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Data Entry
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Data Entry
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Functions for Descriptive Statistics
Functions for Descriptive Statistics
Enter the following data into Excel:
Enter the following data into Excel:
Step 1: Select the cell where you want your r value to appear (you
Step 1: Select the cell where you want your r value to appear (you
Step 1: Select the cell where you want your r value to appear (you
Step 1: Select the cell where you want your r value to appear (you
Step 4: For Array1, select all the values under StudyHrs
Step 4: For Array1, select all the values under StudyHrs
Step 4: For Array1, select all the values under StudyHrs
Step 4: For Array1, select all the values under StudyHrs
Step 5: That’s it
Step 5: That’s it
Step 1: Select both columns of variables you wish to plot (StudyHrs
Step 1: Select both columns of variables you wish to plot (StudyHrs
Step 3: Select the first plot in the drop-down menu
Step 3: Select the first plot in the drop-down menu
Step 4: Remove the legend by clicking on it and pressing Delete
Step 4: Remove the legend by clicking on it and pressing Delete
Step 5: Add axis titles by selecting the ‘Layout’ tab and clicking on
Step 5: Add axis titles by selecting the ‘Layout’ tab and clicking on
Step 6: Change the chart title by selecting it, typing a new one, and
Step 6: Change the chart title by selecting it, typing a new one, and
Your scatterplot is now finished
Your scatterplot is now finished
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Introduction to Excel 2007 Part 1: Basics and Descriptive Statistics

содержание презентации «Introduction to Excel 2007 Part 1: Basics and Descriptive Statistics.ppt»
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1Introduction to Excel 2007 Part 1: 13statistic, however, we will only use
Basics and Descriptive Statistics. Psych =PEARSON in this class. Let’s say we want
209. to determine if there is a relationship
2In Psych 209, we will use Excel to: between number of hours spent per week
Store and organize data, Analyze data, and studying for Psych 209 and GPA earned in
Represent data graphically (e.g., in bar the class at the end of the quarter. To do
graphs, histograms, and scatterplots). so, we can calculate Pearson’s r for our
3Excel Basics. Excel spreadsheets two variables.
organize information (text and numbers) by 14Enter the following data into Excel:
rows and columns: This is a row. Rows are StudyHrs = average number of hours spent
represented by numbers along the side of per week studying for 209 GPA =
the sheet. This is a column. Columns are grade-point average earned in 209 at the
represented by letters across the top of end of the quarter.
the sheet. 15Step 1: Select the cell where you want
4Excel Basics. A cell is the your r value to appear (you might want to
intersection between a column and a row. label it). Step 2: Click on the function
Each cell is named for the column letter wizard button. Step 3: Search for and
and row number that intersect to make it. select PEARSON.
5Data Entry. There are two ways to 16Step 4: For Array1, select all the
enter information into a cell: 1. Type values under StudyHrs. For Array2, select
directly into the cell. Click on a cell, all the values under GPA.
and type in the data (numbers or text) and 17Step 5: That’s it! Once you have your
press Enter. 2. Type into the formula bar. r value, don’t forget to round to 2
Click on a cell, and then click in the decimal places. Knowledge check: What does
formula bar (the space next to the ). Now the r value of 0.88 tell you about the
type the data into the bar and press strength and direction of the correlation
Enter. between StudyHrs and GPA?
6Data Entry. 1. Open Excel (Start ? All 18Scatterplots. A scatterplot is an
Programs ? MS Office ? Excel). 2. Enter excellent way to visually display the
the following information into your relationship (correlation) between two
spreadsheet: variables. Each point on the scatterplot
7Formulas and Functions. Formulas are represents an individual’s data on the two
equations that perform calculations in variables. We will now create a
your spreadsheet. Formulas always begin scatterplot for StudyHrs and GPA.
with an equals sign (=). When you enter an 19Step 1: Select both columns of
equals sign into a cell, you are basically variables you wish to plot (StudyHrs and
telling Excel to “calculate this.” GPA). Step 2: Click on the tab labeled
Functions are Excel-defined formulas. They ‘Insert’, and then select ‘Scatter’ in the
take data you select and enter, perform ‘Charts’ menu.
calculations on them, and return value(s). 20Step 3: Select the first plot in the
8More on Functions. All functions have drop-down menu.
a common format – the equals sign followed 21Step 4: Remove the legend by clicking
by the function name followed by the input on it and pressing Delete.
in parentheses. The input for a function 22Step 5: Add axis titles by selecting
can be either: A set of numbers (e.g., the ‘Layout’ tab and clicking on ‘Axis
“=AVERAGE(2, 3, 4, 5)”) This tells Excel Titles.’ For the horizontal title, you
to calculate the average of these numbers. want it below the x-axis. For the vertical
A reference to cell(s) (e.g., title, you want the ‘Rotated Title’
“=AVERAGE(B1:B18) or “=AVERAGE (B1, B2, option. NOTE: Your chart must be
B3, B4, B5, B6, B7, B8)” This tells Excel highlighted for the ‘Layout’ tab to appear
to calculate the average of the data that under ‘Chart Tools.’.
appear in all the cells from B1 to B8. You 23A note about x- and y-axes: For
can either type these cell references in scatterplots, it does not matter which
by hand or by clicking and dragging with variable goes on each axis (this is NOT
your mouse to select the cells. true for other types of charts). However,
9Functions for Descriptive Statistics. you need to make sure you label your axes
Below are several functions you will need with the proper variable name. In this
to learn for this class. Try them out with example, GPA is on the y-axis and Study
the practice data set. =AVERAGE(first Hours is on the x-axis (we can tell this
cell:last cell): calculates the mean based on their different ranges of
=MEDIAN(first cell:last cell): calculates values). As a helpful hint, Excel will
the median =MODE(first cell:last cell): automatically put the first variable
calculates the mode =VARP(first cell:last (left-hand column) on the x-axis, and the
cell): calculates the variance second variable (right-hand column) on the
=STDEVP(first cell:last cell): calculates y-axis.
the standard deviation You may directly 24Step 6: Change the chart title by
write the functions for these statistics selecting it, typing a new one, and
into cells or the formula bar, OR You may pressing Enter. Chart and axis titles may
use the function wizard ( in the toolbar). be altered by right-clicking on them.
10Functions for Descriptive Statistics. 25Your scatterplot is now finished!
Your Excel spreadsheet should now look Remember: Each point in the scatterplot
like this: represents an individual’s data. Knowledge
11Part 2: Correlations and Scatterplots. check: Identify Student 8 in the
12Correlations. A quick review: Every scatterplot.
correlation has a direction (positive or 26Describing Correlations and
negative): + correlation: high scores on Scatterplots. Scatterplots and
one variable are associated with high correlations are described: As positive or
scores on another variable. - correlation: negative. As weak, moderate, or strong.
high scores on one variable are associated Using the r value. Sentence 1: There is a
with low scores on the other variable. strong, positive correlation (r = 0.88)
Every correlation has a magnitude or between the number of hours studied and
strength: The closer the correlation GPA. Then you want to describe the general
coefficient is to +1.00 or -1.00, the relationship between the two variables:
stronger it is. The closer the correlation Sentence 2: More hours of studying for
coefficient is to 0.00, the weaker it is. Psych 209 was associated with a higher GPA
13Calculating Pearson’s r. Correlations earned in the class at the end of the
are described using the Pearson quarter. NOTE: We cannot say “More
Product-Moment correlation statistic, or r studying led to a higher GPA” – this
value. In Excel, there are many functions implies causation, which cannot be
that can calculate a correlation determined using correlational research.
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Introduction to Excel 2007 Part 1: Basics and Descriptive Statistics

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