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Open Source Licensing

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1Open Source Licensing. An 49For example, it may not restrict the
Introduction. program from being used in a business, or
2Presentation outline: Basic from being used in genetic research”.
intellectual property law (Very) basic 507. Distribution of License. “The
software History and philosophy of open rights attached to the program must apply
source General outline of types of open to all to whom the program is
source licenses Analysis of individual redistributed without the need for
licenses Risks and benefits of open source execution of an additional license by
The open source idea in other contexts those parties.”.
Conclusion. 518. License Must Not Be Specific to a
3Part I. Basic Intellectual Property Product. “The rights attached to the
Law. program must not depend on the program’s
4What is intellectual property? being part of a particular software
“Intellectual property refers to creations distribution. If the program is extracted
of the mind: inventions, literary and from that distribution and used or
artistic works, and symbols, names, distributed within the terms of the
images, and designs used in commerce.” program’s license, all parties to whom the
What is Intellectual Property?, World program is redistributed should have the
Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), same rights as those that are granted in conjunction with the original software
5There are three types of intellectual distribution.”.
property. 1. Expressions 2. Ideas 3.Unique 529. License Must Not Contaminate Other
commercial identifiers. Software. “The license must not place
6Copyright Law. Protecting Expressions. restrictions on other software that is
7What is the Legal Basis of Copyright distributed along with the licensed
Law? U.S. Const. Art. 1 § 8 Cl. 8. The software. For example, the license must
Copyright Act, 17 U.S.C. §§ 101 et seq. not insist that all other programs
The Berne Convention for the Protection of distributed on the same medium must be
Literary and Artistic Works. open-source software.”.
8What is copyrightable? “[O]riginal 5310. License Must Be Technology
works of authorship fixed in any tangible Neutral. “No provision of the license may
medium of expression, now known or later be predicated on any individual technology
developed, from which they can be or style of interface.”.
perceived, reproduced, or otherwise 54Part IV. Open Source Licenses In
communicated, either directly or with the General.
aid of a machine or device.” 17 U.S.C. § 55There are several types of software
102. licenses: The GPL, or “copyleft” family of
9How does a work become copyrighted? As licenses The BSD/academic family of
soon as a work is fixed in a tangible licenses The Mozilla/corporate type
medium, copyright subsists. licenses Other open source licenses
10What protections does copyright law Traditional proprietary licenses
provide? 17 USC § 106. A copyright holder Shareware/freeware Public domain (not a
has the exclusive right: To make copies of license, but a way of accessing software).
the work To prepare derivative works To 56The GPL family of licenses. Basic
distribute copies of the original work or rights under the GPL – access to source
derivative works For certain types of code, right to make derivative works
works, to perform the work For certain “Copyleft” The Library or Lesser General
types of works, to perform the work. Public License.
11Copies. The original is the first copy 57The BSD family of licenses. Same basic
Any duplicate is a copy All instances of a rights as GPL No copyleft provisions, i.e.
software program are copies All open licensees can take software licensed under
source licenses grant the right to make the BSD private Can re-release software
copies There is no limitation on the means under a different license.
made to make a copy. 58Mozilla/corporate licenses. More
12Derivative Works. “[A] work based upon expertly drafted Serve as a model for
one or more preexisting works, such as a later commercial licenses Different
translation . . . or any other form in provisions on relicensing No copyleft.
which a work may be recast, transformed, 59Other Open Source Licenses. There are
or adapted.” 17 U.S.C. § 101. over fifty (50) other open source licenses
13Collective Works. “A work . . . in The IBM Common Public License, the MIT X
which a number of contributions, license, and the Artistic License are
constituting separate and independent examples The open source community
works in themselves, are assembled into a discourages writing one’s own license in
collective whole.” 17 U.S.C. § 101. order to prevent license proliferation.
14Joint Works. “A ‘joint work’ is a work 60Shareware/Freeware. May be free or may
prepared by two or more authors with the not Licensor does not provide the right to
intention that their contributions be make derivative works or give access to
merged into inseparable or interdependent source code.
parts of a unitary whole.” 17 U.S.C. § 61Public Domain. Author retains no
101. copyright rights if software is in the
15Copyright Chain of Title. “The public domain Open source software authors
copyright in a compilation or derivative retain copyright rights Open source
work extends only to the material licenses contain restrictions, just
contributed by the author of such work, different ones than licensees may be used
and does not imply any exclusive right in to The restrictions in open source
the preexisting material. The copyright in licenses are based on copyright law and
such work is independent of, and does not depend on it for their effectiveness.
affect or enlarge the scope, duration, 62Part V. Some Specific Open Source
ownership, or subsistence of, any Licenses.
copyright protection in the existing 63The GNU General Public License (GPL).
material. 17 U.S.C. § 103. Part license, part manifesto
16Copyright Exceptions for Software. The Reciprocity/Copyleft Purpose is to
owner of a copy has a right to make a increase amount of publicly available
copy; would otherwise be useless The owner software and ensure compatibility
of a copy has a right to make a copy for Licensees have right to modify, use or
archival purposes. distribute software, and to access the
17Patent Law. Protecting Ideas. source code.
18What is the legal basis for patent 64Problems with the GPL. Linking to GPL
law? U.S. Const. Art. 1 § 8 Cl. 8. The programs No explicit patent grant Does no
U.S. Patent Act, 35 U.S.C. §§ 1 et seq. discuss trademark rights Does not discuss
19What is patentable? “[A]ny new and duration Silent on sublicensing Relies
useful process, machine, manufacture, exclusively on license law, not contract.
composition of matter, or any new and 65The Library or Lesser General Public
useful improvement thereof.” 17 U.S.C. § License (LGPL). Written to deal with the
101 Must be novel, useful, and non obvious linking problem in the GPL discussed above
and be patentable subject matter. Provides that programs that merely link to
20How does a work become patented? a program in a library are not subject to
Obtaining a patent is difficult and time copyleft If licensee makes a derivative
consuming. An inventor must file a patent work of the library, copyleft applies.
application with the patent office in 66The Berkeley Software Distribution
every country in which he or she wishes to License (BSD). No copyleft/reciprocity
have a patent. The patent may be later provision Does not mention patents.
overturned by a court if it is 67Other BSD type academic licenses. MIT
insufficient. Apache Artistic License.
21What protections does patent law 68The Mozilla Public License (MPL).
provide? Gives patent holder right to Professionally written Includes an
exclude others from: Making anything with explicit patent grant, including a
his or her invention Using anything reciprocal grant for contributors Includes
embodying his or her invention Selling or many specific provisions that are absent
offering to sell anything embodying his or in the GPL and BSD but which are often in
her invention Importing anything embodying licenses.
his or her invention. 69The Common Public License (CPL).
22Copyright Exceptions for Software. Developed and owned by IBM Includes a
Owner of a copy has a right to make a limited patent license Contains a
copy; would otherwise be useless Owner of reciprocity provision Contains a patent
a copy has a right to make a copy for defense provision Indemnity provision.
archival purposes. See Rosen at 25-26. 70The Open Source License and the
23Patent Chain of Title. Only one patent Academic Free License. Mirror images of
owner for any work There is no open source each other, except the AFL does not
definition for patent licenses. include reciprocity provisions and the OSL
24Assigning Ownership. Transferring does Addresses aspects of copyright left
ownership of a copyright, patent or out by other licenses, such as scope and
trademark itself, not merely rights duration Grants a patent license Retains
associated with it Not usually helpful for name and trademark of licensor.
open source; an open source license 71Multiple Licensing and other
generally provides the same protections strategies. Microsoft’s Shared Source
that an assignment of ownership would. License Public Source Multiple Licensing
25Trademarks. Protecting unique Licensing in phases.
commercial identifiers. 72Part VI. Risks and Benefits of Open
26What is the legal basis for trademark Source Software.
protection? The U.S. Trademark Act, 15 73Legal Risks. Intellectual property
U.S.C. §§ 1501 et seq. The common law. infringement No warranties Copyleft
27What is a trademark? The unique Copyright attribution and notice
identifying mark that distinguishes the requirements Enforcement Ambiguous license
goods or services of one merchant from terms Consumer protection laws License
those of another. management Licenses have not been
28What protections does trademark law construed by an American Court Licenses
provide? Keeps other merchants from using may be revocable Uncertain interpretation
another merchant’s unique identifying Forking (not a legal risk, but still a
mark. risk).
29Licenses. 74Benefits. Increased user base Longer
30What is a license? Grants permission useful life Increased stability Security
to use a copyrighted work Can grant any or Scalability Innovation Cost Adaptability.
all of the rights associated with 75How do licensors make money with open
copyright Can impose other restrictions, source software? Usually by providing
such as type or place or usage, or other services, such as: Support Training
duration of the license Does not transfer Customization Integration Certification
ownership of the copyright. Offering warranties.
31Contracts. Must have three things: - 76Part VII. The Open Source Idea in
Offer - Acceptance - Consideration. Other Contexts.
32Part II. Software Basics. 77Open Content. “Describes any kind of
33Software. “[A] general term used to creative work published in a format that
describe a collection of computer explicitly allows copying and modifying of
programs, procedure and documentation that its information by anyone, not exclusively
perform some tasks on a computer system.” by a closed organization, firm, or
Wikipedia. individual.” From Wikipedia, the world’s
34Hardware. The physical parts of a largest open source project.
computer, as opposed to software, which 78Creative Commons. Creative Commons
exists inside the computer. Licenses Baseline rights Various Licenses
35There are two types of code for Creative Commons International.
software. Object code Source code. 79Other Open Content Organizations.
36Source Code. “Programming statements Creative Commons International
created by a programmer.” Kennedy at 2 In http://creativecommons,org/international/
human readable form Easy to modify Most Science Commons (a Creative Commons
license agreements do not allow for access Project) Open
to source code Programmers use a compiler Educational Resources Commons (OER)
to turn it into object code. Open Content
37Object Code. Also called executable ( For more see
code “The instruction sequence for the the Google Directory,
computer processor.” Kennedy at 2. Not
human readable Most software is urce/Open_Content/ (providing a list of
distributed in object code form. websites dedicated to open source).
38Part III. Open Source Software. 80Other open content licenses include:
39What is open source software? Open GNU Free Documentation License Open
source software is software that is Content License Free Art License Open Game
subject to an open source license. An open License October Open Game License.
source licensor must give the licensee 81Considerations before licensing with
certain rights to be considered open Creative Commons or other open content
source Basically, the licensee has the license. Make sure you understand what
right to use, modify or distribute the rights you are retaining and which ones
software, and the right to access the you are giving up Make sure you own the
source code. copyright Make sure your work is subject
40Is it the same as free software? to copyright law “Be specific about what
Generally yes Free software was the you are licensing” (creative commons
original name Open source began being used FAQs).
to allay the concerns of proprietary 82Part VII. Further Reading.
software companies that were thinking of 83LAWRENCE ROSEN , OPEN SOURCE
utilizing or developing free software. LICENSING: SOFTWARE FREEDOM AND
41Prominent Open Source Programs. Apache INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW (Prentice Hall
Web Server Mozilla and Firefox web Professional and Technical Reference
browsers Linux BIND MySQL. 2004), available at
42Prominent Open Source Vendors. IBM Red The
Hat Sun Microsystems. best book on open source licensing. Gives
43The History of Open Source. Richard an in-depth but not overly detailed
Stallman, the GNU operating System, the overview of issues regarding open source
Free Software Foundation, and the General licensing. Includes the text of some o the
Public License (GPL) Bill Joy, UNIX and more popular open source licenses and
the Berkeley Software Distribution License point-by-point analysis of some of the
(BSD) Open source comes of age – Linux, most important licenses.
Mozilla, Apache et al., and the corporate - the online
licenses The Open Source Initiative. home of the Open Source Initiative, the de
44What are the OSI and the OSD? The Open facto standards body of the open source
Source Initiative (OSI) is the de facto movement. Provides a list of and the text
standards body for open source software. of all OSI approved licenses. Sets out the
It determines what open source means, and open source principles, answers frequently
approves licenses as being open source The asked questions, and provides helpful
Open Source Definition (OSD) is a set of links Dennis M. Kennedy, A Primer on Open
criteria that a license must conform to to Source Licensing Legal Issues: Copyright,
be considered open source. The OSI Copyleft and Copyfuture, (2001), available
maintains the definition and changes it at
from time to time.
45The Open Source Definition. 1. Free pdf. - the open
Redistribution. “The license shall not source idea in non software contexts.
restrict any party from selling or giving 84On the business issues: Eric S.
away the software as a component of an Raymond, The Magic Cauldron, available at
aggregate software distribution containing
programs from several different sources, ldron/magic-cauldron.html/, (discussing
The license shall not require royalty or how to make money on open source) David A.
other fee for such sale.”. Wheeler, “Why Open Source Software/Free
462. Source Code. “The program must Software (OSS/FS, FLOSS, of FOSS)? Look at
include source code, and must allow the Numbers!,” available at
distribution in source code as well as
compiled form. Where some form of a tory (reviewing literature on and
product is not distributed with source discussing the benefits of open source
code, there must be a well publicized versus proprietary software).
means of obtaining the source code for no 85Lists of open source projects.
more than a reasonable reproduction cost,
preferably, downloading via the Internet
without charge. The source code must be 86On open source software generally.
the preferred form in which a programmer Eric S. Raymond, The Cathedral and the
would modify the program. Deliberately Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source
obfuscated source code is not allowed. by an Accidental Revolutionary (O’Reilly
Intermediate forms such as the output of a Media 2001), available at
preprocessor or translator are not
allowed.”. -bazaar/.
473. Derived Works. “The license must 87Part IX. Conclusion.
allow modifications and derived works, and 88Like anything else, open source has
must allow them to be distributed under both risks and benefits (for licensors and
the same terms as the license of the licensees). They are neither an
original software.”. unmitigated good, nor particularly
484. Integrity of the Author’s Source dangerous. Before using them, either to
Code. “The license may restrict license your work or accepting work
source-code from being distributed in subject to them, you should evaluate your
modified form only if the license allows own situation and make an individual
the distribution of ‘patch files’ with the determination. General information cannot
source code for the purpose of modifying take into account your particular
the program at build time. The license circumstances.
must explicitly permit distribution of 89And on a similar note, remember . . .
software built from modified source code. This presentation is not legal advice.
The license may require derived works to Legal advice can only be provided with
carry a different name or version number regards to specific factual circumstances
from the original software.”. in the context of an attorney-client
495. No Discrimination Against Persons relationship. This presentation does not
or Groups. “The license must not establish an attorney-client relationship.
discriminate against any person or group If you have any further questions that you
of persons.” 6. No Discrimination Against are unable to answer yourself after
Fields of Endeavor. “The license must not reasonable efforts, contact the Department
restrict anyone from making use of the of Legal Affairs, 304 Holladay Hall,
program in a specific field of endeavor. 515-3071.
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