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Basic Definitions

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1Basic Definitions. Health Studies: 20by - number of particles - size of
Development of cause and effect particles.
relationship Effects: A measurable or 21Effects-Particulates. Collection of
perceivable detrimental change resulting Particulate Matter in Human Respiratory
from an air pollutant in humans, plants, System Particles >= 10 micrometers:
animals, microbes, or other living matter, collect in upper part of the respiratory
or non-living materials such as paints, system Particles, 1-10 micrometers:
metals, materials, fabrics etc., or collect in middle part of respiratory
visibility Dose: The concentration of the system-the-tracheo-bronchial-region.
pollutant and the length of the time that Particles<=1 micrometer: collect in
the subject is exposed to that pollutant. most remote portions of lungs-the air sacs
Receptor: The things receiving pollution (or alveoli) Particles with diameters of ?
are called “receptors”. micrometer or less float in the air sac
2Types of Effects. Synergistic: and are expelled with the next breath or
combined effect of pollutants is worse two Particles with diameters from ? to 1
than the simple sum effects of individual micrometer are captured by phagocytes and
pollutants Additive: combined effect of eliminated.
pollutants is the same as the sum of 22Effects-Particulates. Collection of
effects of individual pollutants Particulate Matter in Human Respiratory
Potentiator: toxic substance made worse by System Nasal hair and warm, humid
presence of non-toxic substance conditions of nasal passages act together
Antagonistic: effect of toxic substance to remove particles. Particles collect
lessened by presence of non-toxic moisture as they move through moist air of
substance. upper respiratory region, making them
3Research methods used. Casual heavier and causing them to strike walls
relationship study: proves evidentially of throat, nose etc. They are eliminated
that exposure to a specific pollutant by sneezing, coughing, nose-blowing, and
causes an identifiable adverse effect. spitting, or by the digestive system.
Scientific methods and statistical tests: Small particles can adsorb sulfur dioxide
reduce the uncertainty about the observed and with water form acid containing
relationship between a specific pollutant particles which irritate the respiratory
and an identifiable effect Air pollution system and damage the cells that line the
standards: based on - case studies - system.
laboratory research - general field 23Effects-Particulates. Collection of
studies, and - other sources. Particulate Matter in Human Respiratory
4Human Reaction. Factors effecting System Particles such as sulfates and
reaction in humans include: - genetic nitrates interact with moisture on leaves.
make-up - health - history of exposure - The result is a build up of acid which
preconditioning - function-pollutant burns holes in leaves. Animal feed, either
reaction times. raw vegetation or processed feed, can
5Case Studies. Characteristics of case convey or adsorb particulate pollutants,
studies: - conducted after occupational or thus rendering the feed unusable or
accidental exposure resulting in adverse unsafe. Particulate matter may be either
effects - result in a tracking backward harmful, harmless or beneficial to plants.
from observed effects to probable causes - Particulate matter may either absorb
‘after-the-fact’ studies Advantages - light, scatter light, or reflect light,
‘real-life’ situations - effects of human resulting in decreased visibility, and
exposure to high pollutant concentrations reduction of light available for
can be studied after the fact - Long-term photosynthesis and heating. Particulate
effects can be monitored and studied. matter can affect precipitation patterns.
6Case Studies. Disadvantages: - Millions of dollars are spent each year
generally small groups are involved - some top clean items soiled by Suspended
variables unaccounted for - studies must particulate matter.
be interpreted in terms of other studies - 24Effects-Particulates. Concentration of
no control over timing. particles microgram / m3. Effects on
7Laboratory Studies. Characteristics: - health (non-toxic particles). (2000*10-6)
designed to measure the effect of exposure gm/m3 with 0.4 ppm of SO2 (24 hr. avg. )
to specific concentration of a pollutant (episodes of several days duration).
Advantages: - can more accurately Increase in deaths due to bronchitis.
investigate casual relationships because (1000*10-6) gm/m3 with 0.25 ppm of SO2 (24
important variables can be more controlled hr. avg. ) (during episodes). Increase in
and some variables can be eliminated - can deaths from all causes including
repeat the experiment - have control over respiratory and cardiac diseases.
timing - can select subjects, (300*10-6) gm/m3 with 0.15 ppm of SO2 (24
concentrations, exposure times etc. hr. avg. ). significant increase in
8Laboratory Studies. Disadvantages: - bronchitis symptoms. (130*10-6) gm/m3 SO2
severe limitations on experiments with (annual avg. ). Increase in frequency and
humans to determine cause-and-effect severity of lower respiratory illness.
relationships, in health effects area. - (100-200*10-6) gm/m3 with 0.05 – 0.08 ppm
can only test one cause- and-effect SO2 (average season levels). Increases in
relationship at a time, when working with incidences of bronchitis reported above
plants and animals - using data to predict this level.
effects in “real life” can’t be done 25Effects-NOX. Nitric oxide (NO) - not
precisely - usually work with only very toxic at ambient levels - is rapidly
small-groups cannot guarantee that they converted to nitrogen dioxide which is
are representative and that extrapolated toxic - at concentrations far above those
results are totally accurate. observed in cities, it can cause
9General Field Studies. disturbance in the - central nervous
Characteristics: - use statistical methods system - circulatory system - enzyme
to determine impact on general population system Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) - NO2
- trace possible causes of known effects. penetrates to the most remote portions of
Advantages: - real life like and actually the respiratory tract, the alveoli because
occurring situations - can measure effects of its low solubility in water.
and concentrations rather accurately while 26Effects-NOX. Concentration of NO2
they are occurring - subjects constitute a (ppm). Effect. 150 ppm(5-8 min.).
more representative sample of the potentially fatal. 50-100 ppm(<1 hr.).
population as a whole - can select may reduce broncho-pneumonia but can
specific subjects from the population, if recover. 10 -40 ppm (intermittent
desired. exposure). may produce chronic fibrosis
10General Field Studies. Disadvantages: and emphysema. 0.05-0.10 ppm (chronic
- not repeatable - prior exposure history exposure). evidences of increases in
of subjects not known necessarily - no chronic bronchitis. <0.05 ppm
control over timing and other variables is (long-term average). evidences of
often possible - estimates of effects on increases in heart and lung disease in
total population must be made only on a general population, with increasing
statistical basis. ambient NO2 concentrations.
11Effects (SOx). SO2 can cause damage to 27Effects-NOX. Effects of NO2 on plants
- building materials, statue, cloth, - reduction in plant size (Primary Effect)
metals - result in decreased visibility - much higher concentrations cause leaf
when sulfate particles form in the air. spotting Effects of NO2 on materials -
Humans chronically exposed to so2have a dyes change color - fabrics lose strength
higher incidence of coughs, shortness of - some metals corrode.
breath, bronchitis, fatigue, ‘colds’ of 28Effects - CO. The effects of carbon
lung duration. Small particles can adsorb monoxide are dependent upon both -
sulfur dioxide and with water form acid concentration - duration Oxygen transport
containing particles which irritate the cells usually replace carbon dioxide with
respiratory system and damage the cells oxygen. However, in the presence of carbon
that line the system. Synergistic Effect monoxide, they will replace oxygen and
of SO2and small particles. Effect of SO2 + carbon dioxide with carbon monoxide. This
Effect of small particles ----> worse reduces the supply of oxygen to the body.
effect than the sum of the individual The effect of carbon monoxide intoxication
effects. is similar to that of anemia or hypoxia.
12Effects- SOx. Concentration of SO2 It reduces the supply of oxygen to the
ppm. Effects. 0.52 with pariculates(24 hr. body tissues. Under ambient conditions,
avg.). Increased deaths. 0.25 with carbon monoxide intoxication is likely to
smoke(3-4 day 24 hr. avg.). Increased aggravate existing physical conditions.
deaths. 0.25 with particulates(3-4 day 24 Under acute conditions, it may result in
hr. avg.). Increased illness for the death.
elderly. 0.19 with low particulate 29Effects - CO. Carbon monoxide in
level(24 hr. mean concentration). amounts found in some major metropolitan
Increased deaths. 0.11-0.19 with low areas can lead to increased
particulate level (several day duration). hospitalization for heart and circulatory
Increased hospitalization. 0.037-0.092 system related disease. The new born and
with smoke (chronic exposure). Increased unborn are also affected by carbon
respiratory symptoms and lung diseases. monoxide. The ambient levels in highly
13Effects - Hydrocarbons. Humans Effects polluted urban areas are associated with
have been noted in cases of occupational lower birth-weight and increased death of
exposure to tetra methyl lead, benzene newborns. Smokers inhale a significant
etc. Plants Ethylene is the only amount of CO Behavior is not significantly
hydrocarbon known to cause plant damage at impaired by concentrations of carbon
concentrations found in urban areas. monoxide which are below NAAQS The
Materials No known effects at principle reason for controlling carbon
concentrations found in urban areas. monoxide emissions is to protect health of
14Effects-Ozone. Ozone and other the unborn, newborn, aged, and infirm.
oxidants cause, at least temporarily 30Effects - CO. Concentration of CO
physiological changes in humans. Healthy (ppm). Effect. High concentration- greater
individuals exposed to ozone respond by than 100 ppm for 10 minutes. Physiological
decreasing the volume of air brought into stress on patients with heart disease. 100
the lungs. This occurs at concentrations ppm-intermittently. Impaired performance
on the 0.10 to 0.15 ppm or more range. in psychomotor tests. 50 ppm – for 90 min.
Population segment most affected are the Impaired time-interval discrimination for
young, the sick and the unborn. The non-smokers. 30 ppm – for up to 12 hours.
biochemical balance in the lung tissue is Elevated carbon in hemoglobin levels-
very important. Ozone causes shifts in: - reduced oxygen transport.
enzyme activity - chemical activity - 31Effects – Heavy metals. Metal.
cellular activity Increased ambient ozone Pathway. Health. Arsenic. -inhalation
levels result in decreased hospital -ingestion. -Irritation of respiratory
admissions. system -Weakness -Loss of appetite -Nausea
15Effects-Ozone. Ozone inhalation may and vomiting. Cadmium. -inhalation
reduce performance. Other photochemical -ingestion. -lung, liver, and kidney
oxidants which form along with ozone are damage -Irritation of respiratory system.
eye irritants. Ozone probably causes more Chromium. -inhalation -ingestion
plant damage in the United States than any -absorption through skin. -Irritation of
other pollutant. Exterior coatings such as respiratory system -Lung damage.
oil and acrylic latex, oil coatings, 32Effects – Heavy metals. Metal.
automotive finishes, and industrial Pathway. Health. Mercury. -inhalation
deteriorate under even low ozone -ingestion -absorption through skin.
concentrations. Both natural and manmade -Irritation of respiratory system -Lung,
volatile organic compounds can produce liver and kidney damage. Lead. -inhalation
ozone, but naturally occurring volatile -ingestion. -Lung and liver damage -Loss
organics seldom produce enough ozone to of appetite -Nausea and vomiting. Nickel.
cause substantial adverse effects. -inhalation. -Lung, liver, and kidney
Stratospheric ozone helps in preventing damage.
harmful ultraviolet rays reaching earth’s 33Effects – Heavy metals (Lead). Eating,
surface. and drinking are the principle mechanisms
16Relative sensitivity of various plants for lead entry into the body- but we also
to ozone. Sensitive. Intermediate. inhale lead particles. Children have a
Tolerant. Alfalfa. Cabbage. Beet. Barley. greater sensitivity to lead than adults
Carrot. Cotton. Bean. Corn Field. because they have - greater lead intake on
Descurainia. Buckwheat. Cowpea. Jerusalem a per-unit-body-weight basis. - greater
Cherry. Citrus. Cucumber. Lamb’s Quarter. net respiratory intake and greater
Clover, red. Endive. Lettuce. Corn, sweet. absorption and retention indigestive
Hyperdive. Mint. Grape. Parsley. system. - rapid growth-reducing margin of
Piggy-back plant. Grass, bent. Parship. safety against stress. - certain
Rice. Grass, Brome. Pea. strawberry. incompletely developed defense mechanisms.
Grass, crab. Peanut. Sweet potato. - different partitioning of lead in
17Threshold Doses Of Ozone Needed To systems.
Cause Injury To Plants Grown Under 34Effects – Heavy metals (Lead).
Sensitive Conditions. Time (hrs.). ppm of Expectant mothers and their unborns, and
Ozone Concentration (senstive plant). ppm newborn children are an unusually
of Ozone Concentration (intermediate sensitive population to lead pollution. -
plant). ppm of Ozone Concentration miscarriages - still births - deaths of
(tolerant plant). 0.5. 0.15-0.30. newborn Formation of red blood cells is
0.25-0.60. <=0.50. 1.0. 0.10-0.25. impaired by intake of environmental lead
0.20-0.40. <=0.35. 2.0. 0.07-0.12. which may lead to - anemia - irreversible
0.15-0.30. <=0.25. 4.0. 0.05-015. brain damage - death Blood levels of (80
0.10-0.25. <=0.20. 8.0. 0.03-0.10. -100) * 10-6 gm. Lead per deciliter (=1/10
0.08-0.20. <=0.15. liter. Approximately 1/10 quart), may
18Effect Of Ozone On Plants. Action. result in - central nervous system defects
Results. acts as oxidizing agent and - behavioral defects - animals which feed
attacks cells. cell break down and on plants near highways with heavy traffic
collapse. modifies proteins, amino acids, show lead poisoning symptoms.
unsaturated fatty acids, sulfhydryl 35Effects – Heavy metals (Lead). There
residues. leakage of water and iron from seem to be no detrimental effect of lead
cells. produces ethylene. damage in plants on materials. Lead is not conclusively
sensitive to ethylene. reduces carbon known to have any biological effect on man
dioxide fixation. reduced plant vigor and that can be considered beneficial. Types
reduction in new amount of cell material of effects Of Lead Noted in Studies of
produced. Laboratory animals - gametotoxic: effect
19Effects-Ozone. Ozone damage to plants on cell division - embryo toxic: effect on
can: - damage forests and crops - be embryo - carcinogenic: effect on cell
aesthetically unpleasing - cause economic growth and character - teraogenic: effect
loss Ozone damage to Fabric: - ozone can on embryo producing abnormal species.
produce marked fading in most blue 36Effects – Heavy metals. Mercury -
dispersed dyes and in some red and yellow irritation of respiratory system, lung,
dyes - fading can occur in clothes along liver and kidney damage Arsenic: -
folds and edges. irritation of respiratory system, liver
20Effects-Particulates. Suspended and kidney damage - weakness, loss of
Particulate Matter - very small particles appetite, nausea and vomiting Cadmium -
- solid or liquid - float in air/ settle lung, liver and kidney damage - irritation
slowly Types of Suspended Particulates - of respiratory system Chromium - lung
non-toxic - intrinsically toxic - damage and Irritation of respiratory
non-toxic but inhibit removal of toxic system Nickel: - lung, liver and kidney
substances - non-toxic but carries of damage.
toxic gases Effect of Toxicity is modified
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