Информационная система
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Rough estimated value added per m3 water in different uses
Rough estimated value added per m3 water in different uses
money (Tsh per year) households derived from harvesting of aquatic
money (Tsh per year) households derived from harvesting of aquatic
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Payment for Environmental Services

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1Payment for Environmental Services. 10conservation capacity for water is reduced
Extracted from work by Ffemke Griffoen and water supply for towns with increasing
FAO-APO TZ. population faces critical shortages. At
2Examples of valuation of ecosystem the same time, many poor people are
goods and services Valuation of ecosystem dependent on forest biodiversity for
goods and services is gradually getting wood-fuel, food, honey, medicines,
more attention in Tanzania. Examples of building poles, timber, animal fodder and
valuation mentioned here are: The farming. Forest biodiversity needs to be
contribution of natural resources to maintained to sustain essential
economic growth e.g. revenue derived from environmental services such as water
export of timber and fish. Values derived supply, carbon sequestration, soil
from market prices of products that use conservation and wildlife habitat.
ecosystem goods, e.g. the value of a 11PES Cont… Funds currently allocated to
volume of water based on the price for forest conservation are inadequate Given
paddy rice and hydropower services. the state of the catchment and their
3Examples for PES. Planned and starting importance to water availability.
initiatives with Payment for Environmental Incentives packages and water users
Services e.g. greenhouse gas credits, and contribution are crucial. Payment for
payment by water users for catchment water as an environmental service is a
protection. potential mechanism.
4Contribution of Natural Resources to 12PES Cont… In a proposal “Making
Economic Growth. The World Bank, through Payments for Environmental Services Work
COWI, has made an analysis on the for Nature and People,” WWF, CARE and IIED
contribution of Tanzania’s natural propose carefully constructed Payments for
resources to growth and reduction of Environmental Services (PES) in the
poverty for the Country Economic Uluguru Mountains (TZ).
Memorandum. 13PES Cont… This PES, especially with
5“Forestry contributes officially 2-3 % regards to water, have the potential to
to GDP and a 10-15 % share of export shift the incentives-structure of local
earnings. Estimates taking unaccounted people and authorities from damaging to
services and non-industrial forestry into preserving forests in the Uluguru
account are accounting for a value of Mountains At the same time will be part of
10-15 % of GDP. Forests provide around 75% efforts that aim at the promotion of
of building materials and 100% of environmental sustainability that become
indigenous medicinal plants and fully integrated into poverty reduction
supplementary food products. 95% of efforts.
Tanzania’s energy consumption is wood fuel 14The watershed services that would be
based, which includes major inputs factors sold. 1. Soil/stream bank stabilization to
into rural industries such as for example ensure the quality of downstream water,
tobacco curing and fish smoking. The value and 2. Catchment forest conservation to
of carbon sequestration services provided improve the reliability of water flows. It
by Tanzanian forests is estimated to be is planned that at a later stage the
between US$ 700 and 1,500 per ha. biodiversity conservation, carbon
6Tanzania’s Fisheries sector has grown sequestration services and aesthetics will
at a rate of 6 to 7% annually since 2000. also be sold as part of a bundle of
In 2004 revenue collection from Fisheries ecological services.
amounted to Tsh. 9.7 billion. This 15Potential buyers of watershed
represents roughly a 50% increase from services. Cities of Dar es Salaam and
revenue collected in 2001/02. About 80% of Morogoro Urban Water Authorities /
revenue is coming from freshwater Company. “Revenues raised from PES can be
fisheries (2003). expected to generate a substantial and
7Rough estimated value added per m3 sustainable impact on local livelihoods
water in different uses. especially through improved land
8money (Tsh per year) households use/husbandry, agricultural and
derived from harvesting of aquatic horticultural productivity and organizing
resources (including value added in communities into CBOs for obtaining
processing), averaged across user and other/additional sources of incomes.”.
non-user households. 16Conclusion. PES in the Uluguru
9Carbon Sequestration Credits. Present Mountains are likely to have considerable
models show that the trees planted through conservation impact because they can
the pilot program Phase III (in 4 readily focus on upland communities that
countries) should achieve between 500,000 are directly involved in the degradation
tons and 3,000,000 tons of CO2 of forest assets and are positioned to
sequestration. regulate the use of forest assets by
10PES for Catchment Conservation. As themselves as well as others.
catchment forests are decreasing, their
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