Работа с базами данных
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What Do We Mean By Data
What Do We Mean By Data
Benefits of Collecting High-quality Data
Benefits of Collecting High-quality Data
Benefits of Collecting High-quality Data
Benefits of Collecting High-quality Data
Benefits of Collecting High-quality Data
Benefits of Collecting High-quality Data
Benefits of Collecting High-quality Data
Benefits of Collecting High-quality Data
Identifying a Data Source
Identifying a Data Source
Comparing Data Sources
Comparing Data Sources
Comparing Data Sources
Comparing Data Sources
Comparing Data Sources
Comparing Data Sources
Next, Consider Choice of Methods
Next, Consider Choice of Methods
Next, Consider Choice of Methods
Next, Consider Choice of Methods
Next, Consider Choice of Methods
Next, Consider Choice of Methods
Next, Consider Choice of Methods
Next, Consider Choice of Methods
Consider Choice of Methods (continued)
Consider Choice of Methods (continued)
Consider Choice of Methods (continued)
Consider Choice of Methods (continued)
Consider Choice of Methods (continued)
Consider Choice of Methods (continued)
Consider Choice of Methods (continued)
Consider Choice of Methods (continued)
Where to Find Instruments
Where to Find Instruments
Where to Find Instruments
Where to Find Instruments
Evaluating Instruments
Evaluating Instruments
Outcomes Often Consist of Multiple Dimensions
Outcomes Often Consist of Multiple Dimensions
Outcomes Often Consist of Multiple Dimensions
Outcomes Often Consist of Multiple Dimensions
Outcomes Often Consist of Multiple Dimensions
Outcomes Often Consist of Multiple Dimensions
Example: Dimensions of Attachment to School
Example: Dimensions of Attachment to School
What else to look for in selecting an instrument
What else to look for in selecting an instrument
What else to look for in selecting an instrument, continued
What else to look for in selecting an instrument, continued
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1Collecting High Quality Outcome Data: 18Where to Find Instruments. For CNCS
Part 1. Copyright © 2012 by JBS priorities and performance measures, look
International, Inc. Developed by JBS for instruments by goal and focus area Go
International for the Corporation for to
National & Community Service. https://www.nationalserviceresources.org/n
2Learning Objectives. By the end of m/home Programs and projects can look
this module, you will be able to: anywhere they like to find instruments:
Recognize the benefits of collecting Use Internet search engines Talk to others
high-quality data Use theory of change to within you professional network to find
think about measurement Identify and out what they are using Look at evidence
evaluate merits of data sources and for intervention – how measured before?
instruments Describe some uses of data 18.
collection methods, and evaluate their 19Evaluating Instruments. Pre-post
merits. 2. measurement is preferable to post-only Can
3Module Overview. Determining what the instrument measure the outcome?
information is needed: Theory of change as Appropriate for your intervention?
a guide to measurement Collecting data Appropriate for your beneficiaries? How
that answers the measurement question: many questions measure the outcome? Single
Data source, method, instrument Summary of question ? low-quality data Series of
key points; additional resources A note questions: Too long or complex? Instrument
about terminology: Programs and projects should not exceed 2 pages Do questions
are used interchangeably. 3. cover all relevant aspects of your
4What Do We Mean By Data? Data: intervention? Can questions not specific
Information collected to answer a to your intervention be removed? 19.
measurement question, also known as 20Define Outcome Dimensions. Outcome
evidence Data collection occurs as a Dimensions: The main aspects, features, or
planned process that involves recording characteristics that define an outcome and
information in a consistent way that should be taken into account for
Instruments aid in collecting consistent measurement to be valid Example: Increased
data. 4. attachment to school: Feelings about being
5Ensuring Data Quality: Reliability, in school Feelings about doing school work
Validity, Bias. Reliability is the ability Feelings towards teachers Feelings towards
of a method or instrument to yield students. 20.
consistent results under the same 21Outcomes Often Consist of Multiple
conditions. Validity is the ability of a Dimensions. Transitioned to housing: Safe,
method or instrument to measure healthy, affordable housing (O11)
accurately. Bias involves systematic Increased physical exercise: Frequency,
distortion of results stemming from how intensity, duration of exercise Increased
data are collected and how instruments are attachment to school: Feelings about being
designed. 5. in school and doing school work, feelings
6Benefits of Collecting High-quality towards teachers and students (ED27). 21.
Data. Sound basis for decision making 22Example: Dimensions of Attachment to
Improve service quality and service School. Feelings about being in school
outcomes Increase accountability Tell Feelings about doing school work Relations
story of program achievements. 6. with other students Relations with
7Theory of Change – Review. teachers. a. c. b. d. a. a. b. b. c. c. d.
Cause-and-effect relationship between a d. 22.
community problem/need and an outcome 23Summary: Identifying Outcome
intended using a specific intervention A Dimensions. National performance measures:
program or project’s theory of change look at performance measurement
identifies the outcome that will be instructions Look at your theory of change
measured to gauge the success of the Talk to stakeholders and program staff
intervention in meeting the community Build up a list of dimensions; look for
problem/need. 7. repeated themes. 23.
8Measurement Question Implied by Theory 24Instrument Design Issues. Crowded
of Change. "Did students in the layout Double-barreled questions Biased or
mentoring program improve their attitudes “leading” questions Questions that are too
towards school?" Community abstract Questions that use unstructured
Problem/Need Students with poor attitudes responses inappropriately Response options
towards school at risk of failing that overlap or contain gaps Unbalanced
academically. Intended Outcome Students scales. 24.
improve attitudes towards school. Specific 25Crowded Layout. Problem: Crowded
Intervention Individualized mentoring to layout Most of the time, how do you feel
promote positive attitudes towards school. about doing homework? ? I usually hate
8. doing homework ? I usually don’t like
9More Measurement Questions. “Did doing homework ? I usually like doing
capacity building activities allow our homework ? I usually love doing homework
organization to recruit more Solution: Don’t use crowded layouts Most
volunteers?" "Did children in of the time, how do you feel about doing
the fitness program improve exercise homework? ? I usually hate doing homework
habits?" "Did individuals who ? I usually don’t like doing homework ? I
attended info sessions become more usually like doing homework ? I usually
interested in volunteering?" love doing homework. 25.
"Did students in the literacy 26Double-barreled Question. Problem:
tutoring program improve reading Asking two questions in one How do
skills?" 9. teachers and students at your school feel
10Identifying a Data Source. Data about the mentoring program? Solution:
source: The person, group or organization Break out questions separately How do
that has information to answer the teachers at your school feel about the
measurement question Identify possible mentoring program? How do students at your
data sources; list pros and cons of each school feel about the mentoring program?
Identify a preferred data source; consider They strongly like it ? They like it ?
its accessibility Alternative data They are undecided ? They dislike it ?
sources: consider if they can give you They strongly dislike it ? They strongly
same or comparable data. 10. like it ? They like it ? They are
11Data source and type of outcome. undecided ? They dislike it ? They
Depends partly on the type of change you strongly dislike it ? They strongly like
want to measure - attitude, knowledge, it ? They like it ? They are undecided ?
behavior, or conditions. Data on changes They dislike it ? They strongly dislike it
in attitudes or knowledge usually come ? 26.
directly from persons experiencing these 27Biased or “Leading” Question. Problem:
changes. Data on changes in behavior or Biased or “leading” questions Has the
conditions can come from either persons mentoring program improved how you feel
experiencing these changes or from other about going to school? ? Yes ? No ? No
observers. 11. opinion Solution: Use neutral questions
12Comparing Data Sources. “How did How has the mentoring program affected how
mentored students’ feelings towards you feel about going to school? ? I feel
teachers change over time?”. “How did better about going to school. ? I feel
mentored students’ feelings towards worse about going to school. ? I feel
teachers change over time?”. “How did about the same about going to school. ? No
mentored students’ feelings towards opinion. 27.
teachers change over time?”. Pros. Cons. 28Abstract or Broad Question. Problem:
Students. In best position to describe how Questions are too abstract or broad. Did
they feel about their teachers. May not be you enjoy the mentoring program? ? Yes ?
open about their feelings towards No ? Not Sure Solution: Make questions
teachers. Teachers. May know how students more concrete and specific. Would you
feel towards them. May not know how recommend the mentoring program to other
students feel about other teachers May students? ? Yes ? No ? Not Sure. 28.
only spend one class period with students. 29Not Using Structured Responses.
Mentors. May know how students feel about Problem: Using unstructured responses when
a wide range of issues, including structured responses are appropriate How
teachers. Depends on students’ willingness much do your grades matter to you?
to share feelings with mentors Students Solution: Provide structured responses
and mentors may not discuss this issue when appropriate How much do your grades
much. 12. matter to you? ? Not at all ? A little ?
13Next, Consider Choice of Methods. Somewhat ? A lot. 29.
Method: Process or Steps Taken to 30Response Options with Overlaps or
Systematically Collect Data. Method: Gaps. Problem: Response options that
Process or Steps Taken to Systematically overlap or contain gaps Approximately how
Collect Data. Survey. Written many hours a day to you typically spend
questionnaire completed by respondent. doing homework? ? Less than 1 hour ? 0 to
Interview. Interviewer poses questions and 2 hours ? 4 to 5 hours ? More than 5 hours
records responses; face-to-face or via Solution: Scale with no overlaps or gaps
telephone. Observation. Observer records Approximately how many hours a day to you
behavior or conditions using via checklist typically spend doing homework? ? Less
or other form. Standardized Test. Used to than 1 hour ? About 1 hour ? About 2 hours
assess knowledge of academic subjects ? About 3 hours ? About 4 hours ? More
(reading, math, etc.). 13. than 4 hours. 30.
14Consider Choice of Methods 31Unbalanced scales. Problem: Using
(continued). Method: Process or Steps unbalanced scales Solution: Use balanced
Taken to Systematically Collect Data. scales. Poor ? Average ? Good ? Very Good
Method: Process or Steps Taken to ? Excellent ? Very Poor ? Poor ? Average ?
Systematically Collect Data. Tracking Good ? Very Good ? 31.
Sheet. Used to document service delivery; 32What else to look for in selecting an
used primarily to track outputs. Focus instrument. Can the instrument work in
Group. Facilitator leads small group your context? Does the instrument use
through discussion in-depth discussion of simple and clear language? Is the
topic or issue. Diaries, Journals. instrument appropriate for the age,
Respondent periodically (daily) records education, literacy, and language
information about his/her activities or preferences of respondents? 32.
experiences. Secondary Data. Using data 33What else to look for in selecting an
gathered by other agencies that can be instrument, continued. Does the instrument
used to assess program performance. 14. rely mostly on multiple choice questions?
15Consider Feasibility of Methods. Is the ready for use, or does it need to
Method: Ease/Difficulty of Use, Data be modified? How will you extract
Analysis. Method: Ease/Difficulty of Use, information from the instrument to address
Data Analysis. Survey. May be difficult to performance measurement targets? 33.
find or create; very easy to use and 34Summary of key points. The benefits of
analyze. Interview/ Observation. Requires collecting high-quality data include
trained, skilled personnel; can provide providing a sound basis for decision
data that cannot be gathered through making, improving service quality and
surveys. Tracking Sheet. Easy to develop outcomes, increasing accountability, and
and use; may not be completed telling your story in a more compelling
consistently. Focus Group. Difficult to way. Your theory of change, and the key
implement; generates large volume of measurement question embedded in it, is a
qualitative data that are difficult to useful a guide to measurement. The type of
summarize. Diaries, Journals. Require outcome to be measured influences
commitment on the part of subjects; data decisions about data sources, methods, and
can be challenging to interpret and instruments. 34.
analyze. 15. 35Summary of key points. Knowing the
16Method and Outcomes Type—Attitude and pros and cons of a data sources is helpful
Knowledge. Attitude/Belief. for choosing one and for designing an
Knowledge/Skill. Definition. Thoughts, appropriate measurement process. CNCS
feelings. Understanding, know-how. provides sample instruments for most
Examples. Attachment to school (academic national performance measures. In
engagement). Becoming a better reader. addition, programs are permitted to look
Generally Preferred Data Source/Method. anywhere to find instruments that meet
Student: Survey or interview. Learner: their needs. High-quality outcome
Standardized test*. * Use of standardized measurement often requires using an
tests is mandated for certain performance instrument that can capture multiple
measures in the Education Focus Area. dimensions of the outcome. Instruments
Other types of knowledge (e.g., financial should also be free from other design
literacy) can be measured using other problems. 35.
types methods. 16. 36Additional resources. CNCS Performance
17Method and outcome type—behavior and Measurement
condition. Behavior. Condition/Status. https://www.nationalserviceresources.org/n
Definition. Action, conduct, habits. m/home Instrument Formatting Checklist
Situation or circumstances. Examples. www.nationalservice.gov/resources/files/In
Exercising more frequently. Improving trument_Development_Checklist_and_Sample.p
stream banks. Generally Preferred Data f Practicum Materials
Source/Method. Beneficiary: Exercise log. http://www.nationalservice.gov/resources/n
Land manager: Observation checklist or m/core-curriculum. 36.
rubric. 17.
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