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Levels of Directory Systems
Levels of Directory Systems
Levels of Directory Systems
Levels of Directory Systems
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Disk Operating System (MS DOS)

содержание презентации «Disk Operating System (MS DOS).ppt»
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1Chapter 5 Disk Operating System (MS 12Self Test (POST) which check whether
DOS). 1. peripherals connected to the computer are
2Disk Operating System (DOS). In the working or not & RAM memory. The ROM
1980s or early 1990s, the operating system bootstrap loader attempts to read the Boot
that shipped with most PCs was a version record and if successful, passes the
of the Disk Operating System (DOS) created control on to it. The
by Microsoft: MS-DOS. MS-DOS is a disk instructions/programs in the boot record
operating system for IBM PC–compatible then load the rest of the program. The
computers. In its day, it was easily the boot tries to load the DOS into the memory
most popular operating system in the by reading the two hidden files IO.SYS,
world. 2. MSDOS.SYS, If these two are found, they
3As with any other operating system, are loaded along with the DOS command
its function is to oversee the operation interpreter COMMAND.COM. 12.
of the system by providing support for 134.2 COMPUTER FILES IN DOS. A file may
executing programs, controlling I/O contain a program or any other kind of
devices, handling errors, and providing information. DOS permits the user to
the user interface. MS-DOS is a assign a name consisting of two parts to a
disk-based, single-user, single-task file - primary (a maximum of eight
operating system. These qualities make it characters consisting of Characters,
one of the easiest disk operating systems Alphabets, Number and Hyphen), and
to understand. 3. secondary names( should consist of three
4DOS FILES. The main portions of MS-DOS characters, which is optional) this two
are the IO.SYS, MSDOS.SYS, and COMMAND.COM parts separated by a dot (.). Using an
files. IO.SYS and MSDOS.SYS are special, extension is specified, using the complete
hidden system files The IO.SYS file moves name . Using extensions can be an
the system’s basic I/O functions into excellent way of naming a file so that it
memory and then implements the MS-DOS can be identified easily. 13.
default control programs, referred to as 14Examples: Filename. Primary Name.
device drivers, for various hardware Separator. Secondary Name. Employee.
components. These include the following: Employee. Employee.Exe. Employee. . Exe.
The boot disk drive The console display Employee.Dbf. Employee. . Dbf. 14.
and keyboard The system’s time-of-day 15DOS has a way of showing which disk
clock The parallel and serial drive is currently active. The floppy disk
communications port. 4. drives are assigned alphabets A and B,
5COMMAND.COM. The COMMAND.COM command whereas the hard disk drive is assigned
interpreter accepts commands issued the alphabet C. Ex: If your PC includes a
through the keyboard, or other input hard disk, besides a FDD (Floppy Disk
device, and carries them out according to Drive), the drive names would be A and C.
the commands definition When DOS runs an If the prompt is A, then it implies that
application, COMMAND.COM finds the the first floppy disk drive is active.
program, loads it into memory, and then Where as the DOS prompt would be C, if the
gives it control of the system. When the hard disk is active. Data as well as
program is shut down, it passes control instructions reside in a file stored in a
back to the command interpreter. 5. disk. 15.
6Popular DOS Versions. MS-DOS 3 With 164.3 DIRECTORY STRUCTURE IN DOS.
DOS 3.0, released in summer 1984, Directory is just like a file folder,
Microsoft continued to include additional which contain all the logically related
DOS features and to support more powerful files. DOS files are organized in a
hardware. DOS 3.0 supported hard drives hierarchical or an inverted tree-like
larger than 10MB, as well as enhanced structure. DOS enables the user to
graphics formats. Three revisions—3.1, organize the files in a disk into
3.2, and 3.3—provided additional directories and sub-directories A
innovations. 6. directory within another directory is
7MS-DOS 4. By 1988 it was apparent that called a sub-directory Of course, there
the wave of the future was the graphical may be sub-directories of sub-directories,
interface, and DOS 4 provided users with subsub. 16.
the DOS Shell, a utility much like the 17Levels of Directory Systems. 17.
Windows File Manager. Actually, DOS Shell 184.4 DIRECTORY COMMAND. The directory,
was simply a scaled-down version of the user is in at any point of time, is
Windows that allowed users to manage called the WORKING/PRESENT/CURRENT
files, run programs, and do routine directory. DOS indicates which directory
maintenance, all from a single screen. The you are in by displaying the directory's
DOS Shell even supported a mouse. 7. name in the command prompt. For example,
8MS-DOS 5. There were several important the following command prompt indicate that
features introduced in the 1991 release of you are in the DOS directory: C:\DOS>.
DOS 5.0. First of all, the ability to load Knowing which directory is current helps
drivers into reserved (upper) memory was a you find files, and to move from one
relief to those people who were constantly directory to another more easily.
running out of conventional memory. This Typically, the ROOT DIRECTORY (\) is the
feature allowed more complex DOS programs. initial working directory. The entire
Several software utilities made their specification of directory from root is
debut. The most commonly used utility called a PATH. By itself, the DIR command
introduced at this time was EDIT.COM. Also is applicable to the working/present
added were QBASIC.EXE, DOSKEY, UNFORMAT, directory. The names of the
and UNDELETE. 8. sub-directories at adjacent levels are
9MS-DOS 6. Released in 1993 to separated by backslash (\), while
excellent sales, DOS 6.0 offered a number specifying the path to be followed while
of new commands and configurable options. traveling to a sub-directory. 18.
Another enhancement in DOS 6.0 was 194.5 USING PATH TO SPECIFY THE LOCATION
EMM386.EXE, which allowed the system to OF FILES. A path is the route that leads
pool extended and expanded memory. DOS 6.0 from the root directory of a drive to the
has subsequently been revised a number of file you want to use. For example , to
times. As of this date, DOS 6.22 is the access C:\NOS\LETTER\NOS.LET Where (C:)
most current MS-DOS version available as a represent the drive the file is on , 1st
stand-alone operating system. 9. (\) is the root directory. 2 nd (\)
10The main functions of DOS. DOS separates the NOS directory from the
translate the command issued of the user LETTER sub-directory . 3rd (\) separates
in the format that is understood by the the LETTER sub-directories from the file
computer to execute it, also error message name, NOS.LET. 19.
in the format for the user to understand. 20Internal File COMMANDS. Dir Rename
Manage disk files, Allocate system (Ren) Delete (Del) Copy Type Set
resources according to the requirement. Attributes (attrib). 20.
DOS provides features essential to control 21External File COMMANDS. ??? ?????
hardware devices such as Keyboard, Screen, ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? MORE
Disk Devices, Printers, Modems and ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ???????
programs. 10. PRINT ??? ? ????? ????? ??????? ATTRIB ???
1111. ??? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??? MOVE ??? ???????
12Loading of DOS. The system start-up ???????? ? ??????? ???????XCOPY NDELETE.
routine of ROM runs a test called Power On 21.
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Disk Operating System (MS DOS)

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