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Reference and Working Memory: What Discourse Can Tell us about Cognition

содержание презентации «Reference and Working Memory: What Discourse Can Tell us about Cognition.PPT»
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1Reference and Working Memory: What 18the boat ready at once. 1601 She
Discourse Can Tell us about Cognition. (~Margaret) took in the sail 1602 and tied
Andrej A. Kibrik (kibrik@chat.ru) it tight. 1603 She (*Margaret) dropped the
(Institute of Linguistics, Moscow, and MPI anchor 1604 and stowed all the gear
for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig). <...> Alterable and unalterable
1. devices correspond to different activation
2INTRODUCTION The phenomenon: levels. 18.
Referential choice in discourse. When 19Attribution of referent mentions to
people speak or write, they constantly “potential referential form” categories.
mention various referents (persons, 19.
animals, objects, abstract notions, etc.) 20Stage B: Identify the significant
Basic referential choice: full noun phrase activation factors, as opposed to
(full NP) pronoun zero form. 2. insignificant. 20.
3An example (from the web page of the 21Stage C: Specify the list of the
city of Dresden). 1. Johann Friedrich significant activation factors. with the
B?ttger ? Alchemist and inventor, ? born indication of: the distinction between
4.2.1682 in Schleiz, ? died 13.3.1719 in primary and secondary factors logical
Dresden. B?ttger was imprisoned as an structure of each factor values of each
alchemist in K?nigstein Fortress in 1703. factor corresponding numerical weights of
In 1707 his laboratory was transferred to each value. 21.
the Jungfernbastei, a bastion of the 22Primary activation factors
Dresden City fortifications. It was here, (variables), their values, and numerical
a year later, that he discovered the activation weights. 22.
formula for the first European porcelain 23An example of a rhetorical graph (in
and the world's first hard porcelain. accordance with the Rhetorical Structure
B?ttger also achieved certain results as a Theory of Mann and Thompson). 23.
botanist in Dresden, ? setting up a 24Example of RhD ? LinD (RhD is low and
greenhouse with over 400 rare plants. In LinD is high). 1201 After juice-and-cookie
1710 he was ordered to Meissen as time, she gave James his counting lesson,
administrator of the royal porcelain 1202 and this is how she did it. 1203 One,
manufactory. zero. Full NP. pronoun. 3. two, three, four, five, once I caught a
4Summary of the talk. Part I: A fish alive, 1204 six, seven, eight, nine,
linguistic study of referential choice in ten, but I let him go again. 1205 Why did
natural discourse Part II: Consequences of you let him go? 1206 because he bit my
that study for the broader field of finger so. 1207 Which finger did he bite?
working memory research. 4. 1208 This little one upon the right. 1209
5PART I: THE LINGUISTIC STUDY The And she gave James' little finger a nibble
problem. How does the speaker make the … RhD=1. LinD=7. 24.
referential choice between full noun 25Reference and discourse structure.
phrases and reduced noun phrases, such as Referential choice is fundamentally
pronouns? Note: This problem is really conditioned by discourse structure The
fundamental; at least every third word in strongest activation factor is the
natural discourse depends on referential rhetorical (hierarchical) distance to the
choice. 5. antecedent Reduced NPs are more likely to
6Prior studies: huge literature, occur in coherent contexts. 25.
including: Linguistics, e.g.: Fox, 26Primary activation factors...
Barbara. 1987. Discourse structure and (continuation). 26.
anaphora in written and conversational 27Reference and the properties of
English. Cambridge: CUP Psycholingustics, antecedent/referent. Antecedent role is
e.g.: Gernsbacher, Morton Ann. 1990. the second strongest activation factor:
Language comprehension as structure subjects make very good antecedents More
building. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. permanent referent properties
Cognitive psychology and neuroscience, (protagonisthood, animacy) play the role
e.g.: Streb, Judith & Roesler, Frank of correction/compensation factors. 27.
& Henninghausen, Erwin. 1999. 28Activation weights. Present model:
“Event-related responses to pronoun and weights found through a trial-and error
proper name anaphors in parallel and procedure, by hand Ideal model: weights
nonparallel discourse structures”. Brain found through a computational procedure,
and Language 70: 273-286. 6. automatically. 28.
7Different terminologies. Coreference 29Stage D: Identify the mechanism of
Anaphora Reference tracking Reference factor interaction. Present model:
maintenance Management of reference addition of all relevant activation
Referential choice. 7. weights; the resulting AS varies within
8Important terms. Johni was sitting at the limits from 0 to a bit over 1. Ideal
the table. Hei was daydreaming about the model: multiplication or more complex
weekend. coreferential. antecedent. interaction of the factors’ activation
Referential device/expression. 8. weights. 29.
9Goal. To construct a model of 30Stage E: Identify referential
referential choice in discourse. 9. strategies, or mappings “AS ? referential
10Properties of the present model. choice”. 30.
speaker-oriented (rather than 31A probabilistic reinterpretation of
addressee-oriented or text-centered) referential strategies: 4 thresholds.
sample-based (rather than based on a Pronoun only. Pronoun OK. Full NP OK. Full
heterogeneous set of examples) general NP only. 31.
(rather than tolerant to exceptions) 32An example of calculating a referent’s
predictive and finite (rather than current AS. 32.
post-hoc repairing to account for 33PART II: Consequences for working
individual cases) explanatory (rather than memory studies. Some classical issues in
based on the black box ideology) WM research: (1) WM capacity: how much
cognitively based (rather than relying on information can WM hold at one time? (2)
home-made quasi-cognitive concepts) Control of WM: through what mechanism does
multi-factorial (rather than assuming one information enter WM? (3) Forgetting:
omnipotent factor) testable and through what mechanism does information
calculative (rather than declarative). 10. quit WM? 33.
11The cognitive assumptions. The primary 34Issue 1: Capacity. The procedure of
cognitive determiner of referential choice calculating the referents’ ASs does not
is activation of the referent in question depend on whether a given referent is
in the speaker’s working memory (WM). actually mentioned at the present point
Referent’s activation score (AS) varies For any referent, its AS can be identified
within a certain range (e.g. between 0 and at any time Therefore, summary (grand)
1). If the current activation score is activation of all referents can be
above a certain threshold, then a calculated for any moment of discourse.
semantically reduced (pronoun or zero) 34.
reference is possible, and if not, a full 35The dynamics of two protagonist
NP is used. 11. referents’ activation and of grand
12This model continues the lines of: activation in an excerpt of English
Cognitively minded linguistic research, narrative. 35.
such as: Chafe, Wallace. 1994. Discourse, 36Generalizations about WM capacity.
consciousness, and time. The flow and Grand activation is an estimate of the
displacement of conscious experience in specific-referent portion of WM The
speaking and writing. Chicago: University maximal values of grand activation are
of Chicago Press. Tomlin, Russell & between 3 and 4 (cf. an identical estimate
Pu, Ming-Ming. 1991. “The management of in Cowan 2000) Grand activation varies
reference in Mandarin discourse”. much less than activation of individual
Cognitive Linguistics 2: 65–93 Kibrik, referents In the course of coherent
Andrej A. 1991. “Maintenance of reference stretches of discourse (paragraphs) grand
in sentence and discourse”. In: Lehmann, activation gradually builds up At the
Winfred P. & Hewitt, Helen?Jo J. points of incoherence (paragraph
(eds.) Language typology. Amsterdam: boundaries) WM is reset or updated. 36.
Benjamins, 57-84. 12. 37Issue 2: Control of WM. WM is
13And attempts to be compatible with: controlled by the attentional system of
Cognitive-psychological and the brain (Baddeley 1990, Cowan 1995,
neuropsychological work on working memory Posner & Raichle 1994: 173). Focal
Baddeley, Alan. 1990. Human Memory: Theory attention is linguistically rendered by
and Practice. Needham Heights, Mass: Allyn the syntactic status of subject (Tomlin
& Bacon. Cowan, Nelson. 1995. 1995) Subjects are the best antecedents,
Attention and Memory: An Integrated both discourse- and sentence-wide. 37.
Framework. New York – Oxford: Oxford 38Cognitive and linguistic interplay
University Press. Smith, E.E. & between attention and WM. Attention feeds
Jonides J. 1997. “Working memory: A view WM: What is attended at moment tn becomes
from neuroimaging”. Cognitive Psychology activated in WM at moment tn+1 Linguistic
33, 5–42. 13. moments are discourse units Focally
14The cognitive multifactorial model of attended referents (moment tn) are coded
reference in discourse production. by subjects Activated referents (moment
Discourse context. Referent’s activation tn+1) are coded by reduced NPs (pronouns).
score (AS). Referential choice. Filters. 38.
Properties of the referent. Activation 39Cognitive and linguistic interplay
factors. 14. between attention and WM: Summary. 39.
15The original study. Referential choice 40Issue 3: Forgetting. “Trace decay”
in Russian narrative discourse (Kibrik theory: Forgetting is a function of time
1996) Main results About seven to ten “Interference theory”: Forgetting is a
significant activation factors Numerical result of displacement by new incoming
model of factor interaction Complete information. 40.
prediction of the data in corpus Almost 41Linguistic data are compatible with
complete prediction in the test corpus. the trace decay theory. Activation
15. decreases as distance to the antecedent
16A study of referential choice in becomes greater The limit on the number of
English narrative discourse. “The Maggie concurrently activated referents can be
B.” by Irene Haas Discourse type: written explained by WM capacity limitations The
narrative simple, clear style basic event balanced system of activation factors
types: physical events, interaction of activates and deactivates referents in
people, human reflections… Number of accordance with WM capacity limitations.
discourse units: 117 Number of referents: 41.
76 Number of referent mentions: 225 Number 42Conclusions. Capacity of WM for
of “important” referents: 14 Number of referents is severely limited (3 to 4
protagonist referents’ mentions: Margaret times maximal activation of a single
– 72, James – 28, the ship – 12 Number of referent) Referents enter WM through the
“relevant” referential devices: full NPs – mechanism of attentional control Referents
39, activation-based pronouns – 40. 16. can be forgotten from WM through the
17Stages of model construction. I will mechanism of decay. 42.
explain the heuristics of model 43Really final conclusions. Linguistic
construction in terms of five consecutive discourse analysis can indeed contribute
stages, “A” through “E”. 17. to explorations of the human cognitive
18Stage A: Identify alterable vs. system It is the time for a close
unalterable referential devices. 1502 A cooperation between linguistics and
storm was coming! 1503 Margaret must make psychology in the study of cognition. 43.
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Reference and Working Memory: What Discourse Can Tell us about Cognition

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