Языки программирования
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3.2 Sample Applets from the Java 2 Software Development Kit
3.2 Sample Applets from the Java 2 Software Development Kit
3.2 Sample Applets from the Java 2 Software Development Kit
3.2 Sample Applets from the Java 2 Software Development Kit
3.2 Sample Applets from the Java 2 Software Development Kit
3.2 Sample Applets from the Java 2 Software Development Kit
3.2 Sample Applets from the Java 2 Software Development Kit
3.2 Sample Applets from the Java 2 Software Development Kit
3.2 Sample Applets from the Java 2 Software Development Kit
3.2 Sample Applets from the Java 2 Software Development Kit
3.2 Sample Applets from the Java 2 Software Development Kit
3.2 Sample Applets from the Java 2 Software Development Kit
3.2 Sample Applets from the Java 2 Software Development Kit
3.2 Sample Applets from the Java 2 Software Development Kit
Java applet Program Output
Java applet Program Output
3.3 Simple Java Applet: Drawing a String
3.3 Simple Java Applet: Drawing a String
3.3 Simple Java Applet: Drawing a String
3.3 Simple Java Applet: Drawing a String
HTML file Program Output
HTML file Program Output
WelcomeLines
WelcomeLines
Program Output
Program Output
Program Output
Program Output
Program Output
Program Output
Program Output
Program Output
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1Chapter 3 - Introduction to Java 25</html>
Applets. Outline 3.1 Introduction 3.2 263.4 Drawing Strings and Lines. Method
Sample Applets from the Java 2 Software drawLine of class Graphics Takes as
Development Kit 3.3 Simple Java Applet: arguments Graphics object and line’s end
Drawing a String 3.4 Drawing Strings and points X and y coordinate of first
Lines 3.5 Adding Floating-Point Numbers endpoint X and y coordinate of second
3.6 Java Applet Internet and World Wide endpoint. 26.
Web Resources 3.7 (Optional Case Study) 273.5 Adding Floating-Point Numbers.
Thinking About Objects: Identifying the Next applet Mimics application for adding
Classes in a Problem Statement. 1. two integers (Fig 2.9) This time, use
23.1 Introduction. Applet Program that floating point numbers (numbers with a
runs in appletviewer (test utility for decimal point) Using primitive types
applets) Web browser (IE, Communicator) double – double precision floating-point
Executes when HTML (Hypertext Markup numbers float – single precision
Language) document containing applet is floating-point numbers Show program, then
opened and downloaded Applications run in discuss. 27.
command windows Notes Mimic several 28AdditionApplet.java 1. import 2. Class
features of Chapter 2 to reinforce them AdditionApplet (extends JApplet) 3. Fields
Focus on fundamental programming concepts 4. init 4.1 Declare variables 4.2
first Explanations will come later. 2. showInputDialog 4.3 parseDouble. 28. 1 //
33.2 Sample Applets from the Java 2 Fig. 3.13: AdditionApplet.java 2 // Adding
Software Development Kit. Sample Applets two floating-point numbers. 3 4 // Java
Provided in Java 2 Software Development packages 5 import java.awt.Graphics; //
Kit (J2SDK) Source code included (.java import class Graphics 6 import
files) Study and mimic source code to javax.swing.*; // import package
learn new features All programmers begin javax.swing 7 8 public class
by mimicking existing programs Located in AdditionApplet extends JApplet { 9 double
demo directory of J2SDK install Can sum; // sum of values entered by user 10
download demos and J2SDK from 11 // initialize applet by obtaining
java.sun.com/j2se/1.4.1/. 3. values from user 12 public void init() 13
43.2 Sample Applets from the Java 2 { 14 String firstNumber; // first string
Software Development Kit. Running applets entered by user 15 String secondNumber; //
In command prompt, change to demo second string entered by user 16 17 double
subdirectory of applet cd number1; // first number to add 18 double
c:\j2sdk1.4.1\demo\applets cd number2; // second number to add 19 20 //
appletDirectoryName There will be an HTML obtain first number from user 21
file used to execute applet Type firstNumber = JOptionPane.showInputDialog(
appletviewer example1.html appletviewer 22 "Enter first floating-point
loads the html file specified as its value" ); 23 24 // obtain second
command-line argument From the HTML file, number from user 25 secondNumber =
determines which applet to load (more JOptionPane.showInputDialog( 26
section 3.3) Applet will run, Reload and "Enter second floating-point
Quit commands under Applet menu. 4. value" ); 27 28 // convert numbers
53.2 Sample Applets from the Java 2 from type String to type double 29 number1
Software Development Kit. You start as = Double.parseDouble( firstNumber ); 30
player "X" Fig. 3.2 Sample number2 = Double.parseDouble( secondNumber
execution of applet TicTacToe. 5. ); 31.
63.2 Sample Applets from the Java 2 295. Draw applet contents 5.1 Draw a
Software Development Kit. Fig. 3.4 Sample rectangle 5.2 Draw the results HTML file.
execution of applet DrawTest. Drag the 29. 32 // add numbers 33 sum = number1 +
mouse pointer in the white area to draw. number2; 34 35 } // end method init 36 37
Select the shape to draw by clicking the // draw results in a rectangle on applet’s
down arrow, then clicking Lines or Points. background 38 public void paint( Graphics
This GUI component is commonly known as a g ) 39 { 40 // call superclass version of
combo box, choice or drop-down list. method paint 41 super.paint( g ); 42 43 //
Select the drawing color by clicking the draw rectangle starting from (15, 10) that
circle for the color you want. These GUI is 270 44 // pixels wide and 20 pixels
components are commonly known as radio tall 45 g.drawRect( 15, 10, 270, 20 ); 46
buttons. 6. 47 // draw results as a String at (25, 25)
73.2 Sample Applets from the Java 2 48 g.drawString( "The sum is " +
Software Development Kit. Demonstrates 2D sum, 25, 25 ); 49 50 } // end method paint
drawing capabilities built into Java2. Try 51 52 } // end class AdditionApplet. 1
changing the options to see their effect <html> 2 <applet code =
on the demonstration. Click a tab to "AdditionApplet.class" width =
select a two-dimensional graphics demo. 7. "300" height =
83.3 Simple Java Applet: Drawing a "65"> 3 </applet> 4
String. Now, create applets of our own </html>
Take a while before we can write applets 30Program Output. 30.
like in the demos Cover many of same 313.5 Adding Floating-Point Numbers.
techniques Upcoming program Create an Lines 1-2: Comments Line 5: imports class
applet to display "Welcome to Java Graphics import not needed if use full
Programming!" Show applet and HTML package and class name public void paint (
file, then discuss them line by line. 8. java.awt.Graphics g ) Line 8: specify
9Java applet Program Output. 9. entire javax.swing package * indicates all
103.3 Simple Java Applet: Drawing a classes in javax.swing are available
String. Comments Name of source code and Includes JApplet and JOptionPane Use
description of applet Import predefined JOptionPane instead of
classes grouped into packages import javax.swing.JOptionPane * does not not
declarations tell compiler where to locate load all classes Compiler only loads
classes used When you create applets, classes it uses. 31.
import the JApplet class (package 323.5 Adding Floating-Point Numbers.
javax.swing) import the Graphics class Begin class declaration Extend JApplet,
(package java.awt) to draw graphics Can imported from package javax.swing Field
draw lines, rectangles ovals, strings of declaration Each object of class gets own
characters import specifies directory copy of the field Declared in body of
structure. 10. class, but not inside methods Variables
113.3 Simple Java Applet: Drawing a declared in methods are local variables
String. Applets have at least one class Can only be used in body of method Fields
declaration (like applications) Rarely can be used anywhere in class Have default
create classes from scratch Use pieces of value (0.0 in this case). 32.
existing classes Inheritance - create new 333.5 Adding Floating-Point Numbers.
classes from old ones (ch. 9) Begins class Primitive type double Used to store
declaration for class WelcomeApplet floating point (decimal) numbers Method
Keyword class then class name extends init Normally initializes fields and
followed by class name Indicates class to applet class Guaranteed to be first method
extend (JApplet) JApplet : superclass called in applet First line must always
(base class) WelcomeApplet : subclass appear as above Returns nothing (void),
(derived class) WelcomeApplet now has takes no arguments Begins body of method
methods and data of JApplet. 11. init. 33.
123.3 Simple Java Applet: Drawing a 343.5 Adding Floating-Point Numbers.
String. Class JApplet defined for us Declare variables Two types of variables
Someone else defined "what it means Reference variables (called references)
to be an applet" Applets require over Refer to objects (contain location in
200 methods! extends JApplet Inherit memory) Objects defined in a class
methods, do not have to declare them all definition Can contain multiple data and
Do not need to know every detail of class methods paint receives a reference called
JApplet. 12. g to a Graphics object Reference used to
133.3 Simple Java Applet: Drawing a call methods on the Graphics object
String. Class WelcomeApplet is a blueprint Primitive types (called variables) Contain
appletviewer or browser creates an object one piece of data. 34.
of class WelcomeApplet Keyword public 353.5 Adding Floating-Point Numbers.
required File can only have one public Distinguishing references and variables If
class public class name must be file name. type is a class name, then reference
13. String is a class firstNumber,
143.3 Simple Java Applet: Drawing a secondNumber If type a primitive type,
String. Our class inherits method paint then variable double is a primitive type
from JApplet By default, paint has empty number1, number2. 35.
body Override (redefine) paint in our 363.5 Adding Floating-Point Numbers.
class Methods paint, init, and start Method JOptionPane.showInputDialog Prompts
Guaranteed to be called automatically Our user for input with string Enter value in
applet gets "free" version of text field, click OK If not of correct
these by inheriting from JApplet Free type, error occurs In Chapter 15 learn how
versions have empty body (do nothing) to deal with this Returns string user
Every applet does not need all three inputs Assignment statement to string
methods Override the ones you need Applet Lines 25-26: As above, assigns input to
container “draws itself” by calling method secondNumber. 36.
paint. 14. 373.5 Adding Floating-Point Numbers.
153.3 Simple Java Applet: Drawing a static method Double.parseDouble Converts
String. Method paint Lines 11-19 are the String argument to a double Returns the
declaration of paint Draws graphics on double value Remember static method syntax
screen void indicates paint returns ClassName.methodName( arguments )
nothing when finishes task Parenthesis Assignment statement sum an field, can use
define parameter list - where methods anywhere in class Not defined in init but
receive data to perform tasks Normally, still used. 37.
data passed by programmer, as in 383.5 Adding Floating-Point Numbers.
JOptionPane.showMessageDialog paint gets Ends method init appletviewer (or browser)
parameters automatically Graphics object calls inherited method start start usually
used by paint Mimic paint's first line. used with multithreading Advanced concept,
15. in Chapter 16 We do not declare it, so
163.3 Simple Java Applet: Drawing a empty declaration in JApplet used Next,
String. Calls version of method paint from method paint called Method drawRect( x1,
superclass JApplet Should be first y1, width, height ) Draw rectangle, upper
statement in every applet’s paint method left corner (x1, y1), specified width and
Body of paint Method drawString (of class height Line 45 draws rectangle starting at
Graphics) Called using Graphics object g (15, 10) with a width of 270 pixels and a
and dot (.) Method name, then parenthesis height of 20 pixels. 38.
with arguments First argument: String to 393.5 Adding Floating-Point Numbers.
draw Second: x coordinate (in pixels) Sends drawString message (calls method) to
location Third: y coordinate (in pixels) Graphics object using reference g
location Java coordinate system Measured "The sum is" + sum - string
in pixels (picture elements) Upper left is concatenation sum converted to a string
(0,0). 16. sum can be used, even though not defined
173.3 Simple Java Applet: Drawing a in paint field, can be used anywhere in
String. Running the applet Compile javac class Non-local variable. 39.
WelcomeApplet.java If no errors, bytecodes 403.6 Java Applet Internet and World
stored in WelcomeApplet.class Create an Wide Web Resources. Many Java applet
HTML file Loads the applet into resources available java.sun.com/applets/
appletviewer or a browser Ends in .htm or Many resources and free applets Has demo
.html To execute an applet Create an HTML applets from J2SDK Sun site
file indicating which applet the browser developer.java.sun.com/developer Tech
(or appletviewer) should load and execute. support, discussion forums, training,
17. articles, links, etc. Registration
183.3 Simple Java Applet: Drawing a required www.jars.com Rates applets, top
String. Simple HTML file 1, 5 and 25 percent View best applets on
(WelcomeApplet.html) Usually in same web. 40.
directory as .class file Remember, .class 413.7 (Optional Case Study) Thinking
file created after compilation HTML codes About Objects: Identifying the Classes in
(tags) Usually come in pairs Begin with a Problem Statement. Identifying classes
< and end with > Lines 1 and 4 - in a System Nouns of system to implement
begin and end the HTML tags Line 2 - elevator simulation. 41.
begins <applet> tag Specifies code 423.7 (Optional Case Study) Thinking
to use for applet Specifies width and About Objects: Identifying the Classes in
height of display area in pixels Line 3 - a Problem Statement. Not all nouns pertain
ends <applet> tag. 18. to model (not highlighted) Company and
193.3 Simple Java Applet: Drawing a building not part of simulation Display,
String. appletviewer only understands audio, and elevator music pertain to
<applet> tags Ignores everything presentation GUI, user of application,
else Minimal browser Executing the applet First and Second Floor buttons How user
appletviewer WelcomeApplet.html Perform in controls model only Capacity of elevator
directory containing .class file. 19. only a property Energy preservation not
203.3 Simple Java Applet: Drawing a modeled Simulation is the system Elevator
String. Running the applet in a Web and elevator car are same references
browser. 20. Disregard elevator system for now. 42.
213.4 Drawing Strings and Lines. More 433.7 (Optional Case Study) Thinking
applets First example Display two lines of About Objects: Identifying the Classes in
text Use drawString to simulate a new line a Problem Statement. Nouns highlighted to
with two drawString statements Second be implemented in system Elevator button
example Method g.drawLine(x1, y1, x2, y2 ) and floor button separate functions
Draws a line from (x1, y1) to (x2, y2) Capitalize class names Each separate word
Remember that (0, 0) is upper left Use in class name also capitalized
drawLine to draw a line beneath and above ElevatorShaft, Elevator, Person, Floor,
a string. 21. ElevatorDoor, FloorDoor, ElevatorButton,
22WelcomeApplet2.java 1. import 2. Class FloorButton, Bell, and Light. 43.
WelcomeApplet2 (extends JApplet) 3. paint 443.7 (Optional Case Study) Thinking
3.1 drawString 3.2 drawString on same x About Objects: Identifying the Classes in
coordinate, but 15 pixels down. 22. 1 // a Problem Statement. Using UML to model
Fig. 3.9: WelcomeApplet2.java 2 // elevator system Class diagrams models
Displaying multiple strings in an applet. classes and relationships Model
3 4 // Java packages 5 import structure/building blocks of system
java.awt.Graphics; // import class Representing class Elevator using UML Top
Graphics 6 import javax.swing.JApplet; // rectangle is class name Middle contains
import class JApplet 7 8 public class class’ attributes Bottom contains class’
WelcomeApplet2 extends JApplet { 9 10 // operations. 44.
draw text on applet’s background 11 public 453.7 (Optional Case Study) Thinking
void paint( Graphics g ) 12 { 13 // call About Objects: Identifying the Classes in
superclass version of method paint 14 a Problem Statement. Class associations
super.paint( g ); 15 16 // draw two using UML Elided diagram Class attributes
Strings at different locations 17 and operations ignored Class relation
g.drawString( "Welcome to", 25, among ElevatorShaft, Elevator and
25 ); 18 g.drawString( "Java FloorButton Solid line is an association,
Programming!", 25, 40 ); 19 20 } // or relationship between classes Numbers
end method paint 21 22 } // end class near lines express multiplicity values
WelcomeApplet2. Indicate how many objects of class
23HTML file Program Output. 23. 1 participate association. 45.
<html> 2 <applet code = 463.7 (Optional Case Study) Thinking
"WelcomeApplet2.class" width = About Objects: Identifying the Classes in
"300" height = a Problem Statement. Diagram shows two
"60"> 3 </applet> 4 objects of class FloorButton participate
</html> in association with one object of
24WelcomeLines.java 2. Class ElevatorShaft FloorButton has two-to-one
WelcomeLines (extends JApplet) 3. paint relationship with ElevatorShaft. 46.
3.1 drawLine 3.2 drawLine 3.3 drawString 473.7 (Optional Case Study) Thinking
Program Output. 24. 1 // Fig. 3.11: About Objects: Identifying the Classes in
WelcomeLines.java 2 // Displaying text and a Problem Statement. Associations can be
lines 3 4 // Java packages 5 import named In diagram, “Requests” indicates
java.awt.Graphics; // import class association and arrow indicates direction
Graphics 6 import javax.swing.JApplet; // of association One object of FloorButton
import class JApplet 7 8 public class requests one object of class Elevator
WelcomeLines extends JApplet { 9 10 // Similar context with “Resets” and “Signals
draw lines and a string on applet’s Arrival” Aggregation relationship Implies
background 11 public void paint( Graphics whole/part relationship Some object “has”
g ) 12 { 13 // call superclass version of some object Object attached with diamond
method paint 14 super.paint( g ); 15 16 // is “owner” Object on other end is the
draw horizontal line from (15, 10) to “part” In diagram, elevator shaft “has an”
(210, 10) 17 g.drawLine( 15, 10, 210, 10 elevator and two floor buttons. 47.
); 18 19 // draw horizontal line from (15, 483.7 (Optional Case Study) Thinking
30) to (210, 30) 20 g.drawLine( 15, 30, About Objects: Identifying the Classes in
210, 30 ); 21 22 // draw String between a Problem Statement. Fig. 3.23 Class
lines at location (25, 25) 23 diagram for the elevator model. 48.
g.drawString( "Welcome to Java 493.7 (Optional Case Study) Thinking
Programming!", 25, 25 ); 24 25 } // About Objects: Identifying the Classes in
end method paint 26 27 } // end class a Problem Statement. The complete class
WelcomeLines. diagram for elevator model Several of many
25HTML file. 25. 1 <html> 2 and aggregates Elevator is aggregation of
<applet code = ElevatorDoor, ElevatorButton and Bell
"WelcomeLines.class" width = Several of many associations Person
"300" height = “presses” buttons Person also “rides”
"40"> 3 </applet> 4 Elevator and “walks” across Floor. 49.
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