Слайды
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Growth in volume of world merchandise trade and GDP, 2005-13 (Annual %
Growth in volume of world merchandise trade and GDP, 2005-13 (Annual %
Growth in volume of world merchandise trade and GDP, 2005-13 (Annual %
Growth in volume of world merchandise trade and GDP, 2005-13 (Annual %
Thanks to the GATT / WTO(
Thanks to the GATT / WTO(
**SLIDE KH1** INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS (IB) [Read: Head, Chapter 1, pp
**SLIDE KH1** INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS (IB) [Read: Head, Chapter 1, pp
**SLIDE KH1** INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS (IB) [Read: Head, Chapter 1, pp
**SLIDE KH1** INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS (IB) [Read: Head, Chapter 1, pp
Jim Lentz, President of Toyota Motor Sales USA, showing 2012 Toyota
Jim Lentz, President of Toyota Motor Sales USA, showing 2012 Toyota
FDI inflows and outflows, 1999-2007, and 2008 forecast
FDI inflows and outflows, 1999-2007, and 2008 forecast
**SLIDE KH1** INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS (IB) [Read: Head, Chapter 1, pp
**SLIDE KH1** INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS (IB) [Read: Head, Chapter 1, pp
Portfolio investment and foreign direct investment
Portfolio investment and foreign direct investment
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International business

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1**SLIDE KH1** INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS 980% of parts used are U.S. made). Price:
(IB) [Read: Head, Chapter 1, pp. 1-23] $21,955US (basic model).
Characterized by firms' activities in 10THE REASON: where cars (and car parts)
international trade and/or investment IB are produced Why produce overseas? Market
differs from domestic business (DB) in proximity, product modification, foreign
what? (1)MARKETS (WORLD VS DOMESTIC), technological and production skill, cost,
(2)PRODUCTION, (3)ACCOUNTING/CONTROL ( reliability,.. WHERE SHOULD YOU PRODUCE?
-----? details below) WHAT ELSE? Where should you procure your
2Broadly speaking, there are at least parts/services? Should you build your
six factors that separate IB from DB factory overseas? (foreign direct
(Head). They are: (1)Political separation, investment) Ability in global networking
(2)physical separation, (3)relational is a source of firms’ competitiveness
separation (e.g. bus. networks), Removal of investment (FDI) and trade
(4)environmental separation (e.g. climate, barriers would allow firms to develop
natural resources ), (5)developmental global networks according to firms'
separation, and (6)cultural separation. In strategies. E.G. Shifting
IB, one or more of these separations marketing/production effort to where
significantly affect company business growth is globally.
(e.g. possible sources of IB risks). In 11DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DB AND IB
DB, these are all negligible factors (in COUNTRY-SPECIFIC FACTORS: cheap labour,
most circumstances). SPECIFIC ISSUES (1) what else? CULTURE, INSTITUTIONS,
Should you sell in global markets? (Where, LANGUAGE, .. --> NOT A SERIOUS FACTOR
why/why not?) GLOBAL MARKETS BRING: IN DB IMPLICATIONS -in international
growth, scale economy, technology, marketing, consumer behaviour may differ
competitiveness, ....... Why? from DB -in production, HRM may differ
3Growth in volume of world merchandise from DB -standard of living/cost/wages may
trade and GDP, 2005-13 (Annual % change). differ, but note: NOT ALL FDI GOES TO LOW
Source: WTO. Ratio of world exports of WAGE COUNTRIES. (Figure below.) -Competent
goods and commercial services to GDP, firms are able to take advantage of the
1980-2010. Index, 2000=100. Source: IMF. above differences by turning them into
WTO. expanded new opportunities not available
4Thanks to the GATT / WTO(?), world from domestic sources.
trade has grown massively. 12NOT ALL FDI GOES TO LOW WAGE
5GLOBAL MARKETS BRING GROWTH (FIGURE COUNTRIES. -Cheap labour is not always the
1.1), SCALE ECONOMY, TECHNOLOGY, reason for FDI -Competent firms are able
COMPETITIVENESS, ... WHY ?? Because of to take advantage of the above
added market size and competition Who country-specific differences by turning
sells globally? Who doesn't sell globally? them into expanded new opportunities not
Any correlation with competitiveness? WHAT available from domestic sources.
MATTERS IN SELLING IN FOREIGN MARKETS ? 13FDI inflows and outflows, 1999-2007,
CULTURE? Should you modify your products? and 2008 forecast. Source: OECD.
What should you modify ? (2) Should you 14
produce / procure globally? - TI has 50 15
plants in 19 countries. HP's new product 16Portfolio investment and foreign
development team: members from JAPAN, the direct investment. We'll discuss FDI in
US, the UK, GERMANY work jointly depth later in the course.
real-time. Why ? 17Some stats: Canada 2011. Transaction:
6WHICH CAR IS THE MOST Canada (2004). + Money in (Bn$). - Money
"AMERICAN"? (All sold in the out (Bn$). Goods (exports+). 419. 446.
U.S. market) MAZDA NAVAJO (sold by Japan’s Services (exports+). 56 (2009). 91 (2009).
Mazda Co.) DODGE STEALTH (sold by Income (receipts+). 38. 63. Portfolio
U.S./German Mercedes Chrysler) MERCURY (sales+). 82. 41. FDI (sales+). 61. 68.
CAPRI (sold by U.S. Ford) GEO PRIZM (sold 18(3) INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING/TAXATION
by U.S. GM) FORD TAURUS (sold by U.S. is problematic. A FIRM MUST HAVE A HOME
Ford) HONDA ACCORD WAGON (sold by Japan’s COUNTRY despite its business activities in
Honda) TOTOTA CAMRY (2012) (sold by other countries. The firm’s home country
Japan’s Toyota) "Domestic (American) taxes the firm, but other countries also
content index" MN-75, DS-28, MC-18, want to tax it. (Note: Tax treaties
GP-64, FT-100, HAW-65 , TC-(US-made parts: between countries may or may not exist.
80%+) What determines domestic content Even if they exist, they often do not
index? completely cancel out double taxation.)
7 TRANSFER PRICING IS ANOTHER ISSUE. Can
8 firms maintain many sets of books for
9Jim Lentz, President of Toyota Motor international taxation purposes?
Sales USA, showing 2012 Toyota Camry (over
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