Ценные бумаги
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Global Trade:1
Global Trade:1
Global Trade
Global Trade
Dynamics of U.S. trade balance
Dynamics of U.S. trade balance
Waves of globalization: An example
Waves of globalization: An example
Trade share can vary across countries
Trade share can vary across countries
Composition of world trade in 2005
Composition of world trade in 2005
Changing composition of world trade of developing-country exports
Changing composition of world trade of developing-country exports
Who trades with whom
Who trades with whom
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Global Trade:1

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1Global Trade:1. 11percent annually. The developed countries,
2Global Trade: Lessons. Lessons. which in 1998 accounted for two thirds of
Topics. Lesson 1. The World Economy and world exports, trade extensively with each
Global Trade: An Overview and Stylized other. The developing countries ship the
Facts on Global Trade. Lesson 2. Theories bulk of their exports to the developed
of International Trade-I: The Ricardian nations but sell a fast-growing share of
Model: Labor Productivity and Comparative these goods to each other. - Caves,
Advantage: Lesson 3. Theories of Frankel, & Jones 2007. 11.
International Trade-II: The 12Trade in the output equation. Trade
Heckscher-Ohlin Model: Factor Endowments enters the output equation as net exports
and Comparative Advantage. Lesson 4. (exports – imports) Y = C + I + G + X – M
Theories of International Trade-III: The where Y = output or GDP C = consumption I
Standard Trade Model and Gains from Trade = investment G = government spending X =
Combination of Labor Productivity and exports M = imports Thus, a country’s
Factor Endowments. Lesson 5. Policy income increases as long as its exports
Instruments of International Trade: grow faster than its imports (e.g. China)
Tariffs, Export Subsidies, Import Quotas, all other things remaining the same. 12.
Export Restraints. Lesson 6. Policy Issues 13Index of openness. The index of
of International Trade: Free Trade vs. openness measures the degree of a
Protectionism Liberalization in Developing country’s orientation to the external
Countries The Role of the World Trade world. It is sometimes uses as a measure
Organization. 2. of a country’s level of globalization.
3Texts. Main Text: Required: There are various measures of the index of
International Economics: Theory & openness such as: Openness = (exports +
Policy, Krugman, P.R., and Obstfeld, M., imports)/GDP Openness = exports/GDP
8th Edition, Pearson-Addison-Wesley. Openness = imports/GDP Openness = exports
Recommended: International Economics, + imports Hence, understanding global
Husted, S., and Melvin, M., 8th Edition, trade has been an important aspect at this
Addison-Wesley. International Economics, age of globalization. 13.
Gerber, J., 5th Edition, Addison-Wesley. 14Waves of globalization. International
World Trade and Payments: An Introduction, trade is the fundamental force towards
Caves, R.E., Frankel, J.A., and Jones, further globalization. Thus, greater the
R.W., 10th Edition, global trade greater the level of
Pearson-Addison-Wesley. The World Economy: globalization. The development of
International Trade, Yarbrough, B.V., and globalization has never been smooth or
Yarbrough, R.M., 7th Edition, continuous. Economists consider two waves
Thomson-South-Western. Principles of of globalization: one in the pre-World War
Microeconomics, Only Chapter 3: I period, and the other began since the
Interdependence and the Gains from Trade, mid 1970s. Thus, globalization was
Mankiw, N.G., 5th Ed., South-Western punctuated by four events/factors: 1)
Cengage Learning. 3. World War I 2) Great Depression of the
4Lesson 1. Lesson 1: The World Economy 1930s 3) World War II 4) Protectionism.
and Global Trade Procedure: The PowerPoint 14.
Presentation Duration: 60 minutes Overview 15Waves of globalization: An example.
This lesson provides us with an overview Source: Richard E. Baldwin and Phillipe
of global trade: transactions of Martin, “Two Waves of Globalization:
merchandise in the form of exports and Superficial Similarities, Fundamental
imports, the place of trade in Differences,” in Horst Siebert, ed.,
international economics and the balance of Globalization and Labor (Tubingen: Mohr,
payments, the composition and dynamics of 1999). 15.
trade, the link between globalization and 16Trade share can vary across countries.
trade. 4. Note: the lower trade share of the U.S.
5Lesson 1 (cont.). Outline List of should be judged with caution. Inter-state
Class needs: the text, a computer, and a transactions of merchandise in this
notebook. Pre-class reading and largest economy are not counted in this
preparation: Chapter 1 and 2 of the text. calculation. Source: Organization for
Activities and timing: Go over the entire Economic Cooperation and Development. 16.
presentation in 60 minutes and think about 17Composition of world trade in 2005.
the main findings of the lesson. Source: World Trade Organization (WTO).
Identification of Learning Objectives: 17.
Objective #1 from Section I Identification 18Changing composition of world trade of
of the Global Workforce Skills for the developing-country exports. Over the past
lesson: Skill points 1 and 2 from Section 40 years, the exports of developing
II Lesson notes and suggestions for countries have shifted toward
Instructors: Read the relevant chapters in manufactures. More than 90 percent of the
the recommended texts and look for online exports of China, the largest developing
data for the latest figures of global economy and a rapidly growing force in
trade. Acknowledgment: The Course world trade, consists of manufactured
Developer took help of different sources goods. Source: United Nations Council on
as referred while preparing the study Trade and Development. 18.
materials. When a considerable number of 19Who trades with whom? Total U.S. Trade
diagrams have been developed to enhance with major partners in 2006 As the figure
interest in the subject, many diagrams shows, the size of GDP and distance matter
come from the required text for the to determine U.S. trade. Source: U.S.
convenience of the students. 5. Department of Commerce. 19.
6Where does Global Trade fit? 20Trade Facts. A 1% increase in the
International trade means global trade distance between countries is associated
that comprises exports and imports of with a decrease in the volume of trade of
merchandise. 6. 0.7% to 1%. Between 1920 and 1990 average
7Global Trade. Unique among the ocean freight and port charges for U.S.
concerns of economics, international trade import and export cargo fell almost 70
has always carried a note of romance – the percent. Between 1930 and 1990 average
lure of the exotic, the hint of danger. air-transport fares per passenger mile
Traders’ dreams of bartering for the fell by 84 percent, and the cost of a
riches of the Orient spurred the European 3-minutes telephone call between New York
voyages of discovery that began in the and London plummeted 98.6 percent (U.S.
15th century. - Caves, Frankel, & Council of Economic Advisors, Economic
Jones 2007. 7. Report of the President, 1997). 20.
8Trade’s place in balance of payments. 21Trade Facts (cont.). History has shown
8. that political factors, such as wars, can
9Dynamics of U.S. trade balance. Trade change trade patterns much more than
balance = net exports <0 since the mid innovations in transportation and
1970s. Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic communication. The got smaller between
Analysis. 9. 1840 and 1914, but it go bigger again for
10Global trade: Facts. In 2007, the much of the 20th century due to politics,
world as a whole produced goods and wars, and depression. Cultural affinity:
services worth about $50 trillion at if two countries have cultural ties, it is
current prices. Of this total, more than likely that they also have strong economic
30 percent was sold across national ties. Geography: ocean harbors and a lack
borders: World trade in goods and services of mountain barriers make transportation
exceeded $16 trillion (Krugman and and trade easier. 21.
Obstfeld). Thus, the amount of world trade 22Summary points. International
in 2007 exceeded that of U.S. Gross economics and global trade The place of
Domestic Product (GDP), which was close to trade in the balance of payments The place
$15 trillion. GDP measures the total value of trade in the output equation Stylized
of all goods and services produced in an facts of global trade Index of openness
economy. 10. Waves of globalization. 22.
11Global trade: Facts (cont.). Between 23Activity/Homework. Collect the time
1960 and 1995 real world output grew by series data on exports and imports of
3.8 percent annually while real world China. Plot them in Excel and answer to
trade grew by 6.1 percent. While world the following questions: What does the
exports of goods (nominal value) grew at a Chinese trade pattern exhibit? How is the
rate of 5.8 percent annually from 1980 to Chinese trade balance (exports – imports)
1990, world exports of services grew 8.2 different from the American one? 23.
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