } t. b. c. d. Pw. D. b + d – deadweight before Boeing is committed to produce The
loss. M. Dt. b – consumer loss due to the EU pays a subsidy of 10 to Airbus if it
demand shift to domestic supply - produces the plain, regardless of what
production effect. Sd. St. Q. Dd. d Boeing does.
–consumer loss due to the reduction in 18Strategic Trade Policies – an example.
consumption consumption effect. P. The Payoff Matrix after European Subsidy.
11Nontariff barriers. quantitative The Payoff Matrix after European Subsidy.
restrictions Quotas - numerical limits for The Payoff Matrix after European Subsidy.
a specific kind of good that a country The Payoff Matrix after European Subsidy.
will permit to be imported without Airbus. Boeing. 5. 0. - 5. 100. 110. 0. 0.
restriction during a specified period 0. P. N. P. . . . . . . N. . .
Voluntary export restraints Tariff quotas
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